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3 3433 06933176 1 

§ 'I 

i 1 

._J,<r. > 



C ? V\J 















By Sir J OHN S INC LAfR;;aU**>;^ A//- 
* ' '/\i; ' ' \ ' * ■ 


' Adconfilium dt repuhlica danJum^ caput eft nojft rempuhlicamP 

CzcBRo, de Orat. lib. il. 










* • * 

- '': . . 

• •. •• •'. 

• • • * 







C r N T E NTS. 

^ Mm. M|paktoVi75i- In i7pi-3- Btewdfc. iter, ^iftije. 

I InTerberyie, or ' 

*Niggf - 
g CainteCy ■ 

4 InTcntvcDy 

5 D*7, . . 

6 KfiitftbmAnt, - 

7 Kintore, 

8 Stndifiiaiiisy • 

9 liSwd Bervie, - 

to KrAQOWaji 

ti AbetaethjandKib- 
cfasmfiney • 

11 McUmin, 

13 Mmrboole, 

i4 StrididoD, 

15 St Aadtcw's and 
St Leonard^ - 

z6 Cockbonifitttby - 

17 Chfebum, 

il Kiikpatrick- Fle- 
ming, • 

19 NordiYcIlaiidFet. 
hr. . . . 

»: Soudi Uift, 

u North Uift, 

n Banaj, - . 

^3 Aawocfa, 

U Garvdd and Baro, 

15 Cannichaely 


Cttncd oTCff 




















1 7*9 




























' 'X 







. 95 



« ^ • ■ 






• IVi WIS tbe Bonber In 1779. No return is made for 1 793. 

f •* Kise yean a|;o, ftys Mr Mtcgowui, tbe population wis abovt loco 
■daow Mft befieater ; £ari Galioway't Tillage being already four times 
teier tkaa it formerly was." The popuiadoQ ia 1795 n«y therefore be 
ted at iioo. 

f la i7f5, tfcafc who were Of the age of going to fchool were x»o#» 
"« whale p^palatioa. dMrefor«»ia that ymx, may be dated at 1500. 


No/ Name, PopnUtiyH in 1755. in.npi-^.-' Incneafc. 

Broueht over, 
97 ChaQneuLirki -: 
a8 Rathven, 

29 Duiifermline, - , 

30 Manifiechy'. ; •' i 

31 St ! Martin's aod 

351 KUtarHty, i 

33 CargiU, -- ! 

34 Lochcarron, 

35 Glcntrathen or; • 

36 . Huf too-and Gorrie^ 

37 New Luce» . - ' 

38 L^Agholniy 

40 rfiplthwick, 
/VH ti^Jmaghie, -- 








• II65 


. "77 












' 1720 


■ ■ 4())o 




. 25(8 







- *97 





83 I 








/^••Increafe in 1791-3, 

« • 

* The North Ferry is legally in the parifli of Dunfermline , bat its popu> 
lation it not included. The population of the cftates of Urquhart and 
Logie, near Dunfermline, but which are legally in the pari(h of InverkeK* 
• thing, is inclnded. See p. 436. 

f The number of examinable perfons ii 800. 

I By computation, ffom the regifter of baptifms and^bariab* 


P^ 88. Une lo, for is, read arc. 
^^ 144. — II, for full flop, mark comma. 

— X46. — 33, ybr their, r^tfi/ there. 
177. — II, for regifter, read regiflers. 

— 194. — 3, for redoralis, read redorales. 
— ^- 320. — 9, for Highland, read HighlancU. 

607, — 2, 6^. for while Langholm church*yard, and 

the dinrch-yards of Wauchope and Staplegordon are ftill ufed 
by many families to bury, read^ (after a full (top) With Lang- 
holm cburch-yard, are the church-yardt of Wauchope and 
Scapl^ofdoDj ^hcxe many families flill bury. 





|p A R T xm. 

I . ' T 111— ia— iifc— II 1 1 


PRjBSBrxK&T or Fqrdouk.) 

Bjf Mr Wai-ter TpoM g^ 4^^* 

f 7 ■ 

Ifame^ E^ietUf Burgb of Birw, (sTe. 

'T^HE name ttem^Xo be taken from the rivulet of Ber- 
i vie; with the addition (of the Gaelic word Inver, 
which, inttsfigoification, applies particularlj to thefitua- 
tioQ of the town of Inverberriey but in common writing 
iiid Ipeaking is now in difnfc. This parifc was formerly 
% pot of that of Kinneff } but as there was no bridge oil 
Berne water, tho minifter of Kiancff agrted to keep a 
yof . Xin. A liiffiagaa 

a Statijlical Account 

fufiragan at Bervie, to accommodate the people in that 
qaarter of his pari(h ; and the .Lords for the Plantation 
of Kirks, in the year 1618, dbjoined Bervie from Kinnefi, 
and increafed the ftipends of both incumbents/ The pfwpr 
of prefentation is vefted in the Crown. The extent of 
this parifh is inconfiderable, being only about 2 miles long, 
and 14. mile broad \ from E. to W. it rifes in a gradual af- 
cent, and terminates at the top^ of a high hill. On the eaft 
comer of the paiifh, the burgtit of Bervi€ is fituttedX and 
on the fouthmoft part, the Village of Gourdon (lands. The 
burgh of Bervie confifts, of thtyee ftreets, which form near^ 
I7 three fides of a fquare, and contains about no dwel- 
ling-houfes. The original plan of the town feems to have 
been laid out in a very judicious manner, but it has not 
been adhered to ; for the houfes are fet down irregularly, 
according to the fancy of the builders. Bervie is the on- 
ly royal burgh in the cclhnty of the Meams, and its 
charter was granted by David II. in the year 1342. 
When returning from England, he was forced, by firels 
of weather, to land at the water-mouth of Bervie ; and it 
is faid, that having met with great hofpitality and kind- 
nefs from the inhabitants, he bedowed on the town a 
royalty, as a mark of his particular favour : The place on 
which he landed, to this d ly bears his name, and is called 
Craig David. James VI. in the year 1595, renewed the 
charter, and confirmed all the privileges and immunities 
granted by King David *. 


* By this charter, the public property is diftindtly marked ont ; in- 
deed it coinpr,eb«iid« nearly Hbz whole' extent of the parifli ; but the pro* 
perty which now belongs to the town is confined to a piece of barren 
moor, a few acres of haugh ground, and a range of braes, about a mile in 
extent, which atfbrd a little grafs for the cows belonging to tht inhabitanto 
o£ the town, in tbe fummer ieafon. By thi$ charter, " full power is givei^ 


tjf Inverbervie or Servie. 3 

Tifbtrits^ Manufatiures^ Markets^ yr.— Bervic feems at 
{bme period to have been a.confiderable fiAiing (lationi 
for lines, hooks, and fhells, have been dug up in differ- 
ent parts of the town \ but beyond the memory of man, 
there have been no profefllonal fiOiermen, probably they 
have removed to the village of Gourdon, which is a more 
eligible fituation for carrying on that bufinefs. Bervie has 
been long famous, or rather infamous, for an illicit and ille- 
gal trade in teas, fpirits, tobacco, &c. ; but the ruinous gnd 
baneful trade of fmuggling is now much on the decline, 
being confined to the running * of a few hundred ankers of 
fpirits annually, and by . a fet of worthleis defperadoes, 
who do not belong to the town, but bring their goods to 
Bervie beach, for the fake of conveniency, and an eafy 
landifag. In the year 175c, a branch of a fail-cloth ma- 
nufiidure was eftabliihed by a company of merdiants of 
Montrofe, and was long carried on with great fuccels, but 
about IS years ago was entirely given up ; however, the 


to the free burgefles of the faid burgh, and their facceflbrs, to make, 
chooie, cooftitute. and create, a provoil, bailies, dean of guild, treafu* 
Mr, coancillors, oAcen,'* &c. &c. Accordingly a provoft/j bailies, 
dean of guild; treafarer, and 9 councillora, are annnally ele^ed, but not 
bj the *' free burgefles,** as exprefled by the charter, in dircd language, 
but by themfelves : However, I believe felfele^ion is not confined to 
Benrie alone, but is the univerfal praAicc of the Scotch borooghs. The 
tr a d efmen of this burgh have no regular corporations, of courfe they 
have BO oflke-bearcn as in other towns, but they have a. fmall fund efta- 
blilbed, 5y mutual confent, each member pays fo much on entry, and 
<]nartcrly. This money is generally applied in purchafing meal, which 
they fell out to the members of their own fociety. Bervie is one of the 
burghs in the Aberdeen diftri^, and accordingly votes for a repreien* 
tttfve in Parliament, by a delegate chofen by the town-council, and the 
eicAion takes place in the burghs by roution of Parliaments. 

• RmtniH^, is a phralb which the fmugglers in this part of the cona<* 
try nie for landing. 

4 StatiJHcat Account 

weavers are ffill, and have long been in die pnBist o^ 
purdiafing flax, which thcj fpin, weave, and bleach, each 
for his own account : The qoantit j fS cloth thus mannfiic* 
tured is inconfiderable, but it finds a ready market in our 
countrj-fairs, and generally fells at the rate of i d« Sterlin|p 
a*jard, above the' current price of cloth of die £une 
qnality, whitened at a regular bleachfield. The bkaching 
of cloth was a confiderable trade five or fix years ago, and 
is fiill continued, though not to half the extent. About 
15 years ago, a nianufadure of c<doored threads was efta* 
bliflied in Bervie, and is ftill carried on. The threads are 
fent to the London market, where they generally find a 
ready fide. This manufadure employs, in all its parts, 
about 50 people. Three years ago^ a machine was eteded 
on the haughs of Bervie, for fpinning linen-yam ^ This 
machine was the firft of the kind in Scotland. Although 
exceedingly imperfect at firft, it is now brought to a coo- 
fiderable degree of improvement; the yam it ^mis is of 
a good quality, and fit for any fort of manofadare what^ 
ever. The proprietors of this machine have alfo the thread- 
manufaSure, mentioned above, fo that all the yam fpuit 
by the machiike is made into threads. The boufe is aoi 
yet filled with machinery, but wfll contain firom 600 ta 
700 fpindles, when fuD, and employ about 60 boys 
and girls, and ao or 30 meir and women. Two yeals aga 
alail-doch manufiiftufe was eftabliflied, which eoqdoys 14 
weavers, and a proportional number of other hands. A 
lint-mill was built laft year on the hanghs of Bervie, 
which is likely to meet with encouragement. There are 
aHo two mills far cutting barley, and they cut about 130a 
bolls yearly, which is generally^ carried up the frith of 
Forth. There is likewife a corn-mill, to which the te^ 
aa^ts of the pariih are thirled* la laft December, a dif-^ 


of iitverhervic or Bervie. 5 

tUIcrj was erefied in the nei^hourhood of tbe tovs of 
BeiVie. on a linall fcale. On the beach of Bervie, there 
is a fidmoft-Sibmgf wUcb yioUs the prQprieton, Viicount 
Arhinhn o t aod Mr Barclay fd Urj, (4* ita Sterling year- 
ly rent. Tbe tiUt^an ace of an exc^lkst i|oality ; apd 
wiidi pleiityr are fold at areajCpRghk prices Irom 9id. to 
4^* a^pound. Btrvie water abppnd^ wit)i troi^ta and eels, 
^liidb are caught by tha rod in tbe pcQ|»er feafan. lo the 
tomn xkf Benrifi, ti^s« ane aiae Ao$«» which retail Ko the 
tovn and coontiy arpwd, foft war^f grocery giMd^i Stc. 
Tbcae are fiv^ ale-j^aulb, far rataiJiiiig beer, fpiritv, ^^ 
Wfides a lavera» which u intended principally for the ac^ 
rmwnodati q p ef tmveUezVt and Ihe geateeler ibrt of cooi- 
paay in the {own and oeigbboturhqcd* It is to be negret* 
led, that the confumpcion of fpirits is fo eonfiderable la 
this place \ it mail have a great tStBt to corrupt and de- 

tbe JDonds and laannrrs «f tbe peopk, A weekly 
I c&aUtftied abont sS nonths a^Oy which ia a 

oonvcfiieacy to the inhabittniB of tbe towa aftd 
\ktmd^ as it afibrds a regidstf ^PP^J ^ butcher* 

sneal, apd erery thing eUe which the country pi»> 
A areeidy madket was aHempted siiout y> yeara 
Mt did aot fiwceedt as the denand aad oooliiinpt lar 
was nor tfaes fo ooafiiendik as aew. The ia* 
ercafed cooioiiipttDn ef proTtfians is not owing to any in* 
crcnfe rf popilatiiuii^ bnt ao tfaeegtrayagattce of the labonr** 
aag people, and the high wages they receive. — Two fairs 
were held laffc year on the town's moor, and will be con- 
Hwiad annually \ tbe one in May« the other in Septen^bcr : 
Thefe iua will be an advantage as well as a coaveniencj 
to tbe inhabitants of the coaft-fide ; for it is in public mar- 
kets thst fiarmnrs tranfaft the principal part of their hnfi- 

6 Stati/Hcal Account 

nels, fuch as, the buying and felling of cattle, hories, aiid 

^rain, engaging fervants, &c. *• 

^ Siipendi School^ Pbor.-— Tlie cburch was built in the year 
1781. The ftipendf is 4 chalders of vidual, 400 merks 
of monej, with L. 50 Scots for communion-elements. A, 
procefs is juft now depending for an augmentation! The 
manfe is a decent houfe -in the town of Bervie, and the 
glebe about 4^ acres^-^The falarj of the fchoolmafter is 
100 inerks, and the perquifites of the feffion-clerkihip maj- 
amount to L. 2, 10 s. or L^. On the whole, his income will 
not exceed L. 18 or L. 20 jearljr.— The poor are about la 
in general ; and all the affiftance tfaej get is about L. 28 a* 
jear, divided among them, which arifes from the inte- 
reft of fome money lent out, and the weekly colledions at 
the church-door. 

' Village of Gotrrdbn.— ^This village is fituated on the fouth 
comer of the pariih. It confifis of 42 habitable houies, 
befides fiables, bams, and granaries. There is a harbour^ 
but it is neither commodious nor bitf being of difficult 
entry, and much expofed to the violence of the S« 
£. winds : However, there are eight floops, or fmall 
barks, in all about 300 tons burden, belonging to Gour* 
don. They are employed in carrying lime and coals to 
it, and from thence they carry grain occafionally coaft* 
wife. They give employment to 24 hands, including the 


* A ptottglnnan, cupable of fowing, gets from L. 8 to L. 10 Jtuly, 
and his Tidbnals ; and a maid-fervant, from L. 5 to L. 6 ; a boj, from L. 2, 
to L. 3 ; a day-labourer, i s. aday ; a mafon, is. 8 d. a-day ; a joiner, 
xji. id.; a tailor, 8 d. and viduals. 

f This account of tlie ftipend was tranfinitted by the Rer. Mr Groll^ 
minifter of the pari(h. 

of Inverbervie or Bervie^ 


mafters : It b only in fummer that fuch fmaU veflels are 
able to navigate the feas : In winter, th^y are lai^ up, and 
the (ailors betake themfelves to fifliing/at lead the, rnqft 
indoftrioos of them do fo. There are annually imported 
into the harbour of Gourdon about 3000 bolls of lime-. 
ikcBs ; from 700 to 800 bolls of Scots, and about loop bar- 
rek of £nglifh coalsy which fupply the country for a few ' 
miks round. There are about 4000 bolls of grain export- 
ed yearly, and which are genei^lly carried to the ports in 
the frith of Forth, or Glafgow and Greenock, by the ca- _ 
naL About 30 years ago, 50 bolls of Scots coab were 
fufficient to fupply the demand at Gourdon : For many 
ycai» after that period, the inhabitants were mucK in the 
pcadice of ufing peats or mo(s as fuel, but the mofles are 
sow nearly exhaufted ; and the ezpence of labour has be« 
come fo high, that peats are dearer^ than coals ; of courfe, 
the demand for coals has very confiderably increafed with- 
in thefe io or 12 years, for coals are the only fuel which 
is now uied in the town of Bervie, and neighbourhood ;. 
but the partial and unjuft tax on them prevents a greater 
coniiunption ; it is expenfive to the manufadurer, and op- 
prei&vetothe poor; a tax, w4iich by .^o means can yield 
to Gorerament a compenfation adequate to its extenfive 
oppreffion and pernicious effeds. Before the year 1768, 
BO lime was imported to be ufed as a manure ^ and for a 
few years after that period, ubout 2^0 boils were found 
fnfficieot to fupply every demand. About 30 years ago, 
there were 3 fiifaing-boats, of a large fize, befides fmaller 
boats or yaub, which in all employed 30 fiihermen \ but 
DOW there are only 4 fmall yauls, and 12 men employed 
in the filhing, and they earn but a fcanty pittance, being 
dd and decrepid men, they are unable to work at any o 
ther bufinels, and mull linger out a miferable exiftence, 
with little hope of ever being better-, for the fiihing-bu- 


ft StatyiicaJ Accwnt 

finefs feemi to be nmch on .the decline on this coaft« owimg 
to the great Icarcity of fifties, particularly of the fpecies 
called haddocks. Withm thefc lo or xa years, the had- 
docks have left this coaft almoft entirely. In the jear 
1782, a prodigious ftorm happened on this coaft, the wind 
blowing with uncommon violence, railed the fea in iiicb 
mountainous billows, as to produce efFe£b almoft like as 
earthquake \ and fince that ftorm, the haddpcks have <e verjr 
year become (career. The grpund on which the h^docka 
were found, was a continued bed of muffelsi (the favourite 
food of that fii&), clufters of which the fiflier^nen nfe to dratv 
up frequently with their lines ; but fince that florm, the 
bottom has been entirely covered with fand. The mnf- 
fels'^being deftroyed in this manner, of courfe it behove<j[ 
the haddocks to remove to a more favourable ftation ; how* 
ever, a few cod-iifii are ilill caught, and they fell at a very- 
extravagant price, at leaft five or fix times the price they 
were formerly fold for *• Of late years, a good many |ier. 
rings have been taken in the proper feafon, botl^ hj the 
fifhermen of Gourdon, and the falmon-fifliers of Bervie^ 
which they fell in the neighbourhood at the rate pf 3 d. a? 
dozen. Crabs and lobfters .are alfo taken on the coaft^ 
and among the rocks. 

^ . Country part of tie Par^.— There are about 780 acres 

.'K of arable land here* as much more wafie and uncultivated 

moor, and a few acres of pafture. The low lands are a 
. ^ fine loam of confiderable depth, and the high grounds a 

mixture of clay and gravel. According to the bed cal- 


* Dr Blagdea afcribes the fcarclty of haddocks to the tfk€t% of elec 
trictty. IT lightening had deftroyed the haddocks, it is wonderfiil how 
it fho«i!d hate fpared cod.fifli, which hate been |c«ttgfat in greater itau^ 
^ncc fince tiie year 17! ft tbfui ftfOMrly. 

oflvmrkfmf fir #^cw>. p 

WW;, i^eafe/and bciiiis.3f>4i/fowp,or fttfific^ijl. gjrajffs? Ji^iJH) 
poialocs ko^i lAwfc a^ ; flw 5,j i^r ^^baj^cjj.^^lj,; 
o«i 157^ TbereriMe IJ -pruiqpfil, %m? ;;,fhje.; )^r:^eH, <^ 
vkidi does: Aot tzoeed 144 a^F^ of ara|9]f • jl/a^» .p4 tb|e 
finlicA no^ under 2;. Tt^fe fu*e,alfo ;f2 ;other ^ac]&s o^ 
fahtadB^ tiielarBeftjof ivbirfl>.:?o ?q^> jifti^ t^c Ij^jjUcft 

ea)plojcdia;£MiQiiig; alii? |6pJio(igtimeQ^ aj)out xa paid^ 
fenraon, ia boja* a^d x,Q,^an^-x;i^Oy beiides tjbe farmers, 
te' tenaats ; tbeaafelfse^y f^zx&e 5)f jirhom inaQ^ge or work 
tpkogh with their own hands. Within thefe X2 yearsi 
verj c^Q^deraUe i]ii;i9mvem^^t;^ h?itVe taken phcet and al- 
m^ft a tjQt^ $i)te;ratiqD in the appea;iuice of the fields, and 
{odity'of the ioil} the J^sos being ma^e ^n^pre compafi: 
\fj e«c^lli})imi» ^joA the £e]ds much improved by Iiminj^ 
nannringy and ftraighting. The good efFeds of thefp im« 
provemcnts are perfedly obvious, from the rife of land-^ 
teat; foriibont athisd p«rt of che padQi, Qj^ag below the 
Ughroady and contiguous to thefea-coaft), is now let from 
I^is i>op. |p L. a the acre, whereas it formerly yielded 
^ propiietor no more than tos. or las. Nor does it 
appear, ttwc the farmers are now leis rich and t^ealthy 
thia formerly \ their maimer of living evinces rather the 
cootiaiy. There are only 2 proprietors in the pariih -, tho 
Vilcount Arbnthnot and Mr Barclay of Ury ; the latter 
of whom is a very fpirited and judicious farmer : He was 
^ firft who introduced a proper mode of huibandry and 
cohorein tUa part of the country ; he prefcribed and laid 
^^ to his tenants ceruin rules for the management of 
ttieir &mi8| to which tliey axle oUigcd Jto.:adherje by the 
^'^^ ^ ^m UKfkSi ^j which means he not only inorea" 
Uthe laliie.jof bi| propcxty/ but enabled the farmer to 
^e more cMlifiMtmbly «tftdi.^x«. The ^i^ers 10 general 
Voi.xnr.'' - » . ' pay 

lo SiatiJlical'Acvouni^ \ 

piy pSLtt of thieir reht in gtOti, 'winch they 9X€ obliged to 
drive to the Aftatice of ^7^- Riile^^if 4ieoeffiay/ Viiboiiiit 
ArbuthnotV tenant^ are faoi^' to' fiiciiiflrr hia Lordfliip a 
day's fervice of their whole' reapers aiiiniiaUj^ and alio to 
drive his'coisds and peats for'-faimlj ufe* Sdch kind o£ fer- 
vice is called botidage. Daring a florm^ a* confideraUe 
quantity of itesuwatt isthrowii a-A<»e, which is carried toff 
and laid on the lands, and is efltetemed an excellent manure^ 
efpedally when the crop foUowing' U bearor'barky;<-**.The 
rieal rent of the parifli may amount Co aboat L.700 Ster* 
ling; the valued rent is ezaSly L. 181 j : 13 : 44cots. 

' Po^ulaizon.— According to the return made tift)t Web^ 
fter, the population then tv^, 6^y. The parilh at- pre(ent 
contains about ^85 tbuls*; Hie tcrwn of Bervie/ 607: Vil* 
lage of Goiirdon, i88r The 'country part of the psdilb, 

Marriages and Biribs for 40 Tears pafi. , 

.... Birt&s. 

Marriages. * * Males. Feoiftles. 

,Fropi I76p». . 5S Fronn^s© tA if76b,' to* . '^5 

I76oto"i77o, 51 '" ' i766to'i77#; -" 1*^^ •" 9i 

17.7» to 1780, . ' 56 '1770^1980* '«• 118 

1780 tb 1790, 84 i7S&'t6'i796; 131 105J 

i^6^ ' •■' - • -••" - .' - . ill. 90a 

. ' -^ ■ - ' ■ • ' -/■. : i; I •• .,: . . : 

-■■ •:•-:: L. .":.;. ;:; ...* rv:.;;^^^ ,j, j .., , JUt/fieUoenouf 

-" • li 111 I.'. . : -• n H'-: , .J T. .; 
' • Extnta^CalelferiiddfeflW «9 Sb Jplm Sincl^r, April a6. 1793. by 
' the Rev. Mr CrolL. •* for a great manjr years before tkc prcfent manu- 
fa^ures were eftabliihed here, the niimSeraf dttech^ahle per^, tha0 
is, thofe at or above eight years, atfouneed to about 4*. Stace the intiQ. 
doaion of th6 manttfiiaarefl, dMtlSr in about 1$ ytaci m4 ^ n;u)oths, the 
nnmber of catechifiible perfons i^jmoic than too ; wd I Aippofe the nura- 
bcr of ibub to be abont laoo at leaft.** 

ffaMiihmenr, of the ord^ Qf .WMt^ f^ri^u;^ ^pj^ijothifig o^fw 

them bmdie Jigqie. Opp<^^e^to dp^sKj f]^^crjyS> feft^^^c.^ 

rock of Craig Davidj k di/^ ftj^rii^oOaDn^iF^^t; i3,s^ cpi»/^-,/, . 

cQOBs laii4'm^rk . for xDa^e]fs»(^d ^.iee2l^,a^t^^i%^ce . 

of 15 kagiie$; . I jitvitioi».,it Jveije, . l^ctufc . ^ i^ ^epprsj^. . . 

kiAWAbr the name of BerAucBrow^ v.,Bervicwater is:tbe.. 

flol/ riv^r m the p^riiiu - 1; .ri%in Grlenbc^vjc, (about 8 . 

vuks fiMKii the fea), rand .meaod^rS; ia^ ,.yft^^, of l)eau^-^^ 

&lcarv«s« . /A view &qi)Ei tbe;]>rid|[e (^ Becvie.toward#,titke^ 

Wfc of AJlarjiice, about. ^ jinilc ;np ,t}ie.4iV/er, affo«ds an . 

agreeal4e:^pd .^^aia^^t pfp^eO,. but not reiwkably piflu* 

''^'^■^ :8j^.l^proj^9n.9^i^^^Jock^ on^ac^ fidf^ pf Ber* 

^ bajff «?Iveu an ea(lerl7jft(mx.f(Bt3 in« the feapUn Vfi mpun-, 

tunovsbiUo^^ and|xr«£en|ts a])idaz;e^triily&^ 

cnfiung of : the.wavj^ am)(hcuibQre ii» hewL ^t j^g. difianoe- 

of 10 or la^ iQ^eik J^f^^^h ^,hol^ome. ai|d,fa)u!^4ous9 

pechaips more fo than in feveral of the inland parifhes \ but 

vbea the wind blowsjfrom the eaft, it is exceedingly fliarp, 

and is the caufe of many of the inhabitants being feized 

with Hienmatic complaints, which are every year becoming 

more prevalent, and generally attack people in the fpring 

or autumn. As a trait of the charader of the people of 

tbis parifli, they are by no means addiAed to litigation; are 

^00 wife to give their money to lawyers, and neither plague 

their heads with politics nor religion. There may be one of 

two DiSenters in the pariib, but they are not natives. They 

live tolenibly contented with their fituation, no wife enga. 

^g ui the political (quabbles of the prefent day, perfedly 

^'I^^^V^ted with Thomas Paine or Edmund Burke. Tra- 

fition hands down % fancifiil account of the name of Guth* 


fefi^aalPdiiSrfctfaL'&Iiari^oUiaHv^i HB far tBe ting's &|h 
•« per. ^t two, iajTB his kf ijidly •" " !« gilt /Afv^' llys t»t 
« tiMi^ t" WVfli rejiilei hfa MTajdJy; ^ e«f .»w, far erer 
<' Ih4ft ffidtt l>e.''w.TBe reircHtie ttf^g from ihe t6^kn^ ^ro- 
petty^ &c. dc^ not eke^eH lii j6 yt!$air. We»e it doubfe 
or tri^ter die fiimi it b to be dJMibtM if it tii6l^/^.be«p^ie4 
to any tdStifol porpofe, fo that t3ife {msllne& df the revii'^ 
nu^ is not a siatter of tauth' ^gref. The ' inlfabitants o$ 
Bervie have cotttrtt^bed ^itb 9 mait; to bring in watfr to 
the towh bjTpi^k; the fiim hecefTary to d^t ^^' ^' 
penite, ii ^o Bc^'i^ed b^ a tax of i sv on each hettithl It 
woold be (Sf grtat advantagi^ to Benrie, and th^ neigjhbMr- 
hi^f if a baibo^ couU Iks ^ ilf the wa«6r indutli; bar 
the expebft mbft bb a^neat bar to the fbhemtt, and the Iba 
runi fo lii^h iii a DbhA, thiat a ((BA ^effiJ t<Mta 'not ciiljr 
take thbiistrbiiUr. Aifcillr1jrfrgtr-6ver B^Hri^'^iter is to 
be i>S]ilt f66h fiir that j^rfM^f^ : bis WkyOty bib fMn ptett- 
fed to give 1. 1000. Sever'sd- coMifaftfct^ TA*e ' bee* held 
t6con%derth«]pr6^bt:^ 6f dlMyUflithg tttrni^ kei in diis 

county. ' * • • ' • 

'.^ ■ I' • •' * •' • ' . 

• I '.i . * **ffr.-r Ml-'; '-j -r^t",-^ (#1'. * .» - I,- - -j^ •>«%-*, r" r 

NUM ft t R n. 
(Comrrr a*I> Syi^o!) or Ross, txtfliTivaTM TAi».)t 

' — ^ " - - " » '-i- 

■^4t i< .iiiiiiti^ I .i'l; , » . I .t I t*f If.. 

Nami, £*teni, SitrfkU^ Sm/, Soc 

TVOt metmng ctf the word ^fSjjg* or i^<»>,«0 it wi» inr^ 
merly wricteny k tmcertain. Somt fiippofe Chit it is 4 
comiptioA of the worl Miirr or Nboil, and that Ais pKriHi 
ii fo canedy becaufe it lies in a eomer t£ the country ; bttt 
there is no greit grotind for this fnppofition, as there are* 
(tWf if any infbmcej* of the OiKfic iiiunes of places be-^ 
iog corrupted) eipibcklly In didfe' pMs Where the Gidic 
contimi^ 16 1^ die living language of 'the to m at ty .^ The 
more probable dplnionr is, that it is d deltic «Mtf, *^iMpre& 
five of t^e penlnfular fitintton of the^ {Aifie, it beiiigalitfoft 
fomtattAed by 'Wtiter ; and'whsft, in fomem^iMr, cMht>b»« 
rates diis dpiniotf is, thattheparilho^Migg,intlieilfineof 
Ebi^tdinej, is esidly ifimifarin fittiailM ^ thb pMii>-w 
The ^arifli mf Nij^g is above 5 mKb^hg^'^^nfl ^i*' fi>me pli^ 
ctsletwoen' rand 3^ broad. It Itef firom & W.'O) If; £w^ 


14 Staii/HcalJlccpunt 

On the S. E. it b bounded by the Murray fridi, <m the S. 
and S. W. by the bay and firith of Cromarty. In the S. £. 
fide of the pariih. th^ i^; a-]|pill» q9auBooly called the Hill 
of Nigg, which rifes at a place called Shandwicke, and ex- 
tends about 5 miles along the fhore of the Murray frith, 
terminating at't g^pc^ ^ed PttnfrjBalli9*pe^ljj oppofite to 
Cromarty. Some parts of this hill are now covered with 
large plantations of firs in a thriving condition, other parts 
are^let butin gra& to pafture cattle. The &cj^ of the hill^ 
hanging over the Murray frith, is, in fome places, covered 
with grais and heath, abounds with medicinal herbs, where, 
ibme timetago^ia nfunber.oC goat» were Ji^cpt, c^if^hofe milk, 
from that circumftance, was remarkable for its good quali- 
ties in reftoring health. But a great part of the &ce of the 
hill is rocky, and . accefllble only to the birds pf the air. 
The eagle, all the diffin'ent kinds of hawks, build their 
nefls in thefe rocks, fome of which are feveral hundred feet 
in height. In jtheaaL.cdfc^.^r^ .flocks pficosmqnuits and o- 
ther fea-fowl take up their refidence, in their return from 
CaiAiw&ppd.the Nfl^^herii Iflcs^^^wbitl^r iix the ftunpn^r 
faaf0nf tbty irepair tOib^itch ,tbeir,^oaq^.^ .X)n ;Ue .declivify 
of t)u^ WMi .w4 ?W>fed. ^ ^c fio/t!jy lies, a coofidcraWc 
p9^ 9£^a'arablcrgpound%.of tl^ p^O>,j^nd wfiiqh are rec- 
kwed.^jthft.b^ifflWtey^.bemg^ari^^ a clay 

bQ|FoP?3;..c^.;t^i^^'^Ol^ti^^f.^^ pari^^tbe foil is^li^ht 
aod,ft:»dj;^, ^^ur^pgthe wfi}f|Br feafon^. a,gre?^part ot the 
p^^ if,^|)S9j^rPpcafioi^.Jt\y,jthe rain^^ yhifub^'fidling on the" 
b|Un|M^ ,4fft^uiglSt?9!^ x^l^e earth, .ooze forth ip^ J^ng^ 

ifkSW»Jf JW|sjPv,ea/«^d»T V»\>l^fii5^ ^4-* 

tb^b^dry up^ i|n4 iefd;|iif(e£^rally comm^nc^: about the 
totb.i9£ M^R^..'. JO^t^ flfae ^ndjof the parifc tb.ey begin to 
fow' b^ewj»g.9f,4ff#» W^lfeS^J^^^ r^4^^1»i% 
be^n »«^ifeP9|it^n9M441« 9^^^^^/^^^!^^^ 5^ 
ij^^ inQntfis«:YfSffsL^V « *?!ft\5?J^Fr» ^^^WSv.*®.,.'*^ 
.?C " ftrcngth 

^ .:.- o/Mfg^M 15 

Srtog^ of the fdl^' a£S its nont^Mj expofiire |! hi9)^ yhf^. 
the ittflneiMie of the fun faecomesmUDncj pow^rfioiK yeoetBtion 
is npidv aod'the harieft feldoni ISuls ta t>e early. .If,g6Q,e^ 
nBj eommenoes atxrat the 20th of Auguft, aod'is ^o^bcd 
tlMut the totii ofOfiobor. . . , V^ r — 

Agriettlturti £cc.-^The .ttfiml orop$ railed in ^s-pariih 
are, harlefy.whicbi&of the beft' quality, oats, peafi;^ fje, 
and potatoes ^ Mbest,drQ[.^aA\;bj9^'aiteoApte^. ^ithjTome . 
fnoods, but for want of inclofuresi and becaufe.yrh^t i$(e\xn 
ia the fpring does not fill and ripen to perfedion, feme who 
bare attempted xaifiirg wheat, have dijG:ontinued it, finding 
a barky crop abnoft . eijuaUy ppofitahle, and far -. le j^, j(cpur- 
g^iagto their 4eUs. Tho' generality of farmer; bem^ poor, 
aad having no leafes, neter venture, to ; make iipprove- 
moits in agrioiltiire^or to deviate, from the mode pradifed 
bj their forcbthersL-— >There is a. great number of hqrfes, 
but, a £ew excepted, they are of a very trifling and diminu- 
tive kind. The £iffmers keep a great ftock tSi black, cs^ttle, 
which they employ in tillipg their grounds ; but it is fup- 
pofed that they ibail.foon be obliged to adopt *a difffr^nt 
method ; becaufe great part of the Highlands, where their 
citde were wont to be grasped in the fummer (eafon, are 
now converted into fheep-fafms, the number of which is 
fiill iDorea^g. Some time ago, there was a cenfiderabie 
Qwnber of flieep in this parifh, but at prefent there are very 
&w; the grounds on which they were paftured being laid 
Doder planutiofis of fir, to the no fmall lols of the fu-men 
in general, who are by this means deprived of many ad- 
vantages which they derived from that ufeful animal, foch 
Ui die befi of manure for their fields, dothing^ for their 
houfeholds, and fome help annually to pay their rents.— The 
valued rent of the pariih is L. 4205, lis. Scotch. The 
f(al rent, that of mills included, amounts to above dooo 
3 bolb, 

l6 Staii/Hcal Account 

bbiS, paitl^ iMtky^ip^rdy mcaL On iiime AfW, Ac kbc 
is -paid is Und, tnd on Come othcn the vid«»l ii cppverl^ 
intto xnonejy from i^s. 6d. to 138. 4 d. the btU» Tbwe reo^ 
bf thfc land varies, aeoording to tiie qmlitj af ibe ituL Tl>c 
lands of the beft quality are let at .a boUi.^i . 9cre!« Ajad 
what is moft remarkable, the rent of a confiderable part of 
thefe lands^has not been migineiiced for j20O..jrftfM |>ack» 
and yet at prefchit itk^ higtl as the kind can poffibiif ^«?F« 
There are 9 proprietors in the parifli, tamjoi wtwn reikis 
in it at prcfent*. * ' . 

Population. — Aceording to Df- WebAer's TqMSt, tbe 
number of fbub was then 1 a6c. ThepopiilatitB is iwUier 
on the decreafe, owing to the'iBsiott'of firms, «ad feveral 
places Where cottages once fteod, 4>ou^g How isK:I#fcfi and 
planted. At prefent, the examinatiQiD onoDs of itbe .fianih 
contain 933 fbuls, in which are inferted all wbo are ^.j^rs 
of age and upwards. From the average nfmtber of by^^hs, 
thofe under 6 years of age, foppofing thcmaS io.bir^, pan- 
not amount to 100 more. iTha principal pact of th^ Ji|^« 
bitants is employed in hufbandry. In this pariflitberefla'«-4 
blackfmiths, 8 wrights^ a ooopers, .7 millera, IAiwef^rf^!^ 9 
tailors, 12 fhoemakers, t flax-drefier, and 31 filheim^. 
This lafl ctais of men bave, for 6 years paft, firf^fifted t)»em- 
felves and families chiefly by raifing crops of 'ifKilatOflSi.tli^ 


' '^ Price of Labmr.^^Tht ftated vrages of day.UbQ«iifn».are from 4 d. 

to tf d. i^'flaj', ThM UDonut of the vmga of fknD.(crv9iit;, cannot be eafilw 
t aicrit^iatAs <|r tbo<^g)> fh^ 6ee is li«conlideimbie, jet t^jr have a great 
, d«^ pf jper^ltUiteft which make the whole of what they receive to a- 

jBOant to from la .to 14 bolls of yi^ual aninuiity. T1ie'<ervaiits4>^DS 

generallpr married, and haritig families, pfc&r receiving their ^agei chief- 
- iy-in vitftoal. A capital, d^dl ia the mode of fargung ^v^&ifti in this 
C 9aiJfl)-Nv tlwt tbej snploy too mmj fervants. Maid ibprantt receive of 

w^get from Ii. 1, 6s. to L, i, i» s. amnxally. All other tnddJoeo are 

paid by the piece of work which they execute. 

iih <m the cooA b^vlu^ moftlj loft it^ This dftan^niM 
\m occuficiaed a coufitterable ibdvanec ih tbt p^ice of thfltf 
neeefiary article of life ; fo that what xo yean agoeouM 
^ purchafed for 5 d. will now coft 2 b. 6 d. The average 
number o£ births b fomething above ao. The ttambet of 
deaths cannot be afbertkined with prectAon ; becauCe, of 
thofe btiried in this charch-yard, the greater part is from 
the other pariflies in the vicinity. The number of ttarria^ 
ges is aboat i aa&ually. 

Etdejhjlitai Staet, SUpntJ, StlMls^ Po^t, Vt.^^JSigg sft 

tne of the menfal churches that belonged to the biihoprick 

HHoh. Behind the chnrcll isftill to be feen the feundatioi 

of a large houfo above 90 feet in length, which gqos 

tmder the nattie of the Bifhop^s Hoii(e> though not thO 

^ACeof hisconftant iriidence-, and the hill already ineil* 

tioDcd is, in old charters of the lands of the p9irifli> called 

the Bi(hop*8 f'oreft. One of the vaults of the houfe ro» 

tfidfled entire in the year X7i7.-^The pt^fent church Was 

aew built in the yeaf 1717, and undert^enl a thorough re» 

pair ibottt two years ago. There were of old different 

ckpels or places" of worfhip ; particularly one at Culift, 

where there Is a fitiall indofure that goes by the name of 

the Chapel'Park. Scarce a vefUge of the buiWing re^ 

bains. There was another at Shandwick^, the walls of 

which flood pretty entire till within thefe few years.— To 

the tdmilfion of the hte incumbent there was a violent op*- 

(ofitioit on the part of the common people, headed by fomfc 

oC the heritors, an4 which terminated in a feceffion of almoft 

Ae whde body of the people from tbe EfiabUihed Churoh. 

Nor could the minifter, though a man of ftnfe, and greatly 

»»fcfixlto the people by his medical fltill, ever procure a do- 

ceot auditory in the phce. After refidiag among them . 

•hove 30 years, the number of his hearers did not exceed 

^ perlbns; and though thofe who at prefent attend wor- 

V0L.XIII: C fliip 

1 8 Stati/Hcai Account 

fliip in th^^p^rifli-chDrchy greatly exceed that numbery it m 
to* be remarked, that they are chiefly compofed^ not uf the 
original inhabitants of the pariihi but of thole who have 
rempv^ hither from other parKhes ; nor can it be expe&ed 
that the prefent generation will return into the bofom of 
the Eftabliflied Church. The examination roll of the £fta- 
blfihed Church contains only 260 perfons, while that of 
the SeiQefiion contains ^73. — The King is patron. The fti- 
pend is 10 chalders barley, with the vicarage-teinds> which, 
about 30 years ago, are faid to have amounted in value to 
from L. 16 to L. 30 Sterling ; but at the admiilion of the 
prefent incumbent, tliey amounted only to from L. 6 to 
L. 7, and are ftill finking in value, from the decreafe of 
iheep in the pariih ; fo that it is likely they will foon 
be inadequate to defray the etpenfe of.collcding them* 
There is a good manfe, with offices, which have been 
lately repaired, and a glebe of rather more than four 
acres of good quality .-^There is a parochial fchool, but no 
fchool houfe at prefent ; the heritors, however, have ordered 
one to be built. The falary is only L. 8 : 6 : 8 ; a paltry 
coniideration to induce any young man, who has been at 
the expenfe .of a liberal education, to undertake an office of 
alt others the moft flavifh and fatiguing. The Society for 
Propagating Chriftian Knowledge have been pleafed, of 
late* to appoint a fchool-miftrels for this parifli, to inftruft 
young girls in the diiferent branches of education neceiTary 
for that fex, which, it is believed, will prove of fingular 
benefit to the place ; as heretofore it was impoilible for pa- 
rents to get their children educated, but by fending them 
to towns, which, by reafon of their poverty, and the high 
rate of board wages, very few of them only were able to 
do. — Here, as in moft other pariflies in the North, the 
poor form a confiderable part, whoihaveno funds but what 
arife from the weekly coUe&ions in the church, and the in* 
tereft of L. 20 Sterling, which was lately mortified for the 
I benefit 

Of Ni^^. 19 

benefit of the poor by a widow lady in this place: The^ 
camber upon the poors roll is 28, who receive yearly the 
icanij pittance of from 3 si to 10 s. a piece, according to 
thrir rcfpeftive neceffities. Biit in this parilh there ape fe-* 
vcral otter poor'perfons, wTio beldng to the Seceding •meet- 
ing- houife here, and who receive ho public charity',' ' as tlie 
weekly colledions of this fociety,'6f tvhich fhe/'atrii P-^rt,' 
are appropriated to another purpbfe. Tlfe tJnly rtfource, 
therefore, on which they depend for fubfillehce, Ji'b'^gging 
from hoiife to houfe. . ' ^ 

Antiquities and Natural Curtofities. — Near the place of 
Sbaodwicke (lands a large obelifk. On the one fide of 
which are cut the figures of different animals •. ori the other 
a crofe handfomely executed. The fprmer is fuppcfed to 
be a much older work, than the latter \ and thetradltion 
ii, that the ftonc was erefted in memory of a 
{ulFcred oppofite to that place, by the Danes, when they 
were wont tolnfeflthe northern coaft ; in which fhipwreck 
three fonsof the King of Dcnmariv are laid to have periih- 
ed, and to have been buried where the obeiiik ftands. 
Adjoining to it there is a piece of ground, whicii carries 
the appearance of a bury in, Ihe foundation of a 
wall furrounding it remainb, and marks ofgraves, both there 
and at the chapel, are to be fcv-n, and m digging t^^ifi ground 
human bones and (keletons have often been fo tnd. As to 
the particular time of the invalion and (hip wreck, nothing 
ii banded down *.— There was another obelifk in the 


• Thefe are two circmnftantes which ferre to confirm the tradition, 
and the fwSt to virhich it refers ; one h, tbftt the obeHik already mentioned 
tscommonlf called in Gaelic Ctocb Cbiirraig, /. e the Hone of the rock; 
ibe other is, that the rock oppofite to Sbandwicke* whera<tbe ihi|iwi«ek 
iappeact], u, from thit etent, knowfl, to fcafaiiog people bj tb« namt of 


20 StatyHeal Account 

cbureh-yard of Niggi (ai4 aUio to have been ercQed there 

by the Daaes. T:>e fculpture apon it is fliU entire, and is 

snucb the lame with that of the other monaments left by 

that people, coofifting of Ggores of animals, and of weapons 

ulied either ,ia war or bunting. It ftood till ^bout the jrcar 

X725, when it was tlirown down by a remarkable florm of 

windy which at the iao^e tiin^ threw down the belfry, and 

broke the beU of the church- The Rev. Mr Cordiner, 

who, in his pro^e& through this country had occafion to 

view thefe obeliiks, has favoured the public with fome ac^ 

count of them, and has likewife given plates of them in 

bis ufeful and entertaining book. — Where that range of 

rocks, which over hang the Murray frith, terminates, at a 

glace called Dunfkeath, on a fmall moat, fituated above the 

fea, once ftood a fort, of which mention is made by Sir Da- 

yid Dalrymple, in his Hiftory of Scotland, vol. I. p. lai. 

built as far bapk as the year 1 1 79, by William, fumamed 

the Lion, King of Scotland. The ditch around the caftle, 

and the entrance to it, may ftill be obferved ; but nothing 

of th^ wall, or of the ftones of which it was built, remains. 

It wa# built with a view to fupprels di£brders in the comi" 

try, and to dil^erfe and deftroy robbers, and other perfons, 

who came to plunder, as may be coUeded from its name, 

Dunfcath, or Dunfca, which is compounded of two Gaelic 

words, 2)»«, a ** Fort or Caftle," and Scatb^ " DeftruQion 

" or Difperfion." The farm adjoining to it is ftill called 

Caftle Craig.— p-In the place of Ankerville, a part of the 


Vn>0 Kin^s Sm/. That rock lies not a half mile didant rrom the Ibore, 
and there is a great depth of water on each fide of it. It ftretches a or 3 
allies ia aliopft % i|r»ig)it Un^ fraqi |^. to W. mi is not to bf ftta U lugh- 
water ; tnd this, a ff w fears igo, ^ccafioqed the Iqfs of % Ihjp Mmgiqg 
to the Orlmry^s, bound for Cmiwl;, which in a loir eveai^g* ftwdit^ in 
foo near the flMie, ftmck HpM the rook and weat dowp 4irei£lly ; t]«e 
enm having only time .10 iJKr« t)ie«^Wef hj |hf (kovt. The tqp of the 
maft was feco for fcveral weda above water. 

pnpetty of Mr (;;Qckbttro R^ of Sh^odwlck^, in a \Mk 

TtmoTed at xuore than ihe didftng; of a miU from (he fei^ 

9Bi taifcd oimny fici^ above iu lev^}, ^ere 19 a firgtum of 

lifter ftieUa of conSdcrable cKie^ and above a half foo( Iq 

dqiKkL; tb^y lie abottt three feet below the ftirface gf th^ 

(fWPf4« and uwjknueatb them tbere 19 a firatuqi of fine iand^ 

like xbett aa Uic icarlhore. It 13 di&uU to ^Kc^uat fo^ 

^lieir bein^ ^«rc» without fup^qfiAg thi^ ^ottad to havc^ 

Wca {bm« tioiQ cqveM b j tt^ ii^ ^ and to coneeive t|^at^ 

fan the dcTaiioo of the groiwd. wc muft iapgp(e the fea 

%»bav^ afc«9id^ to a height ih^Jb w«hI4 make it overflow 

% gcmt fart of tbc ground* not OQl7of thia, hut pf the 

Mtghbowiffg paKiihe$.*-4u that e^tmClve pieee of grouadi^ 

nulled tbe Sfiiii4a of Ni(g» aad about a foot under the furt 

iace« th«T« ia « Oiratum of differeut kj^d$ of flieUst of coo- 

fiderabW depth* many boat loada of. which are annl;Ma^]^ 

db^s up by th« fijOuenuen of a ueifhbouriog parifli» atid made 

bj than into lune o^ 9 l^perior quaUtj. It U Ioowb time 

bc£Dr« the ptci £roi» which d)ejr are takeo* fill up and bot 

folid, which vtt^dtn tb«4e UpA^ dangerous, and (ome^ 

£^ (o pai&nga;r>, a(jpecial]jr to ftraoger9^ iome of 

imhom failio^ iuDo thafe pits before the tide i$ thoroughlj 

pms, vMB^ppily lofe their Uvea'«— {a that ra^ge of rocli^ 

whidi ovcr-ba^g tbe Murraj frinh, there m a number of 

nstiirai ca¥ei» (oane of wtuch ere £» capacious that the j 

oQuU oQtttaia from four to da huudrod mau a-piecc* The 

«airanoe to them ia iwrow, but withio thej widen Co a 

pest cxtentt are of an amaai«(( height, aa4 of a depth 

vMch no oiaa woidd bclioe to exMiino, There are drops 

«f watcf conftanCiy diftiUug from the mver parf of 4)efe 

wbicht gradual^ petrifjiugt mebe tfaem to appear 

[ Uk^ sin affih of the fiMflt marble- la tbefe, different 

Midi Aaktt «W theit sefidtMa* wA ^umbexa of pigeos^ 

' 22 Stati/Hcul Acctmnt 

, , Difaivaniages.'^On^ great difadvantage whtt^ the fiHiner 
in this place labours under, is the high multure which he ' 
pays to the mills. If he fend eight bolls of com to the 
mill, he mall leave one of them for mill-daes. But th^ * 
principal difadvantage, and which above every other thing 
iretards all improvement in agriculture, is the want of itiel,^ 
of which ho kind whateveJf, young fir-tre^s excepted, is to 
be found within the parifli -; and thefe fir trees, or thinnings 
of the woods, are generally fold at fbch 'a rate, that it 
would b^' much tM&ti'tbr iht people t6 provide thetnfelves 
in coab. The fuel'ttfed' inthb parifh conMs chiefly off 
peat and turf, of which' they carry from the diftanoe of 
five or fix miles ; and in cutting and caning which, the 
fafmers atid their fervants* are employed for the whole of 
the fummer feafon, to the total negleft of every thing diat 
might improve and benefit their farms. And what is ftiH 
more diftrefling, many of them are under the neceflity of 
going through the fands to fetch home their fuel, and moil 
therefore by night and by day watdi the' opportunity 
when the tide is out, fo that it is no unufual thing to itt 
theni (et out for the mob at the time when* others go to 
reft. The badnefs of the roads, and the great diftance 
which they have to go, occafion them great ezpenfii i^ 
carts and hamefe ; and after all they have but moft unconr- 
fortable fuel. If the (eafon be wet, they generally k>fe 
their labour, being not able to carry their fuel out of the 
mols; and what they carry home is fo wet, that it will not 
anfwer for fire. It was therefore with the higbeft fads- 
fadion they learned, that it b intended to bring a bill into 
Parliament, > to repeal the duties payable on coals carried 
coaftwife to the North, as it will enable them to procure 
fiiel at a cheaper rate, and with far leis drudgery, and at 
the fame time will permit them to direct their attention .to 
agriculture, which at prefent, from Che. aboTe-mendoned 
taufe, is too much negleded by them. 


o/ Cambee, a$ 

NUMBER in. ■> 


By tbi Riv. Mr AhZXAVi^fiK Brodie. 

Namif Extent^ Surfaci^ Soi/f lie. ^ 

TflET who are judges of the Gaelic, iaj. That Carn* 
bee takes its name from two words, cam and bee^ or 
bray^ which fignif j« *' Birch-hill." This derivation feems 
the more probable, as there is immediately to the nortti 
of the charch, which (lands high, a pretty large incioiure, 
which to thb day goes by the name of the Birch-park^ 
though there is no one alive who remembers having leen a 
fingle birch growing'in it. This pariih is near 4 ftatute- 
miles in length, and about the fame in breadth. From the 
church, all the way to the weft end of the parifh, there is 
a ridge of rifing ground, which llretches in a pretty firaight 
line, nearly through the middle of the pariih. Upon this 


44 Siatyikat AcOiUtU 

rifiag groDody theft are ftrtnl litde hills, of a cdoical 
fbrin» of nHiich the moft coafpicuoos are, Cambee-Law^ 
Kellie-Law, Gellandihill, and CBiuier*Law« Upon the 
top of fome of Ihf fe, paitacidafly KelUe-Law, is an im- 
meafely large cairn of ftones, of varioos kinds and fixes, 
which evidentlj appear to have been coUeded with muda 
labour, and chrowii tagedier, probably for Ae pnrpofe of 
perpetuating the remembrance of fome great event, or 
with a view to kindle a fire npon the top of the cairn, to 
warn the comitrj at a time of public danger. On the 
iouth fide of thele high grounds, all the way down towards 
the coaft, you have a great extent of fine rich fertile 
ground, which commonly produces moft luxuriant crops o£ 
all kinds. The ibil hete, hasi in general, « mixture of 
day in it ; fome of the fields are of a loamy nature \ others 
eonfift of deep rich black earth ; and almoft all of theia 
have a gentle flope towards the fouth and eaS. That part 
of the pariih, which lies to the north of the rifing groonds 
above mentioned, is much more adapted for pafture than 
tillage, though there are fome of die lands, (ihofe particu-- 
larly at Caffingray), where, in dry feafons, they raife as 
tieh crops of bear and oats as in any pan of the pariih. 

AgricuUure^ Mc4 — Two fermcrs, (out of 32), pay il« 
bout L. 300 Sterling of yearly rent ; the reft from L, 30 
to L. I20. On their farms, in whole, they employ about 
14^ work-horfes, many of them in vahie about L. lu. One 
farmer lately refufed uoo guineas for 4 of his bed Work- 
horfes. Oxen are not muchufed here for the plbugh, though 
the kinds they raife are large, and very fit for the pnrpofe* 
When fold to the graziers at 4 year old, or fo, they gene- 
rally fetch from L. 8 to L. 12. After the month of March 
oomes in, the farmers here commonly carry on a|l their 

« labour 

bf Carnbee. 15 

lajboor with hbrfes, and feldom above a to a plough. The old 
Scots ploagfar is fttU tiled 'bj rdnie, biit ill general thofe of 
a more 'loio^rn conftra£Hon are preferred. They havd 
fewn (txr fome time paft, at ati avetage, about 350 bolls of 
%rheai, 360 of bark^, 300 of ' peafe and beans, and iip^ 
^rards of pco of oftts ; very few tares, and ho rye. Upoil 
every farm, you fee afield of turnip, and even thofe, twh<i 
do not in common ufe them for the purpofe of feeding 
fer ib6 butcher, find gi«iit:. advantage in giving d few. of 
them every' day during the wjnter and fpritigtdxbctr young 
cattle, and milk-cows. Every farmer fows ar codfiderable 
quantity of clover and rye-gra& ; were it not for this and 
his turnip crop, it would be impoffible for him to keep his 
faxm in good heart. There are no iheep bred in the pariih 
ibrthe market ) but in the beginning of thb century, thtre 
were fome thoufands. The few fed in it at prefent, during 
the fpringy fuminer, and harveft months^ aire all tor the 
mfe of private £aaulies« There are .nearly two thirds of 
the wboieparifli inclofed and fubdivided; and thofe who 
let their parks from year to year to the graziers,* generally 
draw from L. i, 5 s. to L. 2, 5 s. the acre. Confiderable 
qoantitica of flax-feed ate fown here, but it does not comr 
monly yield a plentiful return^ excepting in th<S north part 
df the paiilh. Potatoes are ndfed in great abundahce upoft 
every farm ; they feldom export any \ at ati avei'age, it ii 
fpppofed. every fairmer raifes from %o to 60 bolj[^ of this 
moft ufcfnl root. Laft cr(^, however^ owinjf to the wet* 
nels of the harveft, they had fcarce a third of their ufual 
increafe. When their horfes ^e not at hard work, they 
GjMiunonly give them one feed.a-day of potatoes^ which 
it is thought has a fine efiefi in keeping the belly opeoi . 
They wer^ wont to boil the potatoes, but now generally givd 
them raw, and think they do fully as well in that Rate. Som^ 
Vol. XIII.. D of 

0,6 Statijlical Account 

of Ae htrntxtf who have made the trial, find^ chat mhtm 
given in fmall quantities to their joung cattle, in Febna- 
arj and March, they have a fine e£Eed in fliarpeningf 
their appetite fox the dry. draw, and preparing them for 
being put out to grafs in the fpring. The valned rent oC 
tbe pariih is L. 10,202 Scots *• 

Pcpmktum, &c^-*Aoeording to Dir WeUUr's cvfott, 
dM population then was 1193* At prefimt» ibe number 
of £bab is 1041. 


• Prifnf LaUm 8(c.«<«-Mcii IvnwKi hired ka the yai pi ft sf hmX^ 

bandr/. gtacr&ll^ have frooi L- 5 to L 8 of wages vid their TiAualib. 
1>cfidef what they call bounties, which comiiioiily confift of as much 
gronnd as will fow t#o or three fippicf of flaK-feed,,or u as many pecks of 
potatoes ; articies thcfe wMch nfiialty turn oat greatly to their accoaats as 
after ^vork. hoarse they are very iadafthsj|i» in waediag and keeping the 
ground clean. The farnieri ere in ofi( uf paying to their women -lervant^ 
hired by the year, only L. a, lo s. but with their pcrquifites, or bowK 
ties, thry make about L. }, which arfe the common wages given them iti * 
ySbt iFamilfes of f^entlemen rdldifig in tbe parifh. The demand for yam 
nrofli £Iie» Kirkcaldy, Dnndetr and. other maaufadariag pkwe% is ib- 
freit, that the women here who earn their bread by fpinaing upon thr 
two-handed wheel« can, it is faid, with great eale, make from 5 d. to 
7 d. a-day. I'he price of laboiK of all kinds b increafed about ^ with- 
ta ttittt few yeais. A Hulling is now the cotemon wage of a day«laboar- 
er, 4ori«ig the i|iriiig and ikamer-moQChs; In the time of harvcft, they 
pay to the man-reaper the lame wages as above, and give him his vidoaU 
befides. A woman reaper, gets 9d. ori^d. and her vi^iuals. A few 
years ago, Sir Robert Anftruther, who had a Urge farm in the pariih ia 
Ins own poflfeffion, cot down almoft all his oits and barley wfththe Ibythe^- 
tat his eyampl« bat not u yet been much followed by the fannncs in ge» 
BcrsU though many of them employ the common (cythe with great fuc- 
cefs ill cutting down thofe fields of barley or oats, which have been in. 
tentiooally ibwn thin, to let the clover and rye-graTs come up thick . 

rf Carnhee. 27 

Mdcsy • • 50a Widows*, - - 43 



Bacr.elors, who 


Of the above are mar- 

bou&s, . . 

- x8 

ried, - - 




Wbq have c^ (oos, 







- »5 

Men-fervants, hired by 



tbe year. 




Women-iienraBts, do. 



" 3* 

Widowers, - - \\ 

\ are it hcriton. The gp)j aobkoian wha has a 
boded iotereft here, j^ the £arl of S^eUi,e ; a femilj, who, 
fior Bear two centuries, hav^ had their principal refidence 
in tlus pariihy and been univerfaUj efte^med and refpeAc4 
bj all ranks. The caftls pf Kellie, where bis Lordftiip 
refides, is a yerj large and firong buildiBg, with ftately 
apartments, which the prefent Earl has lately fitted up m 
a moft elegant manner, and laid out the pleafure-ground 
about the place w|th great tafte. This parifli, about 
7P years ago, was much more populous than at prefent j^ 
at at an average of the births between the years 1713 and 
1725, there appear from the records to hav^ been yearly 
aboot 46 baptifins ; and it is probable, there were a few 
more, as the parents then were not under fnch nec^ffity of 
having tbeir children rcgiftered as they are now, in con« 
leqnence of the aft, laying a duty of 3 d. upon each mar- 
riage, baptifm, and burial, in every parilh, paupers ef- 


* it any br wocth lensiikmg kcw u s prettj mcoounoii caif , tktt 
dlfff h %x prcicBt refiding ia the parilh, a widow wonum, who in her 
BttxTied flate, ahont ao yean ago, brooght forth three children its 
hiftk All of whom are sli^ty and in good health. 

2^ Statiftical Account 

cepte4. But from the average of births, takeo from ths 
year 1781 to 1793, there have been only 27 births yearly* 
This decreafe of population is evidently to be afcribed to 
tbe two following caufes. The fird is, that at prefent, the 
^hole lands jn the pariih, (eiccepting what fome of the 
proprietors keep in their own hands), are let in tack to 3X 
farmers -, whereas, in the beginning of this century, they were 
divided among at lead 5 times that number. The fecond 
caufe to be afligncd, is, that fome years ago, there were 
coals wrought to a pretty confiderable extent, at Over- 
Carnbee, Balcormo, Cailingray, and in fome other lands 
in this parifli, whereas now there is not any one coal-work 
going on within the bounds of the parifli ; the neoeflarji 
confequence of which has been, that a great many of tho£b 
colliers, and other work-people in that line, who were wont 
%o tind conllanC employment here, found themfelves under 
the neceffity of going elfewhere for bufinel^, in the way to 
which they had been accuftomed. 

ProfptB from Kellie-Law^ Wr;— The profped from the 
ehurch of Carnbee is uncommonly fine*, it ftands high^ 
and is comfortably iheltered from the north by a clump of 
fine old trees *, but when, in clear weather, you go weft, 
and afcend to the top of Kellie Law, which is about 800 
feet above the level of the fea, and near three ftatute-miles 
from the coaft, you have then one of the moft delightful 
views to be feen in almoft any part of Scotland. Imme- 
diately below to the fouth, the eye is delighted with the 
near view of a rich beautiful ftretch of country, a great 
part of which is enclofed and fubdivided, and in a high 
ftate of cultivation. The fmaU towns and royal boroughs 
upon the cbaft, though far from being in fo flourifhing a 
ftate as before the Union, add greatly to the beauty and 
fichnels of the profpe^ \ fo does the range of towns on the 


of Cambee. 29 

'•■''•.' • . » ■ 

oppofite coaft from Edinburgh, all the way ead to St Abb's 

bead, aod the frith of Forth, with the ihippiag cpn(laotl/ 
going np or down, prefent a grand objeS: alwajs varying. 
It is remarkabk in this hill, that the foil of it in general 
is eqiiallj good and deep with the mod fertile grounds be* 
low, and the aicent fo gradual from the weft, that carria- 
ges, with fafety, may go to the top of it. 

Birds ofPaJfage^ \Sc. — ^Thc birds of paflage here ar^ 
dotterel, woodcock, fwallow, cuckoo, and lapwing. Of 
the& laft, it is obferved, that they have of late returned 
much earlier in the feafon than they were wont to do, pro- 
bably owing to the uncommonly open winters we have had 
for fome years paft. But all thefe birds of paflage, the gen^ 
tlemen and farmers too would heartily welcome to a long- 
er vifit among them, could they only get free of the 
crows, which are very deftru£tive in the fpring to the 
wheat, and every other kind of grain. At the fame time, 
the dcfirudion they do in this way, very probably is in a 
great meafure balanced by the very eSedual afliftance they 
give in deftroying the cob-worm: Of this there was a fatisfy- 
ing proof lately in this parifh. A fervant of the Earl of Kel* 
He, who had jufi finilhed the fowing a rich field with oats, 
was much vexed to fee it in a little covered all over with 
crows ; in various ways did he endeavour to drive them 
oS^ but all in vain, till at laft he (hot feme of them, when, 
to his great aftoniihment, upon opening up their ftomachs, 
he found them quite full of cob worm, and not one grain 
of oats. 

Cbmrcb^ Stipend^ School, Poor, iJc. — The church of Cam- 
bee is a very old building of Gothic conftru£tion, with pil- 
biSy &c. It has undergone many expenfive repairs within 

I thefe 

39 StaHJlical Ac^omt 

thefe /o years, and from the bxjltj ftate of fbme parts of 
it, the heritors it 19 probable wiU find it more for their m- 
tereft to build a new one, than to keep in good repair th^ 
old fabric. Ti^e £arl of Keffie is patron. The manfe and 
office-houfes were built fibout 60 jears ago. It is a commo- 
£ous houfe» beautifuDjr fituated, but will alfo foon need re- 
pair. The miniiler's ftipcnd at pre&nt is, 5 boQs of wheat, 

40 bolls I peck and 2 Hppies of bear ; 66 bolls 3 flrIot» 
% pecks and % lippies of meal; and L.243; 16: ic Scots 
money, of which L. 60 Scots for communion-elements, with 
a glebe between 7 and 8 acres.-r-The parochial fchool-hoofe 
was built about 50 years ago, and is in good repair. The 
matter's falary is L. 6. He has befides L. 7, 10 s. yearly, 
being the rent of a few acres of land, mortified by a pre- 
deceflbr of his for behoof of the fchoolmafter of Cambec. 
His fchoolfees are, z s. 6d. for teaching Engliih, 2 s. fat 
writing, and as. 6d. for Latin or arithmetic, the quarter ; his 
"income may be about L. 40. — ^From the lift kept of tl^e ppor, 
it appears, at an average, there are 8 yearly upon th^ public 
funds of charity in the parilh. Some of thefe have ullow- 
ed them 5 s. and others only 2 s. a- month. When induftri- 
ous houfeholders come to be in want, as foon as the feffioq 
have proper information of the fame, they generally get 
conveyed to them what will buy a firlot or two of meal, 

a cart load of coals, or help to pay the iurgeons bill for me- 
dicines and attendance, when they have been long in bad 
health. Poor however as they are, they fecm very averfe 
at firft to take any aififtance from the public funds, in fo 
much that xnftances have occurred of their returning the 
money, though not many months after they found them* 
felves under the neceffity of applying for it. About 60 or 
70 years ago, it was very common here for houfeholders in 
rather poor circumftances, to apply to the kirk-feffion for 
the loan of a fmall iam of moneyi for wfaicfa they granted 


0/Carnheit. ^ jr 

ioU l^reqnently it happened^ owing to a Tariety of dif- 
ferent caufin, tl^at thefe bills turned out good for nothing. 
The kirk-(ein6h therefore^ about ip jears ago» judged it 
expedieat* that inftcad of lending out ahy fmall fums for 
the future to parifliioners in the above predicament, that 
they wonld rather at once give them in charity, acccxrding 
IS the foods would a4mit« a part qx perhaps the whole of 
what they hambly propofed to borrow, lliis plan has had 
a very good effisA, ,in fo &r as it has prevented fome from 
horrowiog of the kirk^fe^ion, what it is too probable they 
never would have been able to repay, and what was, per* 
haps, too great a turn to have been allowed them outo^tke 
funds opon the head of charity. Befides it has prevented 
the minifter and elders, from being under the difagreable 
neccflity ofprotecutingany of their fellow pariifaioners, for 
the recovery of fm^l fums due the fimd, at the fame time 
that they know now, with more certainty, what annual- 
it&ts, ficc they have to deburfe. At prefent, belides the 
Sunday coBeftions, (whiph one day with another through 
tile year amount to about 3 s.), they have L.25 5 of a capital 
It intereft. It may in fome refpeds be confidered as a lols 
tt> the poor in the parilh, that there are only two of the he- 
ritors who reiide in it, the Earl of Kellie, and Sir Robert 
Anihuther of Balcalkie. The lofs, however, is in a great 
meafiire made up by the charity of thofe refpedable fami- 
fies, who at prefent occupy the houfes of fome of the non- 
refiding heritors, and by the kind attention of fome of the 
noQ-refiding heritors themfelves, who in years of fcarcity 
lave moft fealbnably contributed to their fupport. 

CharaBer ofibt Fart/hionert^ 6*c.-i— They are in general 
tfbber and bduillrious people, religioufly difpofed, and 
■iad their owo afiain. In the laft age, when fioouggliog 


32 Stati/lical Af count 

wai carried to a great length in this neighboarhood* many 
oFthe fartneics and others were,. by yarioos niesins, i^dace^ 
to ^ve afliftaiice' to the fmugglersy in can* jiiig iymy an<! 
dxfpbfing of vail quantities of foreign tpiriti, t?hich had a 
verj bad etfed upon theirheatth and morals. Happilj-, how- 
ever, that illicit trade b in a great meafure abandohed, 
and the farmers, with their fervants, now employ tl/enifelve^ 
to much better purpofe In improving their ^lilnils. 

Mifcellaneoiis Oljj^(itidfu.''^Thete are 4 refpedaUe fa- 
milies of the Epifco'pal perfuafion ; alfo '6 families who at- 
tefid an Antiburghef meeting, and about j6 more who join 
th'emrelves to £he Eirk of Relief; but when they have no 
fermon thbrcthej commonly attend the ^Ilabliflied Church ; 
and it Is but.juil to cemai-k here, what muft give pleafure 
to aiiy one pofleflec} of the benevolent fpirit of Chriftiahity, 
tfiat there is nothing of that blind furious zeal among the fec- 
taries in this age which too often difj^aced the former. The 
fe^biries and thofe who attend the £{(abfiflied. Church, live 
together in Chriftian chaaty, and sid very differently to 
one another in fociety, from what tiie Jews of old did to 
the Samaritans. — It would be much for the advantage of 
the pari(h in general, y^ere more attention paid to the cro& 
roads, and a greater proportion of the. fl^tute-work allow- 
ed for putting them in fome better repair. Were the pro-" 
prietors, while enclofiog and fubdividing their lands, to allot 
more of their ground for planting, it would in a f(fw j^ars' 
be a considerable advantage to themlelves^ and the public, 
as there are large trafis of ground in many parts of the pa* 
rifii which cannot be employed to better purpofe. SirKo-' 
bcrt Anftruther, and John Patullo Efq-, commiffiury ojF St 
Andrew's, have of Ja^ ihown a vfery proper example in 
this way, which it is to be hoped will foon be followed by 


Of Carnhet. 33 

ttther proprietors. There are not many trees of great fize 
in the pariih, but near the cafile of Kellic are fome fine old 
ones, particularly a beech, which is 16 feet in circumference^ 
end 30 feet high before it branches. There are fome ex- 
cellent lime and free ftone quarries, and plenty of coal in 
Merent grounds in the pariih. There is one lint and three 
com miU9« 

VoL.xni. K NUM. 

34 Stattjlical Account 



(Counties of Banff and Elgin *, Stnod of Morat, 
Pr£sbtt£rt of Aberlour.) 

By tie Rev. Mr Jartes Grant. 

Name^ Extent^ Rivulets^ lie. 

THE pariih takes its name from the Gaelic word /jr- 
ver^ ^ Entrance/' and Aven^ the name of a (Ireaia 
which has its fource in Lochaven, which lies among the 
hills between Braemar and Strathfpey, and after running a- 
bout 20 or 21 miles, falls into the river Spey, near the 
houfe of Ballendalloch, and about an Englifli mile above 
the church, which is fcarce 150 yards from that river ^s fide* 
The parifii is computed about 12 miles long, and its breadth 
is in fome places 3, in other parts 2, and in one part onljr 
one mile.^-From the entrance of Aven into Spey, the pa- 
riAi extends fouthward on both fides of Aven, till it n^eets^ 
with the pariih of Kirkmichael in Strathaven. About a 
mile below, where the two pariflies meet, and about 3{. 
miles from the pariih-church, the water of livet empties it* 


•Tht gicateft part is in Banff4hire. 

of Inv€r<ikven^ 35 

Uf iato A^en, near the ruins of an old caftle. called Drum- 
oun. From the confluence of Aven and Livet, the parifh 
extends S. £• up both fides of Livet about 7 miles nearly *. 


* AU this pait of the ptrilh is called Glenlxyet. About t mile from 
cbe coafioence of Aven and Liver, Tervy, a rivalet^ (whi^h has its fource 
in Belrinitas, a high mountain, intervening between the pariHi of Aber- 
loBT, and a part of the parilh of Inveraven), after runriing thr >ugb the 
Davxh of Morangc, and a little way throngh the lower part of Glen. 
livet, &Us into- Livet. Morange lies eailward from the lower part of 
Glealivet, and between it and a part . of the hill of Belrtnnas. From the 
oMMith of Tervy, up Livet about half a mile, lies Achbrake* where the 
Proteftant meeting houfe is built, the itinerant minifter officiates and the 
Proteftants in Glenlivet and Morange attend divine woHhip. At the dif. 
trace of half a mile eaftward from Achbrake, the bom or rivulet of AI- 
tacboynachan falls into Tervy; and about x ^ mile, almoin up this bum, 
tod S. E. from its mouth, the battle of Altachoynachan in October 1 594 
vas fought, between Huntly and Argyle, in which the latter was de- 
nted. About 1 miles from the Pioteftant meeting.houfe, and up Livet^ 
Cromby. a rivulet, falls into it on tlie fouth fide. Cromby rifes between 
tvo hills on the fouth fide of the head, or higher part of Glenlivet, and 
aTtcr running a-(hort way, pafles by the Scala, (or Scalan, as it is common- 
ly caUed), a Popilh fcminary or college, ereAed upwards of. 80 years ago. 
As Scala is the Latin word for a ladder, it perhaps got that name from a 
lUep road, (called the ladder), leading from the bead of Glenlivet, up a 
fteep hiU to Strathdon Be that as it may, there are 8, 10, and fomcrimet 
IS children of PopiOi gentlemen taught at the Scala ; and there alfo (I 
li^ve been told) foroe priefts were educated and put into orders. There 
Mr George Hay. a Popiih biihop, at prefent reiides, and there is a mafter 
befides, who teaches the youth. From the Scala Cromby runs northward 
\m 1 1 mile, to the foot of the Bochle, (a little hill), on the S. £. dde of 
which is Bedjivochle, where is a fchool houfe for one of the Society's 
feliools, and in which the Itinerant minifter alfo preaches one Sabbath 
every fit weeks. From the part where Cromby firft waQies.the Bochle, 
it rvas northward with a little winding about i ^ mile, till it meeu with 
inet From the entrance of Cromby eaftward, an^ up Livet more than 
9 qoaiter of a mile, is Caanakylc, wliere the Popiih prieil reiides, and 
vbctaoQ the bank of Livet, about pear too yards from the prieit's hooiep 
u Utely boilta new mais-houfe, with ilone and lime, and ilated. From the 
ffafs-bouie to the Sowie^ a finaUfium^iot far from the . head of JLivet» are 


36 Statiftical Account 

Population^ E^r.— -The followiag is a ftate of marriages 
and baptifmsy from the parilh regifteri from 1 781 to 1790, 
incluiive : 


































85 ij6» 

No regiAer of burials is kept in the pariflii nor could it b« 
eafily done \ becaufe, beGdes the church-yard, there are two 
other burjing-places, one upon the eaft fide of Livct^ near 4 
miles from the parifli- church, near the walls of the old cha- 
pel of Dounan; and another, almoft 5 miles higher up the 
glen, on the weft fide of Crombj, and oppofite to the Bo- 


• The Papiftf were never forward to enter the bBptifms of their chtl. 
drcn into the parish regiftcr. Their marriages, unlcfs when the pried mar- 
ried them clandeftinely xvere generally regtftered, becaufe their marriage 
banns were regularly proclaimed in the church. But fincc the repeal of 
the penal Hatutes in England, they pnblifh their marriage banns at their 
maft houfe, and not at the church ; and never infert either their marriages 
or baptifms in the parodiial regifter; wberebj the taxes, appointed by law, 
are evaded, and the fchoolmafter, who is feflion-clerk and keeper of the 
parochial regifter, lofes his dues, which are part of the emoluments of his 
office. Some years ago, I was told by fomc Papifis, that their priefts for- 
bade them to enter their childrens baptilms in the parifli regiftcr, becaufe 
they kept a lift of the children they baptised. A^^d it muft be acksow- 
ledged» that many of the poorer fort among the Proteftanta often taiit to 
enter their childrens baptilms in the pariih regifter, on account of the tax, 
»nd.tbe dues of the clerk for inferting them. 

of Inveraven. ' 3y 

cble. It is called the Buitterlach, and was confecrated more 
than 40 years ago, by two Popifh bifhops, to be a burying- 
place for the Catholics, but few are yet buried in it*. — Ac* 
cording to Dr WebRer's report, the number of fouls wasrthen 
2464.— About 28 years ago, when I took an exad lift of 
all the people in the parifli, both old and young, they a- 
mounted to 2200 \ and, in 1779, when another exad ac- 
coont of the people was taken, they only aniounted to 
2244 fools. Of this number 850 are Roman Catholics. 

HniiorSf Stipend; School^ Poor^ Uc, — Sir James Grant 
of Grant is patron of the pariih. The Duke of Gordon, 
and General James Grrant of Ballcndalloch, are the only he- 
ritors in it. Mrs Penucl Grant, of Kilmachlie, mother of 
the late Major William Grant of Ballendalloch, and widow 
of the late Captain Alexander Grant of Ballendalloch, who 
was brother to the prefent General Grant, liferents a great 
part of the lands of Kilmachlie, and the whole Davoch of 
Morange. The church feems to have been built upwards 
of 200 years ago, as appears from an infcription upon a (lone 
above the door of an ifle, (which at firft was joined To the 
church, and intended for a burying-place to the then fami- 
ly of Ballendalloch, but was many years ago disjoined from 
the church, and is now in ruins), the date of which is 


• There was in old time alfo, a chapel and buryin|r place on the call 
fide of Livet, about half a mile above the Proteftant raeeting-lioufc, called 
Chapel Chri(l« but very little remains of the chapel are to be fecn, and the 
borying ground* with what was depoiited in it» has been waOied away by 
a fmaU riTulct, which runs between it and Nevie, and by the water of 
Livet. There was alfo once a chapel, and burying ground on the weft 
fide of Aven, in the eftate of Kilmachlie, almoft oppofite to the mouth of 
laTCt ; and theiarip-town, in the midft of whofe land it is, is from it calU 
cd Chapeltown. There are evident marks of graves, with Hones fet up at 
the heads of ibme of them; and hard by is an excellent fpring, which emits 
a Urge ftream of water, But none have been tmried at this place for time 

3$ Statiftical Accotfni 

1385*.. A new qnanie was built in fammer 1775, but tbme 
walk drew wat^r, tiU they were rough plaftered (or, as £« 
is termed, harled) on the outfide. The offices were ne^w 
built in X 7699 and have ,fiace been twice . thatched wtcilv 
heathy but ftill let in rain water. The flipend was modifier d 
in 1769 to be 800 merkfl Scots, and 60 merks Scots fcsir 
communion-elementSv with 48 bolls of meal, at 8 itono 
weight the bolL The glebe confifb of 4 Scotch acr^ s aad 
a8 falls i but of thefe there are only about 3 acres 2 roods 
and 17 falls that are arable. There is befides grais for tivo 
fmall qows, but no grafs for a;horfe f.-^Thcre is a fcbool- 
houfe built within the church-yard, and flared. The 
fchoolmafler's falary is only la bolls of meal, at 9 ftocie 
' weight the boll. There may be in winter time between 

* In 171 X the church got ftrong new deals (or, as they called it. Turk. 
\nfO put upon the couples, but few new couples were put in. And as the 
lower part of the inner half of the back wall, hi one place had funk down 
fro m the half above it, tad the other half on the oistiide in th«t placer 
feemed to bend inwards, and fomc of the couples were rott^ ; the heritors, 
in 1190, agreed with a mafjn to repair and uphold the church for feveti 
years, lie caufed underfoot (as they term it) the inner part of the back 
wall that had funk down, and took down the oatfide half of the fore wall, 
half the length of the houfe, and rebuilt it He alfo put in a few new 
couplet, ' rough plailered the walls on the outfide, and pointed th^ 

f The prefl>y tery of Abcrlour, therefore, in April 1 79 1 , decreed 3 roods and 
36 falls of arable land nearelt to the kirk and glebe, with 13 falls of grals, 
alfo bordering upon the gl(^be, as grafs for a horle. This decreet of the preC 
bytery, Geneial Grant fufpended, and interdicted the niintfter to poflefs 
thtf ground. Againft the fufpenfion and interdict the oiinifter entered a 
proteft ; but as he is an old man, and faw the procefs would be eipenfive, 
he did not infift to difcufs the fu^enfion and interdiA. Ue therefore com- 
promifed the affair widi General Grant, upon receiving a fmtll piece of ara- 
ble land, and fome paihire ground, (not fo near to the glebe as what the 
prefbytery had appointed for him), a part of which was over- run with broom, 
and a part of it wu a quagmire and overfpread with alder. This he it to 
po{refs during his incumbency, and to pay for it a rent of to s. Sterling an- 
nually. Bat Oeoenl Orant has fince made a large road through it. 

• of Inveraven. j[g 

xt and 40 IchoIarSy but in the fummer feafon the number 
amounts only to 1 2, and rarely to ao. In Glenlivct, there is 
'jcc of the Society's fchools, which is ambulatory between 
Ddkie and Badavochle, being ftationed fometimes at the one 
place, and fometimes at the other. The former maftcr of 
this Society fchool had L. 22 Sterling from the Society ; 
but the prefent has only L. 15 Sterling, which is really too 
little in Glenlivec. In the winter feafon he may have 
'ometimes 90 fcholars, but in the fummer time they often 
<i3 not exceed 20.— The inrolled poor in the pariffa, arc 
38 Proteftants and 29 Papifts, in all 67 perfons. The Ro- 
man Catholics, as they have their own coUedions made in 
the ma(s hoafe, g^t no part of the colledUons gathered 
^p in the charch and meetinghoufe ; but they get a 
iiiare of the intereft of the mortified money. About 15 
jnrs ago, there was L. 100 Sterling, which the kirk-fellion 
lent oat on interefl -, and as neither of the two heritors 
would accept of if, they were obliged to lend it to fuch per- 
fons as they thought good and fufficient, and would take it. 
Accordingly, they lent about L. 61 Sterling to one landed 
gendeman, and about L. 35 Sterling to another, who 
vere both thought good and f iflicient when they received 
the money ; but, in a few years afterward, both of them 
^«aac bankrupts ; whereby not only feveral years intereft 
^^ loft, but alfo half the principal. The coUedions in both 
church and meeting^houfe, amount annually only to about 
^6orL. 7 Sterling: Therefore, as the coUedions a- 
iBount to fo fmall a fum, and no afTeflmenc is laid upon the 
F*rilli for their fupport, the poor are often obliged to travel 
^^ feck their maintenance. 

W» A^rtcubun, Plantations^ Sheep^ iSc, — The foil is not 
^ of the fame kind. * In the lower pairt of the parifli, the 
'^ >S| in fome placesi light and dry, and naturally produ- 
' 2 ces 

4o Stat0ical Account 

ces broom ; in other places it is deeper and wet* and in 
fome places moffj. In the higher part of the parifli, as in 
Morange, (a great part of which lies npon Umefione,) it is 
clajey and wet, and in fome places moflj ; bnt when the 
feafon is neither over drj, nor orer rainy, it produces excel- 
lent crops. In Glenlivet, the lower part of it is loam j, or 
mixed with clay ; in the higher parts of it, the land is in 
fome places mixed with clay, and in fome places mofly ; but 
when the feafon is moderate, it yields excellent crops. There 
is in the head of Glenlivet, an excellent marl-pit, and the 
farm of Tomalinan, befide whofe land the marl- pit is, lies 
mofUy on a rock of limeftone. Som6 who have large farms, 
when a part of them is fown with barley, they fow the fame 
alfo with grafs-feeds, which yield good crops of grafs. Oats, 
barley, and peafe, and, in fome dry land, rye, are the gradn 
generally fown. No wheat is fown, except in the mains or 
manor of Ballendalloch, and there, for the mod part, it 
thrives well, becaufe fallowed and well manured. The 
rent of the whole pariih was dated before the Court of 
Teinds in 1768, to be L. 13,771 : la : I Scots; bnt fince 
that time has confiderably increafed. — The pariih, except 
where it is walhed by the river Spey, is furrounded with 
hills, which are covered with heath, unleis in fome very 
wet places, where fome rough grals grows alfo. The fides 
of Spey, Aven, and Livet, abound, in many places, with 
birch and alder. There grow alfo oaks on the banks of 
Spey and Aven, in fome parts belonging to Greneral 
Grant's eflate. The General has alfo fome plantations of 
firs, which are thriving well, and beautify the country. As 
the land of moil farms, (except where it is clayey and wet,) 
hath many fmall ilones in it; the old Scotch plough is made 
ufe of) but at Ballendalloch, and two or three more places, 
the Engliih plough is ufed. Many have their ploughs 


of Im)eraveiu 41 

3rum by axea^ few by borCes oaly ; hot the poorer fort 
i^djut fome catde, and pgt Vko horfes before, tfaem. 

Meal is foid juft now here at between 15 s. and 16 s. Stcr* 
laog'the boU, of 9 ftone weight ; oats and fodder at L. i 
and a goioea the boil of viftual, L /. as lanch oats is given 
for the boll, as, by the cftimation of two judicious honcft 
men, will make 9 ftone weight of meal ; barley, with fod- 
der, is ibid a little higher, efpecially, if weighty and good, 
and fit for malt and for the Hill.-— It is faid, there may be 
about 2500 flieep in tbepariih ; ibme of them are of the 
Linton breed, (bought when lambs,) with black faces and 
feet. Some are of the old Scotch breed, altogether white* 
The Linton breed are the largeft and bigged, and their 
wool fougheft. The others are leis than the Linton kind, 
and their wool fofter and finer. It is faid, that iheep hou- 
fed or cotted in the winter feaibn, have finer and fofter wool 
than choTe that are allowed to mn in fields^ and are kept 
^ere all winter. The beft wool is fold £ometimes at L. i 
Sterling the ftone weight. Lafi fummer the foft wool fold 
at I s. Sterling the pound, of 24 ounces. Every the leaft 
fumer, if near the hills, keeps iheep, but none have farms 
for that parpofe alone, and fome of the richeft farmers keep 
no (beep, becaufe not Ijing near the hills. 

Bridges and Roads, ^^In fummer 17929 General Grant 
caa&d build a good (lone bridge of three arches over Aven, 
aboQt half a ntile above the houfe of Ballendalioch, and a 
good ro«d was made to and from it, which will be of great 
iervice and benefit to thofe who travel from the low coun- 
try to Strathfpcy and Badenoch. There is alfo a Oone 
bridge of two fmall arches built over Livet, about two fur- 
longs below tbfe mouth of Tcrvy. It is faid to have been 
bnilt many years ago at the expenfe of fome of the Dukes 
of Gordon, or Marqoifiles of Huntly. About z6 years a- 

V0X.XIIL F go 

42 StatiJiUal Accottnt 

gO| General Grant, to render the intercoorie betw ee n Ibn 
veraven and his eftate of Mocaage more eafy and ezpedi-^ 
tious, at hit own expenfe caufed a large road for caniage» 
and carts, to be made from Inveraven to Morange and 
Gleniivet, ever the hill of Gamocaj, (a ridge of hill 
extending from Bclrinnas, foath>weft to Aven, as far as his 
right extended \) and when the road reached to the Duke of 
Gordon's property, it was carried on by the ftatute-work.of 
the country. Acrofs this road runs the rivulet or bum of 
Tommope ki Inveraven, (which has its rife in the north- 
welt fide of Belrinnas \) he, therefore, that it might be no 
hindrance, at hb otvn expenfe alfo, put a ftone bridge of 
two arches, 8 or 1 2 feet wide, over it ; but, in a few years 
afterward, (in 1782), the bum, when greatly Iwelled bj 
an impetuous torrent from the hilb, undermined the foun- 
dation, and carried^ it away, together with the meal-mill 
and aH its implements, (wh ch was a quarter of a mile be- 
low it on the fame bum), into Aven. This was a great I0& 
to the parifh "and travelle rs, as the bum, when it is big, 
cannot be pafTed but by a bridge The Duke of Gordon alfo 
caufcd a road for carriages to be made from G]enrimias» 
lip through Glenlivet, to Tomantoul in Strathaven. 

F^.— There come plenty of (almon up Spcy v but they 
are taken here only by the angling rod and line. There 
are alfo very good tronts in this river. The falmon is fold 
in the firft of the year, at 4 dthe pound ; in June, it is fold at 
2f d. and 2 d. the pound \ and in July laft fummer it was 
fold for i4 d. the pound. Afew fmal 1 falmon go up Aven, 
and there are large good trouts taken in it. There ave 
trouts alfo in Livet, Tervey, and Cromby. 

jintiguitifs.'^There were upon an eminence on die eaft 
fide of Aveui and aihort way up from the houfe of Balleo- 


^Inmeravetu 43 

dsDochy m few long ftoaes inclofing a fmall piece of ground, 
which was faid to be a Druidical temple, llie mod of the 
ftoaes have been taken away^ except one very broad, 
thick and long ftone, which ftands ftiU there : And oppo- 
fite to this» on the weft fide of Aven, upon a rifing ground 
mmidft the com land of Bellavillery is fuch another place^ 
mrhere feveral long, broad ftones, encompais about 7a 
fijttare yards of ground; fotme of the long ftdnes are bro* 
ken, but feveral of them fiiU ftand whole. Such another 
temple there is in the lower end of Glenlivet, on the eaft 
£de of Aven, upon a hillock, or fmall rifing ground, a lit- 
tle below the mouth of Livet, called the Doun of Dilmore. 
I never heard that oaks grew around thofe places; but 
there are oaks growing between the water of Aven and 
the temple, near Ballendalloch ; and there grow oaks on 
the weft fide of Aven, oppofite to that at Delmore, but 
9one grow near to that at Bellaville. 

Mifcellaneous Obfervations. — ^There are only two houfes 
where t^e ferry-boats on Spey and Aven are kept, that 
ibmetimes keep a dram of whilky to accommodate paflen* 
gers who may lodge with them, but feldom have ale. 
There are alfo two dills for aquavitae, or whiiky, in the pa« 
fid). This fpirit is no doubt hurtful to the conftitution, and 
alfo to the niorals of the people.-^I know only four houfeg 
or cottages which have been pulled down and left uninha- 
Citable within the lafi ten years, and four that have been 
new built in that fpace of time. — The fuel here ufed is 
peats, of which there is no fcarcity in a dry year, becaufe 
in every corner of the pariih there is plenty of mols, or of 
that black, foft, ooxy ground from which peats are digged; 
but the peats are not in all parts equally good. Some are 
(rfan excellent quality, hard, wl|en dried, make ifarong fire, 


44 Statiftical Account 

sod are notfoon wafted. Others are, when &rj^ light and 
fpnngy; and though they foon take fire and get into a blaze; 
diej are foon conftimed into afhes. The climate ii» Glenli* 
Yet is colder than in Inveraven ; for in Glenlivet there will 
be a pretty deep fnowj when there will not be moch io In- 
vcraven; and fometimes the people of Inveraven will 
plough, foW, and harrow, when they cannot do fp in Glen^ 
livct. The reafon of this is, becaufe Glenlivet is higher 
arid furroundcd with hills more than Inveraven i». 

K I' >U 


tfDalty. ♦* \ ^ 



(CoiTKTT OF Kirkcudbright, StNOD of Gallow^at, 
Presbytery of Kirkcudbright). 

By fhi Rm) Mt ALtxAi^tJER M'GowAW. 

iJamty Extent^ Wr. 

DALRY, which probably fignifies " Royal Dale," fccin* 
to derive its name from a beautiful piece of level 
ground, frequently overflowed by the Ken, called the Holm 
ofl)alryy The church (lands almofl in the centre of the 
fonr pariihes of Glenkens, which, according to tradition, 
were anciently but one, of which the church ftood almoft 
oa the fame fpot where that of Dairy now (lands. It is 
not eafy to aicertain when Kells and Balmailille were de- 
tidied and became feparate pariOies \ but it is well efla^ 
blillied by authentic documents, that Carsfaim, fo lately as 
about the year 1640, was conilituted of a part of Dairy 
^ a part of Kells ; and theiie parts of Carsfairn flill pay 
ffiptod to the minifters of Dairy apd KelU refpedively, as 


4$ Sia$i/lical jiccamu 

<veQ as to their own. The greateft length of Dzlry from 
N. to S. is about 15, and its greateft breadth irom £. to 
W. about 10 miles. 

Soil, ^^nculturif iyc. — The rental of the p^riih about 
nine jears ago was upwards of L. 92co Sterling a-jear \ 
and by this tiane fome farms have been let*«t more tbaa 
twice the rent of that period. The foil of feveral farms 
towards the fouth end is abundand/ capable of cultivation. 
Not onljthe Molm of DaIvj and of Gj^ennai^ but even the 
hard land of Bogie, and many other farms, when manured 
and well cultivated, yield excellent crops of oats, rye, and 
barley. Such &rms as are unfit for cultivation, which 
dafs includes about nine^enths of thie parifii, are vfi general 
excellent paflure. The greater part of the hills above the 
Black Water are green ; the red are moftly heathy. The 
Earl of Galloway, who is the principal heritor of this parifli, 
in order to raife the rent of his lands around the village 
called St John's Clauchan, has, during that period, oflTei ed 
feus of ground for boiifes and gardens, on reafonable terms, 
to fttch perfons as would build there -, and the plan has 
iucceeded fo well, that the village is already four times as 
large as it formerly wa3 *• 


. • The renin already pay his Lordfliip for the lands which they poffefi. not 
>«nly a greater rent than the former tenants paid, but even than others in 
the neighbourhood pay for lands of the fame quality. And as the demand 
lor l«nds genemlly increafcs with the nunber of feuar*, it is probable that 
en a new leafe, the feaars will rather give a little more rent for their poC> 
ibffions than be deprived of them. We may add, that the manore and cul* 
tore bePowed upon thefe lands by fo many peribnt, every one of whom 
conld cultivate and manure more than he poflefles, evidently tends to en- 
rich and nieliorate the foil. Thefe fa<fls fufficiently Ihaw how much it is 
the intereft of the proprieton of improveable lands, to encourage feoingt 
and the divifion of large arable farms into fmall : but befides promoting 
their own advantage, they may by this method do an important fervice to 
their countij. fiy this method, not only a generous iDaii»bot even • mi- 

of Dairy. 47 

Tfioie fpotB of land which we call crofb are generaBy 
silawed to be at leaft twice as valuable as the fame fpota 
ia their original ftate. Some, iodeedi have alleged, that 
tflds, which arc oaturallj very rich pafture, or have been 
aadc fo by improvements, are damaged by tillage. How- 
ever this be, with refped to lands which are naturally poor 
snd icancy of foil, it is, if not lelf-evident, at leaft an un- 
doubted hStj -well known to every hufbandman of expe- 
nence, that the more they are cultivated and manured, the 
^leT they muft be for pafture, when prepared for and ap- 
plied to that purpofe. Of this b& zaj one may have ocu- 
lar demooftration in the farm of Grennan, which has been 
long almoft entirely ufed for pafturage. The greater part of 
it IS hard land, yet fome of it the beft pafture of any in the 
puiih. The hard land in this farm is of two kinds, com- « 
moolj diftinguiOied by the names of outfield and infield. 
The former is that which has been generally applied to 
paftarage, feldom tilled, and fcantily manured, which^ 
before ftill continues to be the pooreft part of the farm. 
The latter is that which, lying neareft the farm-houfeB, bat 
heca frequently tilled and plentifully manured, which, 
therefore, is now the fineft pafture in the farm, except in 
dry fnmmers, when the holming land, from the depth aa 
well as from the moiftnefs of the foil, is greatly preferable. 
What has been faid, feems fufiicient to convince proprietors 
of arable lands which are not exceedingly rich, that they 
ve Qot damaged, but improved by tillage and manure. 

1. Bu^ 

^- oiy without expenfe, Da]r> ^^th clear profit, afford lodging and fub- 
"«tBct to ttmnj an honeft and indaftriou$ family : for if a fann let to ont 
^ ptiii the proprietor only L. lOO a-year, bat would yield him L. x 50, 
f^^ to, B it not manifeft that he would gain L. 50 a year, by letting 
tt to 10 mftcad of one ? By this method he would be a gainer, not only im 
'^^ of the additional rent, but alfo of the fuperior melioration of the 
^wlteo poflefled by many, tp that which would be czpeaed, if they 
V '■•^^ttWhywie. 

48 Statijikal Account 

But iiow jhall we convince the fanner, thstt it is his inD 
reft, as well as the prc^ietor's, to manure end cultivsue tis 
pooreft of the arable hsA ia bis farm, even in prefjcrence t 
the richeft ? If be poffefles an ettenfiye farm, we migt 
find it aimoft impofUble to remove all hb objedbos : bt 
if he pofiefies onlj a fmall farm, and has a leale of it for 
coniiderable number of years, the bufinels wiU not be difii 
cult. His neceffities will oblige him, at leaft if he be 
man of any experience, to obferve the very method whici 
we would propofe. If there are any of his lands in fo goo< 
a condition for pafture, that he could (carce ezped to mak 
them better, and at the fame time needs them for that pur 
pofe, he will not rafhly break them up to the detriment o 
his cattle : but if there are any of his land which he fee 
to be of little value for pafture, yet capable of cultivation 
will he not naturaUy confider, that here. Without any con 
fiderable lo(s of pafiure, he may, by manure and culture 
raife corn for the fubfiftence of his &mily ? Though, on t 
fuperficial view, it may appear paradoxical, experience 
will foon convince him, that by manure and cnltnre the 
pooreft lands may be rendered the fitteft for corn : foi 
where the foil is very rich, the crop may make a fine ihow 
till it begin to (hoot, or put forth the ears ; but then the 
ilighteft rain lays it down to the ground, where it lies till 
it rots, or, at beft, it produces ears, partly empty, and 
partly not half filled : whereas the pooreft lands, if they 
are dry, and have a moderate depth of foil, though ploughed 
deep, and plentifully manured, will produce crops not apt 
to be too luxuriant, and to be laid down by rain, but hardy, 
and with ears plump and full. The greater part of the 
arable lands in this parifti are naturally fo poor, that with- 
out manure they do not yield a crop of any value j but 
when properly manured and cultivated, they produce com, 
if not in as great abundance, yet of a fupcrior q^uallty to 


of Dairy. 49 

dwt wluch is ndied in the lower parts of Gallowaj, where 
one maj have at a moderate rate plenty of lime, of marl, 

Thdie manures, at this diftance, are fo expenfive, that 
few £uiners here think of procnring them \ yet, of the two 
former, fome have made trial with confiderable advantage. 
Mr Newall, of Barikeooh, was probably the firft in this 
pariih who improved any confiderable extent of land with 
lime, the effeds of which are ilill remarkable after a period 
of near 10 years. The minifter of this pariih, who was 
fettled in 1783, having bat a fmall glebe, and, excepting 
a few fpocs, of the pooreft quality imaginable, as was ma- 
mSeSt from that fmall kind of broom which over-runs thin 
tilly land \ naj, befides in many parts fo fiill of rocks, 
. diat moft people would have thought it impoffible to ren- 
der thefe parts arable; yet, with great induftry and ex« 
penfe, not only quarried out and removed moft of thefe 
rocks, bat with picks and levers deepened the moft {hallow 
and tilly parts of it, fo as to render them arable: and as, 
after all this labour and expenfe, fuch iland would have 
prodooed nothing without manure, he brought lime from 
Tongland, which is 20 mi}es diftant, and even from Kirk- 
cudbright, which is two miles farther ; and having made 
t compofition of the lime with earth and dung, overlaid 
the greateft part of the glebe, and has thus, for fe'veral 
yean paft, though on fo unpromifing a foil, raifed as good 
crops as any perhaps in Galloway. Many perfons, who 
were acquainted with fome of the fpots which were for- 
merly bare rocks, were amazed to fee them produce fuch 
crops, and could fcarce believe their own eyes, though in 
reality there was no miracle in the cafe : for when the rocks 
were quarried out to ^ proper depth, and plenty of earth put 
in their place, with a'drelling of the coropoft mentioned, it 
would rather have been** a miracle, if fuch parts had not 

Vol. XIII. G yielded 

so Siatifiical Account 

^fisHded as good a crop as the reft. On one Iktk field te 
made an experiment of the diflferent effiefls of lime, marl^ 
tad dung in producing a crop of oau. The part which 
was limed produced a crop, which, eren in a wet fiuamer, 
fiood firm till it was ripe, or at leaft only leaned with the 
wei^t of the ears, which were indeed very plump. The 
part which was dunged was in every refpeft fimilar: hot 
the part which was marled produced a crop which, thong|& 
not taller than the others, yet was foon laid dob to the 
ground by the raia ^ the confiB^uence of which was, that 
feme of the ears were no better than chaff, and the heft 
were fiur inferior to thofe of the other two. He is not lb 
laflt as from thb fingle experiment to deduce any condu* 
fion to the prejudice- of marl ; yet, as he found that 
though it might be brought in boats up the Dee, and thei^ 
oppofite to NewgaUoway, the neareft poft*town, which ia 
not above three mSes diftant, this land-cartiage, added ta 
the water-carriage from Carlingwork Loch, which is about 
1% miles from Newgdloway, rendered it more expenfive 
than lime, he therefore prefers the latter to the former r 
Nay, though Ume at this diftance cofti him a s. i d« and 
more frequently is^ ad. the bufhel,, containing three 
WinchefierSr he thmks it the cheapeft of dt manures for 
land at any confiderable diftance from the dunghill, 4u fix 
fingle cart-loads, each containing five buftiels, are fofiicient 
for an acre of thin hard land, to make it yield a good cro^ 
of oats ; a quantity which is fix times as foon carried the 
fame diftance, and fcattered on the land, as the quantity o£ 
dung or marl which would be faflicient for the lame ex- 
tent. The tenant of B<^ue« which is one of the beft arable 
fbrms in the parifliy and the fitteft for lime, has latdy be- 
gun to bring lime from Clofebum or Barjarg, which ta 
him is nearer than Tongland. The good effeds of it are 
already fo evident, that otfaets arc following his example* 


^Dalry. 51 

llioagh we are ftroogly dHpo&d to recommtad to £uinec8 
licre the ufe of limei and are convinoed, that if they have 
a long leafe thej niiift be gainers by it, yet we muft can- 
didly own, confidering the ezpenfe of it at this difiiance, 
that fiurmers who are near the places where plenty of it 
may be obtained, partly from the certainty of not being 
diiappointed as to the quantity whidi they want, and partly 
from the carriage being eafily accompliihed at very little 
ezpenfe, may be greater gainers by the ufe of Itme^ though 
they pay for their lands the acre double the rent which is 
pud by the fiEurmers here ; nay, perhaps the former, with 
the advantages they poflTefi, could pay a higher rent for 
their lands, and yet be greater gainers than the latter, 
thoQgh they had their lands rent-free. Henee it is evi- 
dent, that the proprietors of lands here ought not to exaA 
for them foch a high rent as is paid for thofe which are 
more advantageoufly fituated, and that if they wiihed to 
have a great rent for their lands, they ihould, in the firft 
place, encourage their tenants to render them really valu- 
aUe, by enriching them with lafting manure* If a tenant 
undertakes to lime any confiderable extent of land, the 
proprietor forely ought, on this account, either to give him 
his fiirm at a lower rent, and for a longer period than 
odierwiie he would have done, or to allow him a proper 
reoompenoe for every real improvement. But let 00 pu- 
blic fpirited farmer here, who has a leafe of fuch length as 
to indemnify him, conclude from what has been faid, that 
be ought not to lime his lands, becauie his profit by the 
Iteration cannot be near fo great as that of the farmer, 
who is at fiurleb&flance firomUme or other lading manure, 
or bccanfe his landlord is not difpofed to give him the fiill 
recompeiice.of his ezpedes^ Hiough he has little profit 
at all, let him do fomething for the benefit of his country, 
and q[ poOerity, Whoever nakca a £iDgle acre of laQ4 


52 Staliftical uiccoufU 

fbftile, ik9t wkhout improv^cnt woidd Jiave remained 
barren, or even makes ^n acce of good land confidexably 
better, 10 more entitled to the efteem of mankind than all 
the train of conquerors, ' From Macedonia's «»Hmf^T^ to 
* the Swede/~-As the diilance here from the moft vala- 
able mannres la fo great, it were much to be wifhed that 
the farmers, thongh fome of them do a great deal, jet 
wonM ftill do a little more with fuch as thejr have in their 
power. Bj paring and burning the furface of moflj and 
bentj gronndt as is the cuftom in many parts of Scotland, 
great quantities of a(hes nught be produced, which, for the 
time thej laft, are as good a ntanure as lime. Bj gather- 
ing into heaps, while full of Tap, thiflles, fern, ragweed, all 
forts of green vegetaUes, and covering them with earth till 
they rot, an excellent manure nuy with a little indnftry 
be procured. The dung and urine of animals, which are 
manures that fuit every foil, and are, for .the time they laft, 
as effeAnal as any, might be preferved more entirely than 
they generally are, and mixed with other ingredients to 
make them cover a greater extent of land. The channel 
• of the cow-houfe or byre mighty efpecially in fummer, if 
the cows lie within, be covered with thin turf, or furface 
earth, together with chaff, ftraw, or litter of any kind, by 
which meftns'the ftale of the cattle, and the iap of their 
dung, might be very completely preferved. As the iap of 
a dunghill is the moft valuable part of it, and yet is in the 
greateft danger of being at leaft partly loft through inatten- 
tion, it may be preferved by the following method:— « 
Make the feat of your dunghill either in a place naturaOy 
boUow and dry, whence the (ap may have no defcent, or 
in a fpot naturally dry, and artificially dug to a confider- 
able depth, or banked all round with earth to a confider- 
able thickneis ; cover the bottom two or three feet deep 
-with the fineft furface earth you can coQvcniently find ; on 


of Dairy. 53 

thb lay dong and fine earth alternately ;. Imooth the fiirfaoe 
of the doo^ill ; cover it entirely with, a little earth to pre- 
vent the &p being exhaled by the air, and keep it always 
pretty broad above, that it may receive and retain as much 
of the xain as may keep it from being too much heated, or, 
as we call it, fire-fanged, which would render it almoft ufe- 
leis. By this method of preferving the fsq>, it is evident 
yoa may have your dunghill twice as bulky, and equally 
fit for every kind of crop, as 70a could have it if you ne- 
glefied this method. The cffeft too o^f this manure upon 
the land will be equally lafting with that 4£ dung unmixed : 
nay, upon a thin tilly foil, the fine earth, faturated with 
the lap of the dung, is the beft improvement that can be 
invented; at leaft it is much better than lime itfelf, with- 
out the addition of rich earth.— The holoa of Dairy, and 
Ibme hard lands about the village, are poffeffed by the 
fieoars, who have been at great pains to enrich them with 
manure, as otherwife the hard lands in general, though 
warm and kindly enough, would have yielded no crops of 
com Efficient to repay the ezpenfe of feed and labour, not 
to fpeak of rent ; and even this holm, though naturally 
the bcft land in the pariih next to the holm of Grennan, 
produces in general but a very poor crop without manure, 
jet with manure it produces excellent crops. To a curious 
obferver it is entertaining to fee in this holm the various 
mixture of a foU, whofe component parts are the fame, viz* 
day and (and* Here three varieties deierve fpecial atten- 
tion. One is, where there is too much of the day mingled 
widi the Cuid ; another is, where there is too much of the 
iand mingled with the clay % and the third is, where the 
two are fo happily mixed, that neither of them is above or 
under the due proportion requifite to render the foil fertile. 
It is only on the fpots where this happy mixture obtains, 
that one may expeft a good crop even without manure ; 


54 Siati/Hcal Account 

hat cm tlie parts where cither of die two finrmer virieti«» 
takes place, the crop without manure will be hat of little 
valoe. It is much to be regretted, that when die hofan of 
Dairy was divided and let to the feoars, the divifioos had 
not been made with a litde more attention to pleafe tlie 
eye of the fpeftator, as well as to promote the conrenience 
of the pofleflor. Had the difibrent endofores been laid oat 
as much as was poflible in te£bngnlar fignres, and fenced 
with thorn-hedges, inftead of ftone and turf fences, thej* 
would have been both more beautiful and advantageous. 
For though at the upper end of this holm an embank- 
ment was ereded above ten years ago, which prevents die 
Ken from overflowing a confiderable part of the holm next 
to the high lands, as it formerly did, yet there is ftill a 
confiderable part of it, which is often overflowed, and then 
' the crop is in the utmoft danger of being fwept away bjr 
the deluge. Thorn hedges woold have prevented the crop 
from being carried away by a flood, and would have been 
fufScient fences to the different enclofnres ; fo that if an j 
one of, the pofleflbrs had been at more pains than die refty 
to enrich and prepare a field for fown grals, he might have 
reaped the produce himfelf, without being ezpofed to the 
encroachments of hb neighbours ; whereas the ftone and 
turf fences are infuflicient to fecure this advantage; for be* 
fides being too weak and low to ftop every kind of cattle, 
they are liable to be daihed down and fwept away by the 
floods ; and thus are rather hurtful than beneficial to the 
pofleflbr, though he pays for them a high rate of intereft, 
and is bound to keep them up, or at leaft to leave them fo 
at the end of his leafe. Hence it is evident, that if the 
different enclofnres were fuflidently fenced with thorn- 
hedges, they would be far more valuable to the pofleflbrs, 
by faving them the ezpenfe of herdmen, preferving their 
paflore from their neighbours cattle, and afibrding them an 


0/ Dairy. 55 

■ f ip or t m iity of raifing fown grafe with advantage* Inmoft 
ocherlparts of the parjfhy however, the ftone fences that have 
been creAed for feveral years pall, are made of fuch a height 
and fiiength, as to be both good fences and a comfortable 
iheker far cattle in the time of a ftorm. 

tTaodsy Rivers^ (#f.— Along the Ken, which is the boun- 
dary between thb pariih and KeUs cm the weft, for fix miles 
or more, there are fome natural woods of confideraUe ex« 
tcDt. That of Earlfton, fo called, according to tradition, be* 
caafe it was fome time a hunting feat of the Earl of Both* 
wdl, the huiband of Queen Mary, is far the largeft. Here 
are alio fome plantations of fir, feveral of which are very 
old and ftately. Above this are thofe of Todfton, Cleugh, 
Glenhold, and Amdarroch. At Ardoch, which is above 
a mile diftant from the river, there are fome excellent trees, 
both natural and planted. It is much to be regretted, that 
the greateft part of the pafture-farms, towards the north 
and eaft, have no woods or plantations to ihelter the cattle* 
The principal river in this parifli is the Ken, which takes 
its rific near the northern extremity of it, and running fouth 
weft 8 or 9 miles, parts it from Carsiairn till it meets with 
the Deugh, which divides Cairsfaim almoft into two equal 
parts, of which that between the Ken and Deugh was taken 
firom Dairy. There, taking a new diredion, it runs almoft 
ibath till it meets with a rivulet from Kells, called Palhar- 
ron. Thence it runs nearly fouth-eaft, with many beautiful 
windings tiU it meets with the Garpod, a rivulet which, for 
aconiiderable way, is the boundary between this pariih and 
BaTmarlfllan. The fiirther defcription of its courfe belongs 
to the hiftofy of Kells or Balmadel^an. It is proper, how- 
ever, to obierve that this river, though generally, is not aU 
ways the boundary between this parifli and Kells *, for thero 
11 a part of this parifli, confifiing of a piece of fine holm, call- 

a ed 

56 Statiflkal Account 

ed the Makle Ifle on the well fide of the river, formerijr 
the property of the Earl of Gallowaj, now of Sir WiUiam 
Millar of Glenlee. In this river are pike, trout and lal- 
jnon, which lad, except in high floods, cannot get &rther 
up than the fadl at the head of Earlftonlin, where one majr 
often be highly entertained, with feeing how high thejr 
fpring up againft the water fpouts, and then fall back into 
the water below, repeating this unavailing labour till thejr 
are quite ezhaufled with fatigue. The Black-water, and 
the bums of Earlfton, and of Stronriggan, are the only ri-> 
- Yulets worth mentioningin the parilh, and they all abound in 
trout. The lakes or lochs in the parifli contain excellent 
trout, and are much reforted to by fifliers. Thofe of Bof- 
ton, Knockfling and Knockman, are but finall. That of 
Lochinvar is of confiderable extent, fcarce lels than three 
miles in circuit, and containing an area of jo acres. 

jfntijuities, ifc, — ^In Lochmvar, we fee the remains of 
an old building with bridges, faid to have been a caftle be- 
longing to the Gordons, anciently knights of Lochinvar, 
and lately Vifcounts of Kenmure. Not much above a mile 
# from this loch, there is a large pile of fiones covered with 
a kind of whitifli mofs, which has therefore probably got 
the name of the White Cairn, and no doubt, like many- 
others in Scotland, has been in ancient times a burial place. 
At a fmall difiance from this, is another of fmaller fize, 
which however is faid not to be a fepulchre of the human 
fpecies, but a monument or trophy of an heroic atchieve- 
ment performed by the iirft knight of Lochinvar, who on that 
very fpot had the good fortune to kill a wild boar which in- 
feiled that part of the country. At that period the kings . 
of Scotland were wont to bellow fome iignal honour or re« 
ward on any perfon, who could give evidence that he had 


kHIeJ oiie of tlidb tMo/^m aiktmiJi %• Ata foAdtdiiahce 
Soin the clmrch oCDaby, flddjiift«tthe btibk of tbeKdii^ 
dwfe is cMie of thofe eminenties called mofits, which is ftiU 
Blmoft eodre, aiid appears to ^reat advantage from the K^Us 
fide of the river. From this moat, one has a delijgli^tiQl 
view of the river, and of llie landfcapcs on eadi fide otiJL 
There is another moat in Lochreany, on the border of Gl^n* 
aiFQ, bat it makes no confpicuoos fignrcy as it Hands on ti 
bw fpot of ground. In the chtirch-jard| there is an ai]e.of 
the old churchy now quite detached £rom 0^e new« which is 
the burial place of the fiimilj of Kenmore. Th^ce is alib 
a Ipiare piece of ground endofed, with a blacki(h wall a- 
boot 7 feet high, with 9, bowl fupp^rtcd b/ a ilandacd at 


* The Lttfd of Lochinvtr, n tke ftnry is told, ifter liis pnrfuit tnd con. 

^Bcft of die boar, finding hifflfelf waary, bsHng cntout tfie tongue and 

fot it m his pocket, Uy down near the fpot where be flew him, and fell 

adcep. In the mean time a geoilemn, called Seaion, who had ^ilfo been 

mparlbit of the boar, finding him o«ercoaiet and hk conqneror aitoep/ 

iamediately cot off the bead and carried it to the King, reprefenting to 

biai,6iat he hintielf had killed the boari and was entitled to the reward 

wbich his Majelly was wont to confer ^n the con^uemr of (hch «n animal. 

TheKIi^, not (fa^P^&highis Tenciiy, rewarded him aec^rdlnglf . The Laird 

if lodunrar having twoke, and a^ftag the boai^s bead, <conje6lared what 

hid ha p pened ; and therefore went with all pofllible expedition to Edin- 

Wgh, and prefented himftlf before the King, eipreffing hit apprehenfion 

te the reward of merit had been beftowed on an impoflbr. To conWnce 

^Kng of die hnpofition put oponhuB« he prodoeed Ae tongve from his 

podfettaJbming, that if the head which had been prefented to his Majefty 

vat i nl^efled , it wtiold be foond to want tiiat verj tongile. The head 

•ecMdingly hnrfaig be€n examined, the King was perfedly fatiified 

viihthaevidcnce of d:e laiij's reprefentation, and liked him, how he had^ 

VOed the boar. May it plcafe ycmr Mtjeftf, fays die laird, I jnft ** gored 

^ domi;** Very wtU, feys the King, at die reward of your merit, you 

Ml im henceforward Gw^tmok knight of LdcbuiTSr. Ever (ince that pe- 

M,a bev*8 hcadhM been aflumed<2a'{he arm6rial en(ign'$ of the Gordons, 

^ofapi •whedber or not c&neiM with the hnighu of I,ochinvar, after- ' 

*iMs Vifeotuits of ICcttiBttre. 

Vol. xni. H 

5B Stati/iicaJ jkcouni 

eachjcorafery.vbiGh. is th^burjingpliee of the.Newalb of 
Bar&eobh:Fr.'Motlifl.£urm oiSlOroaSt^gJg^ then is a large 

• There is one tombftone which deferves to be mentiohedi as the me- 
morial of two-tbartjrn Whd fuffere'd'a violent death, in the time of the late 
^ perfieotioii' fdr rdi|ion in Seotbmd* The. toforiptions, 'whiak are as fol- 
Iowa,' though in^^^fude ftyle, fiifficienU/ defcnbe their cruel and ufide- 
ferved iate. 

•* Here lycth Robert Stewart, fon to Majpr Robert Stewart.of Ardoch, 
and John Grierfon, who' were martyred by Orahame of Claverhouft, for 
theira&erence ti) Scotland's Reformation, atid Covenants National andr 
Solemn Leaguel*' '•• ■ • ' , ... 

Behold, behold,. a ftone*s here fprc'd to cry y^ 

Gome, ftc two martyrs under me that lye : • . -' 

'^ Ac water 0/ Dee, who flain were by the hand" 
Of cruel Claverhoufe, and's bloody band. 

No fooner had they done this' horrid tfaicp, l . . - 

Bat*aforc'dmci:y,$tewart*afottlmbeinrVdothfiog( .. 
Yet ftrao^ ! hi> rage puriu'd CTen iiidi when dmd, 
'And iA tlift tombs of their ancefton laid; 
Cnifing thetx raiCd out o£ the fiune; • 
Difchargiog in chvrch-yaid3 to bury thcoi. 
All this they did, Vaufe they would not pcrjuie : 
Our Covenants and Reformation pure : 
Becaufe like fwthful martyn, form die 
They rather «hMs*d, than ireachenmflj comply 
With cuifed Prelacy, the iiatioD's bane* . . i .. . . 
And with indulgency, our church** (lain. 1. 

Perinr*d.xsteUigen$ers weiefo liffi, 
Shew'dtheic cuift loyalty to take their lifeb'* 

In the viUagc called St John^s Clauchi^ i? prdcrved with gxnatcue, and" 
fliewn to ftr^gers, a ftonc which is caUed 5t John's chair. The c^uixOi. 
having been confecratcd to die ApoiUe Jphn, both the adjacent village aa4 
the chair aiTuinQd his name. , In the farm of Bogue is (hown a fiat fton^ 
of no great fize, on which is infcribed P. G. Vtt, whidy is foppoff^ to 
have been the foundation ftonc of a little chapel, built in the tiipe9f>F)ope 
Gregory the VII. of .which«howevti^ no other teftjig^ npw, iwnaistu 
but as in the ftme 6rm there is a j^liacc called Chapel-yard, i»,« faim. 
of Qleugh, there was fome years ago, a dweiling^hoofe called the €;^i^el» 

* y , walls^ 

of Dairy. 59^ 

odm, ™^gH which, in 'a livulet diat nms^y it artf' twd 
large ftonesy {bmewbat re&mbling'huimaii figure ; one of 
tbem IS about lo feet long and quite entire, the othef its k 
fitde mnlitated. In the farm of Altrje, near the top of a 
ball, there is a trench which feems to have heenldigged, 
capable of containing about loo people: ' As 'in this trench 
tme has a view of two difierent roads, at a coiifidefable dif- 
tance, without beihg o6ferved bj thofe perfons who travel 
upon them, the Whigs or Cameronians, as they are ufu- 
aUy ftyled, are laid to have frequently made ufe of it du- 
ring the time of the perfecution in Scotland, both as a place 
of refuge, and of obfervation. Hence it obtained the name 
of the Whighole, which it bears to this day. At Bentrack 
and Manquhill, two contiguous fiarms, are the regains of 
bfoildings, which are (aid to have been the refidenceofan 
ancient branch of the noble family of Galloway. A few 
filver coins, not extremely ancient, fond'ewHat larger than 
fliilfings, were found in a fmall rivulet near an old houfe in 
the neighbourhood. Before the fncceflien of Jatnes VI. to 
tiie crown of England, it was ufual for the people on the"^ 
bcn d ci s of tbe two kingdoms of Scotland and ]^gland, to 
make depredations on one another. As by tbefe the inha* 
bitants of Annandale fuftained great damage, they were 
wont to claim indemnification from the more wefterly coun« 
tic8,iMrhich,if not contributed, they made effeAual by their own 
exertions; and as the eafiefi method of obtaining their end, 
\ frequently drove away the cattle of the neighbouring coun- 
ties* Hence it became neceflary for the inhabitants of thefe 
I comities, to devife means of concealing their cattle- Some* 
I times they removed them to a great difiance from the public 
* roadst 

m^mi as in maayodier pam of tbiscoimCry.tliere an ftaadinf lioiifei^ 
J or fdligtt oi iKmfe* wMch ftUl beuthe name of duyeli, it if i 
1 ite tbefe faxve been once very fre^ueat. 

6o StatyHcai Account 

^oadSf fiEmetim^ thej- boUowod the ground behuid aay 
fmiiieiipey f ven near the roady and endoCed the phoa wttl^ 
a dike or wall to confine them. In a bxm of ^lis parilli^ 
^ mopne fimpley jret not lefi eilbfinal device, was empk^cd 
tp coficeal them., A dike was ma^^ round a craggj rock, 
on the fide pf a bQl* Into this .endofare the ikc^p were 
driven, and at a diftance not being difiinguifliable bj their 
colour from the rock, eicappd obfervation. There are ftill 
liome veftiges of a great road through the hesd of ^ pari(h, 
from Ayribire to I)unifiies. 

Hfriior$9 iSc* — Manj of the ]and9 in this parifli have 
changed their proprietors within theie lo or i a years. 
The family oC l^enmure, had a landed eftate here of 
L. 500 a-year, which was lately purchafed by Mr Of- 
wald of Auchincmive. Mr Newall of Barikeoch, Mr 
Roriibn of .Ardoch, Mr Agnew of Ochiltree, and Mr 
^a^illan'of Anphirfliinnoch, all had lands here, which were 
lately purchafed by Mr Forbes of Callendar. Some of thofe 
ancient proprietors refided in the parilb, whofe feata wcr^ 
then its great ornaments ; but at prefent there aire only two 
refidii^g heritors, Mr Alexander of Mackilfton, and Mr 
Hunter of Lpchihvar. 

Cbursbf Stipend^ Scbool^ Po6r^ Wr.— The church was re- 
built about 22 years ago, and is one of the beft in the Pr«f. 
bytery, but is at prefent in great need of repairs. Mr 
Newall of Barikeoch, now refiding at Rammericales, 19 
natron. The manfe was built in 1784, and is of an degant 
fbrm, but never was water tig(ht« The walls of the offices 
threaten to fall in a (hort time, owing to the badnels of the 
foundation. The ftipend fince the year 1783, has been 
L.95, exdufiveof L.5 forcommonion-elemettts. Thegfebe, 
though fbmeivliat augments a few yea^ ago, is ftill very 


of Dairy. €t 

iaA com|»ar^ iidth tutat in the iieighboiulioody Icwce tau 

ceedtng ix acres of knd, which in itsoriginftl ffate wobMhave 

been choiigbt high rented at 8 s. the acre. The pirelentinonmu 

benty thoof^ at an expenfealmoft equaltotheoripnalvaheof 

the kiidt has rendered it at leaft tvrice aavahiride as UnaxAj. 

Thisparilh has a ftmd of kboot L. looo, which was bcqoeatfa- 

edm it by a Ifh* Johnfton*, to erefi a fchoolfaoBfey and main- 

tun a Xchoolmafter capable of teaching Laittn. At this 

(duool, the parifluoners have the privilege of getting their 

diDdren taof ht gratisl In former times, this ichool was 

one of the moft fitmons in the foadiem parts of Scotland, 

lad was crowded with feholars frotn many diflant places, 

as the Ciliary widi the Candlemas offerings, procured acorn- 

fixtahk fiibfiflence for a man of fnperior parts and education. 

Bat in lata times, though the fehodmafteis have pofleffed 

tUliiica and fiteratare eqnal, if not fuperior to tholb df the 

more aacsiant mafters, jet few Ikholftts have come firdtii Alt 

tuiflaoea to atttad thettit The reafon is, that Itetsing is 

sow ib cofnason, that there is fearcely a parifli feboofaiislfter 

1^ lo in Sco^and, who is not able to teach Latin and 

Greek, with accompts and fome pradical parts of the ma- 

diematics $ in ihoit, every thing neceflary to prepare die 

young ftndent for the oniverfity, as well as to qualify the 

man of bnfinefi for afiing his part well in any ordinary 

oocupatioa.^-— The number of poor in this parifh is between 

IS and ao, and may be ezpefted to increafe with the in- 

otafe of the viUage. They are fnpported by the weekly 

cdHe ft i o ns and the intereft of about iL«i50, of which Mr 

Torbes of Callendar, when he becaine an heritcir in the pa- 

oih, gave L. lo, xos. and Mr John Wallace, late merchant 

iaixmdott, bequeathed L. 5. The reft had been accumu- 

Itted when the number of the poor was fmaUer. The he- 

ntm and their tenants, have never yet been obfig^ to af- 

fefa theaUidves Tor their fupport *, but as the fiinds for this 


6l ^' StatiJUcal Ac€fiunt 

pncpofe are now too CmsUy tfaerdvin probably be a nkooC^ 
fity fiir inch aflslTinent in a (hort time,^ unlefr the fimds be 
iasceafed. T)ie ' "^hole coUettoos in a year fcasee txecad! 
L» vi^ aiid for a confideiaUe tim^ paft^ the quarterly diftri^ 
butiaa has .been near L. 6, fometimes npWmrds. Any of 
the- {nor . who are able to travel, aie permitted to be^ 
tkrottgh the pariiiy and have therefore a fmaller allowanee' 
at the quanedy diftributions; 

Population^ (^r.— According to the return made to Sk^ 
Wcbfier, the numbera Wjcrc theti 89i,'-^Nitte years ago thcjr 
lYQce: about loco, and now muft be greater, Earl. Gal- 
loway's' village being already fiour times larger than it for^ 
merly was;^ The number of births in the parifli is annhalljr 
abOp4 to } ofxnarrxsges about 5 ; of deaths abone 9 or td. 
The number of tradelmen in the parifh is about 33^: weavers 
an4 (tlW apprentices so, .tailors 4, flioemakers 6^ fiaitfas 4, 
ma(oiss4» jpiners 5* . Dife^fes are not ficequent here, except 
fuoh as ar^ fK>n»mon to children,. Confumptions indeed ferm 
to be more prevalent now, than they were in former times. 
There are feveral both men and women in this pariik 
abo v^ 80 year9 of age, and one man wl^o is bid to be above 

MiJcMamws Ob/ervations.^^Tht wages of common la- 
bourers, which ufed to be not many years ago 4 d. a-ds^y 
in winter, and 6 d. in the other feafons, with viflaals, are 
now increafed to 6 d. in the ihort, anci 8 d. in the long day. 
Mechanics in general get higher wages than common la- 
bourers. Mafons ge( z s. 2 d. and joiners i s. with vic- 
tuals. The common labourer, however, for mowing in the 
hay feafon, .gets from 1 5. to i s. 4d. with viduals. The 
wages of common fervants are near double of what they 
wqre about 10 years ago* A ploughman gets from L. 4 


Lsthehalf jeaF^adnrymaid&on L^x, ios«toL. 2f 9ad 
others in propofrtsaa. . The high piice <i£ labour hei^.isvi' 
mpft as great'an. obfiade to the .improTcment of "aiabhr 
bxax&f as even the diftaiice from mad and lime; It .is 
wort^ obferving too, diat ierVams bare, aad-inlfomrof the 
neigKbooring JMriiies, do fiir^le&worb thaa in maoj other 
partsof tho liagdomir' rIn:Ajcflt]ic>'a]id ih.thc Lothiaas^. 
farinftancr, ar jdoitf^man in theaiaanaiig' before he godi; 
out to work with^lif^JuiifeB^ and= a^jught^ after iie ( comos^ 
k, threfhesas much rcdm a-dayv^ <>oe' here, dbes'whafir. 
fiated employmtot is to thieflii fiir escoBpfat winao^iriA^ 
you art to ezpefi no mora of the thriiherthan the oommoor 
hours of workings widtfach pan&s-^axkdp intervabas take 
up near a half of the tiaie^ and of tfaof&ivbo labonr iar the 
fields, joa axis to exped no work at aB before they go oat, 
or after tUe j come xn^ except in the long nights of winter^ 
whea they affift the bar&«man in i^innowing yonrconif if 
joa have fiumen for ^Jot purpofe. The price of ereiyarti- 
ck of provifiohi exeef^'mieal aad.potatoes,'is xnvch 'higher 
than it was ao or 30 years ago. Beef, mutton,, and alnioft 
every kind of aaimaLi6od» eoft at leail a thirdnpart mooe' 
than diey did before the pedod menttoaed^ The demand 
&r (beep and Mack cattle from Enghuid^ has partly ogb^* 
£oncd thb riie*! iThfe-ceaibn why potatoes ate cheap is, 
that almoS every householder endeavouia . to get as many 
pkated aa he thinks vfill be needed inius £muly. Befidea 
vhsthe plants in hit garden, though.hepoflefi^ilo mbee- 
had, he caa gencrkUy obtun a confiderable quantity*' by 
gatfaciing fern or any kind of weedst rotting tbembalQre 
the threftoU offals dooo, and.mising .them with hiacfliea 
saddle clffanitigs of Ao flreet, . or roadf near his hoofc, for 
^'iudi:a>mpofty alsnofi any farmer. wUlr allow him a crop of 
potatoes, or as mudli exhaftfted bnd as he can thus iufficient- 
V ttaattm* Some who have litt]fi.or uo manure, give th« 


64 Jltaii/iical Account 

finrmer £>• many days mods, ia h^rvcftt asthe/ caa agi'ee 
upon, £ar mannxe as vcILibs land for pottiocsi fa^t the.fiu*^ 
vden woold now ntber fmj them the oommon wi|ga» than 
allow them any mamire, ueitk ea &r hi^cr teima diaa. 
ftrmerly. Hence it.ia manifeft, that the demand for fota^ 
toes cannot geoetally be gceat. Whcaihere in any how- 
ever, it is eafify anfweitdby the {umct% who gmcialiy 
pbmt a lew more thaa they hare occafcn tp vie in their &- 
milies, in order toeoridifomegCtheiriiooreftsor to deanie 
{bme of d)beir fookft lands. This end might be cquallj 
w^ obtained by a crop of tuqiipa, hot here thde ace SBafsefy 
ever raifed, except a few in gardens for the nie of the ta« 
Ue. Meal b ftili cheap* becapfe there is little demand for 
grain tiU fised^time« and even then it ia not greats as fised- 
<;oni is fold about a d. the Winchefier boflielt chei^per in 
the lower parts of the' oauntry» and few hmtn here have 
proper granaries for keeping a confiderahle quantity of com 
iafely after tt is tfareifaed. The cheapneft of meal and po* 
tatoea is, one main canie of the hi^ price of labour. Eieery 
article of merchant goods is here very dear, on acconnt of 
the great inhnd carriage. Though them is plenty of peats 
in the moorilh parts of the parifli, yet the villagen can get 
alnmft none Imt attiie diftance of two or three miieSy'nor 
coals nearer than D^meUington, which is upwards of 20 
miles diflai|t. The dearth of ftiel ia a great obfiade to. 
the eftabliihment of manufiiAnrea. The roads through the 
parifli are in general very bad, though, fince die cpnvediaa 
(tf tbeftatnt^labour into moneys they have been confide* 
rably improved* The principal roads through the paxiih^ 
are one leading from ]$drkcodbrigbt to Ayr andCSa^jow, 
and another which leads from Newton%warty now Nw 
Doaglas, to Edinburgh and Dumfries* by way of MiNmi* 
hive* A bridge over the Ken, between this parifli and 
Kells, would be of great advantage to the public, as the tirer 

Xif Dairy. 65 

is fomethnes impaffable even with boats.— -The inhabitants 
bf this parifh are in general a peaceable, focial, hofpitable, 
obliging, hamane and well difpofed people. Many of the 
principal farmers^ not to fpeak of heritors, befides all the 
qualities mentioned, pofiels a^meafure of information and 
politeneis, vrhich render them agreeable companions to mei^ 
of faperior rank and education. It is remarkable, that even 
the mod idle, diffipated, and worthlefs part of the inhabi- 
tants, are not defUtute of all thofe good qualities which dif- 
tingaifh the reft. Scarcely anj of them, for a long period^ 
have been convided* of capital crimes, though there are a 
few, efpecially in the village, who are faid to be addided to 
fraud, pilfering, lying, evil fpeaking, and feveral other im- 
moralities. — The number of fheep, (befides a few goats), is 
about 13,000, of black cattle about 165c, bfhorfes about 
140, of carts about 40, add of ploughs about 40.- The me- 
thod of managing fheep and black cattle in this part of the 
country, is fully defcribed by Mr Anthony M*Mil'an of 
this parifh, in the id part of his Treatife on Pafturagc, and 
Effay annexed. The fame author has publifhed alfo fisvc- 
ral Trcatifes on Law and Forms of 'Writs. 

Vot. xiii. I KUM- 

66 Statical Account 



(County aka Stno0 of Absrdksv, Prbsbtte&t ot 

gy the Rev* Mr OsoiiGZ DoHAIl>$OK, formtrif Mincer of 

Namif SiituUion^ Extent^ Soii, Surface^ and (Xmate. 

THERE is fome difference of opinion refpedbg the 
derivation of the name Kenetbmoni, Mr Gordon^ 
my predeceflbr, conceived an idea, probably firom % tomb- 
ftone, to be mentioned aftenvard, that one of the Kings 
of Scotland of the name of Kenneth had been buried on 
the mount, where the church is built \ and that from him> 
the parifh was called Kennethmount. Others, write Km^ 
nithfttont\ which, perfons ikilled in the Gaelic, derive 
from two original words, the one fignifying, ** Head,*' and 
the other *< Mois/' Nor does this derivation appear per* 

tdBBij bloABaxj^ as Ae emitieilce cNk ^ehieh tht cbureh 
ftaads is towards the foot qf the nio& *• Thb parUh is 
abovt 6 miks long from £. to W. and 3 broad from N. 
to S* It k fix miks from Huntlj, Ae nbareft poft-town» 
30 from Aberdeen, and 24 from Banffi and the bthfcr 
towns on the Mnrraj Frith, to the mouth of the Spejr. 
The pariflb knay contain abont 6500 aeres Scots, and in the 
fidowiDg proportioiis neady : 



Infield, • - 960 


- *340 

Outfield, - - 3770 



Meadow and Paftnre, 980 

Moors and Heath, 

• 1300 

The foil in general is a light loam ; and, when properly 
cultivated, produces luxuriant crops. The furface is di- 
▼erfified with hDls and eminences, fome of them plant- 
ed with trees of various forts, which in a ihort time will 
beaacify the country. Of thefe, the hill of Chrifl's kirk 
is not the lead beautiful. It is of confiderable altitude, 
and has two green tops, which have a pretty eScdl at a 
diftance. The parifh is well watered. It abound:> in 
fprings, rills, and ftreams, fufficient for meal-mills. Some 
of thefe proceed in an eailern diredion from onfe channel to« 
anothei, till they reach the Don, Which falls into the 
fea at Aberdeen ; others turn towards the weft, lofe them- 


* Kmeiliinoai hti i ptrifli In whole, or in pnct, annexed" to it« na- 
wkI Chrhr» Kirk. At whtt periud this annexsttioti took pUce, I have 
B:(beca able to dilcuver. Bui thut it ivas once a leparaie pnnlh, ad- 
BfCsof 00 doabt. For the buriaUgroand is ftill in ufe, the ruins of the 
liii remain, and the intttmbertt of Kehethdiont is in pcfMon of the 
||[^ ^t Hi^ name of GhHft*t Kirk, at a parKta, is at pretent never 
«fed,beifis appKed folety to the farni, which furroands the gUrie and bu- 
lal^gnmnd. It is iu the eaft end of the pariHi, tt the diftance of about 
4 Ca|Uili milei from the prefeot charch. 

6>% StaHJlical Account 

felves in the Bogie, which commwiicatet with the Der- 
ron, and along with it, rum into the Murray Frith mt 
Banff — Frcfoi the high fituation of Kenethmoht, it is na- 
tural to ponclude, that the air is good, and the climate 
healthy ; and experience ooQfirms the canclnfidu. In win- 
ter, the air is frequently piercing, and the finow fomctinies 
deep \ but in winter, as wdl as in fummer, the people in 
general enjoy good health, and jnany attain to oM age. 
They are not fubjeft to epidemic difeafes. The influenza^ 
which, not many years ago, prevailed over the greateft 
part of Britain, was unknown here. And equally fortu- 
nate have they been fince the above period, in efcaping 
putrid (ore throats, and dangerous fevers, which broke 
out in the neighbourhood, and proved fatal to many. Of 
uncommon longevity, I can produce no inSance. It may, 
however, be mentioned, that MefT. Garrioch and Gordon, 
my predeceiTors, both died of old age. The former offici* 
ated 10 years at Forbes, and 50 at Kenethmont; and 
the latter, 7 years at Gabrach, and 40 at Kenethmont. 
And during my incun^bency , which laded above x i years, 
there died 16 or 17 perfons above 80 years of age. 

Heritont Agriculture^ Sir.— :Thcre arp 4 heritors or 
proprietors of lanjl *, the Duke of Gordon, Colonel Hay of 
Ilannrs, Mr Grordon of Wardhoufe, and Mr Wcmyfs of 
jCraighall. The three laft generally refide, and direft 
their attention to the improvement of agriculture, rearing 
of cattl^. or pLmtations. Some of the heritors have intro- 
duced the modern improvements of agriculture, and ndfe 
excellent crops of grain and fown grafs. They have their 
fi< Ida divided into convenient enclofures, and kept in high 
cultivation. But their example has not been hitherto imi- 
tated by their tenants, who in general perfevere in the old 
method of farming. The part of the £u7n fit for cropping 


o/* Kenetbmont. ^ 

eonfiRs of infield and outfield. The former hsA its nAmo 
from being kept under condnual culture ; and ^he latter, 
from being allowed to go to ley or pafture, zfUtt- bearing- 
a certain number of crops. Of the infield, one-thiHi'is an- 
nmll J prepared for bear* and two-thirds are laid down 
with oats. The third intended for bear received a fallow- 
ing in aatnmn, and remains in thatfiate till fpring, when 
it is harrowed, manured, and gets the feed furrow. 'Af- 
ter reaping the bear, this field is und^rftooJ to be in a ftate 
of culture, capable of yielding tv^o ci'ops of oats fucdsf- 
firelj. Eadi of the other two-thirds, in its turn, under- 
goes a fimilar preparation, and is expfeded to make the 
lame returns. Of the outfield, there are two forts, a 'bet- 
ter and a worfe. One half of each is generally in ley, and 
the other under tillage. The better fort ufually remains 
in a flate of reft for 5 years, and is prepared fqr cropping, 
by watering, liming, folding, or pafturing; adding to 
this lad method, if it can be fpared, a little manure of 
any kind. With this preparation, it is judged fit for 
breaking up and bearing 4 or 5 crops of oats in fucceffion. 
Inftead of the common Scotch oats, when a field has been 
limed or watered, it is not unufual to fow it with barley 
oats, which are reckoned 10 days or a fortnight earlier. 
The worfe fort of outfield receives a ploughing early in 
fiimroer, and remains in that ftate till towards feed- time, 
when it gets a fecond ploughing, and is fown with a fmall 
black hairy oat. This is a bad unproduflive grain, not 
much ufed ; and, with proper culture, might eafily be dif- 
penfed with, and totally extirpated. By the above mode 
of cultivation, the average produce of the bear may be 
5 returns, of the common and barley oats 4, and of the 
imall black oats 3. Turnips and potatoes have, for many 
years, been cultivated by the heritors with great fuccefs, 
9Dd the tenants raife a few of each fort for family ufe only. 
X The 

70 StatyHcaJ Aeeount 

The Ul is well adtpted for iaxi bat the cvltivvdofli of Ic 
IS iU ttoderfiood, and feldom or sever attempted, except 
bf the heritors^ and that on a fmall Icale, though there are 
two Iw^aills in the neighbourhood. The Scotch plough, 
ibmewhat improved, is in pretty general ole \ and as it is 
well adapted & removing ob&nifiioi^ in ill cultivated 
£eldi, the prefereaoi in its &vottr in iuch cirnmiftances 
eannot be condemned. Manjr» howeveri of late» begin Co 
life ploughs of the Eag^ifli conftru&ioai and acknowledge 
-their fnperijri 7, ia e»|(e.aad oeatndsy in turning the fiv- 
row. The advta^gel of eans are fo i]iai\y and io weU 
underftoodi in all the operatiofis of fiMrnning, .that ibcj are 
m.univer&l nfe. The crbps mfuaUj r^ifed here he^e 
been . ated bove, and the extent of 0»e fowisg aii4 pro* 
dace majr be nearly as follows : 

Bear^ BoUs# 

300 bolls of barley, at 5 retoms, 1500 

1300 bolls of oats, at 4 returns, 5200 

Total, -! — 6700 bolls ♦^ 

* Sied'time and fisrvefl^^Tltc tint of fowing depends on tbe &«fan. 
. Oats are generally fjwn in March and April ; lintieed and potaiocs in 
the begi-i.ting of April or end of March ; bear in May, and turnips rrooi 
the I ft to the aoth of June. Harveft begink abotit the end of Augaft|or 
beginning >f ieptember, and the crop ;& for tbe moft part got in bj the 
end of O^ober. In i^Si, f^wlng did not begin till the middle of A* 
pril ; and, as the fummer was cold, and the fnow early, the grain wis 
not gathered in before ChrifVmas. The crop was remarkably deficient, 
and ■ any would have fnfTered in the oc rth of Scotland, had not the aid 
of Oovernment, atid the exertions of the opulent add humane afforded a 
Icafonable fupply to tho needy. By the iaiiure of the crop in this paiiih. 
the circum^linces of moft people were reduced, but none fuffered for 
want. In times of general calamity, it is plcafant to record a^s of (^oe« 
rofity. The heriuirs in g ntrA trere Yery indttlgetft to their teaaatii 
ted accepted tef& t an their due. One gentleman wfaofe rents, acoardiog 
to the cu(^om of (he cuuauy, were pa>able in money and meal, charged 
the defk-ieut meal, to tiie extmrof fevcral hond'-ed bolls, tt half thi 
current pridt, w!>ich was L. i the boll. Thele lenient meafures, in addf- ' ^ 
tion to the aid of Government, teo4cred the fituation of this pitifli t^ 
lerably comtortable. 

of Kenefbmmt. ft 

If we «dd to^the above, 40 acres of tntnips, to of potatoes^ 
wd 40 laid down with grafs feedd, we fhall not be far from 
thttiulh. The produce of the parilh, in oidii.aij ieaions, 
b more than fafficient for the coirfumpttOM of the, inhabi- 
tants. The overplus, if there be no demani in the neigh- 
boarii g parHhes, is carded to the Hantlj or Aberdeen 
market. The vahied rent is L. 181 7 : 13 : 4 Scots ; but a» 
the rents are all paid in monej and me 1, the real rent 
muft vary with the price of grain. It may be L.900» 
and perhaps never exceeds L. 1000 Steriing*. 

Services. — On Colonel Bfey's eftate, no fcrviccs are re- 
quired, except in hay-harveft« and thefe are of fo trifling a 
nature, as to be fcarce worth mentioning. Two or three 
of the farmers indeed, moft contiguous to the mofs cf Kirk- 
hiD, have been in the caftom of paying a few leetsf of 
peats yearly, for which they are allowed a^ certain deduc- 
tion of rent. The other heritors have not thought proper 
to difpenfe with the ufual fervices ; but as they are univer^ 
Cdly efieemed a grievance, they might, doubtlefs, be eom« 
mated to the iatisfaAion and advantage of both parties. It 
OQg^t, however, in candour and jullice to be obfervedi 
that were landlords to difpenfe with fervices and cnftoms 
of every denomination, which their good fenfe and public 


• Pri€t of Grain and ProviJtofU, ^f.— *Bear, in t^^1, fold at. 1$ >. tod 
ncsl l» f. the boll ; beef tnd mutton, 3 d. tbe pound ; a duck, lO d. ; 
a ben, 6 d. ; eggs, a d^ a dozen ; butter, from 6 d. to 8 d. tbe fiound. at 
^4 onnces ATerdapois.'-— Tbe ufual wages to meo-fenrants employed ii» 
boftandrr, are from L. 6 to L. 7 % maid fervants, from L. a to L. 3 •• 
yor; a dajF-laboarer catna iroa lod. to 1 1 ; a mafoB* from, i a. 3,cL t» 
iiw 6 d« aad a lMoi# cacpcnier, x s. and fvraiih their own provifiona; % 
bilor gams 6 d. and his maintenance ; and perfons employed in tbe mof- 
6f, koting, aw oth er farm-work in fummer, have tbe (amc aUowance. 
f Aieet of peatsisaftacki»fe«tlong, xa biotd, and high in propone 

72 Stalf/lical Account 

fpirit will in time certunlj induce them to do, this woid^ 
only extenuate not eradicate th^ eviL Every tenant has a 
certain number of cottagers, to the amount fometimes of 
6 or 8, whom he binds to relieve him, not only of part of 
his fervices to the heritor, but alfo to give him a certain 
number of days in feed-time^ mois-time, and harrefi. 
Now, fubftantial redreis of this grievance will not be ea- 
illy obtained, unleis heritors were to difallow cottagers 
altogether, which would depopulate their lands ; or, which 
would be better policy, to break their farms and put tlie 
cottagers in the envied date of fmall but independent te* 
nants. This latter kind of fervitude, though lels attended 
to, is as eztenfive, and more feverely felt than the for- 
mer. The proprietor, unle& his eftate be very fmalli re- 
quires only a part, never the full extent of the fervices due 
by the tenant, whereas the tenant feldom difpenfes with 
the fmalleft fervice for which the cottager is bound. 

iU^zirtf/a^ffrf/.—- Though no manufadure has hitherto 
been eftabli(hed| a number of families of all ages are em- 
ployed by the Huntly and Aberdeen manufafturers to 
knit woollen (lockings, and fpin flax. The knitters, on 
an average, work 6o dozen, at las. the doaen, every 
month \ while the fpbfters, who are but few in number, 
earn only about L. 4 or L. 5 monthly. The annual in- 
come from both branches may be fairly eflimated at 
L. 500. 

Roads. — ^The roads in the pariflfi were made and are kept in 
repair by the ftatute labour. For want of gravel, they are 
frequently deep, but never impaflable. The military road 
through the Cairn- o'-Mount, leading by Huntly to Fort 
George paiTes through iu weftern extremity i and, as if 


of J^enetbmnt. 73 

fcemsfor many years to have been negleSed by Govern- 
xnent^ is kept in the fame f&te of repair as the* ot)ier roads. 

Stipend^ School^ Poor^ 6fe— The church is old and h^' 
1>ecn frequeptly repaired. The ftipend'is L 38 : 17 : ^4|^ 
ixidadipgL. 5 : 11 : i^^ for com'munioxi-eleaients, and 41 
WHs of oat meal asd 7 of bear* Th^ globes are at prefent 
disjoined^ and the extent of both is Smki 8 to 9 acres of 
good land. A plan for a new manie and offices, with a 
contiguous glebe, has received the approbation of the pre* 
Ibytery, and is to be executed the enfuing fummer. Colo* 
nel Hay cf Ruilies is patwaink-*-Ab<int 15 or 16 years ago, 
the heritors built a convenient fchool-houfe in a healthy fi- 
toation. The fchoolmafter's falary is L. 5 : 1 1 : i|, aitd 
his other perquifites are L. i : 16 : 8 for officiating as pre- 
centor and feffion-clerk ; e s. i^ d. for publiihing a' pa^pofe 
of marriage ;'6;f'd. for regUtering a baptifm, and 3 d. for 
1 certificate ; to which add the fchooI-feesf<t>r' teaching Eng^ 
M&Xf I s. 6 d. y arithmetic, % s. ; and Latin^ t s. 6 d. quarter- 
ly, and his income may be from L. 19 to L, 15, — The 
poor fnbfift by begging* and upon occafiodklfuppUes from 
the parochial fund. Thk fund amounts- to^L. 40- nearly, 
which has been faved wlt£in 50 years from the weekly 
colleflions, tbt ub of a pall or- n^iort^loLh, and,]i(ell belong- 
ing to the ieffion,«and fimes frojfi delinquents* Xhe collec- 
tions ^nd other conting/^^ies* gon^rjilly ainbapt; from L. 8 
to L. 10 yearly« This fum,; after paying L. i : 16 : 8 to 
the feiHon-cUrk, and i-^s* 0.d. to the phurch-officer, is di- 
faibiLlcd qoaiterly. by the fei&on among the perfons on the 
poors roll, who fioQC 178^ l\?v« b^en from 1 2. to i8. 

PopukUion. — According to Dr Webfter's report, the po- 
pulation at that period was 791. About 50 years ago, Mr 
Vat. XIII. K Gordon, 

74 Staiiftical Account 

XSordon, in t proceis of angmentfttioa of ftipcndi fitted Am 
nnmber of inhabitaiits nt itoa If Mr Gordon did not 
take a round namber inftead of the real, the population is 
eonfiderablj diminiflied fi&ce the above period, ai will a^ 
pear by the following abftrafi; 

In Febnury I7t3, the popal«tioB iaelodi^K duidren, wii» 830 
I784f • • * %i9 

>7<5» I • . fx^ 

i;86, • • • 150 

«787, - - • , 124 

17W. - - - 755 

1789, '• - . - 755 

17901 - - - •©» 

1791, there weie 360 nudci uA 44* feael«b 

i&aU» • • f Urn 

Aadbxioote (torn. 
the Rer.Dr M^nty. 
^ pieihnt iDcam* 

heat, iajane 17ft, - • . fy> 

Mkles. Femalo. TotaU 

Uoderioyeereefefe^ 88 103 ipt 

Between to & ao, 60 74 IJ4 

' 20 8e 50, X2X xt5 306 

— 50 * 70, «4 9» »54 

70 Ic 8o» M s8 4a 

. ■ ■ " tokso, 3 • S 

3* 47» 83a 

Awtngt nvmber for the iboTe xo yctri, tot. 

The fcarcitj in 1781 induced tne to take down the 
numbers in the £fierent families with accuracy $ but I did 
not think of noting the deaths till February X785. The 
following abfiraft is taken from the regifter of baptilms^ 
and m J own note of the deaths, till the time of mj tranC- 
lation from th^ parifli in Ofiober lygn i 


tif Kenethmont, 


Males. Fem. TotaL 

In «783» 7 

1784, 10 

1785, 13 

1786, 8 

1787, 7 

1788, 9 

«789. 5 

1790. «3 

«79it 5 








17 Deaths. 

aa z8 

ao 17 

13 18 

«S «« 

xa 17 

30 16 

X3 xo to the end of OAobcr. 


Total, 77 74 X5« 
Avenge, X7 
That the number of females fo much furpafles that of the 
males, is owing to the mofles. Many widows and old 
maids take honfts in their vicinitjr, <£m: the coovenience of 

Nomber of fimilies, 


Tailoci, - . j 

Ditto oCx indiTidoil 

Hoofie carpenteis, 4 

each, - 


WeaTers, - 4 



Wheel and ploagh- 

• — — 3. 


Wrights, - 4 


Shoemakeis^ - 3 

Bftchelon who have fi»- 

MiUers, - 3 



Gardenen, • 4 


Dyer, . x 

Widows ditto, 


Midwives, • 9 

Uunarried women ditto, 36 

Male domeftic fiervanis, 4 

Ucr 0^ nutn, • 

Femak dittos • %\ 

Soideiits in divinity, 

Wheel carnagcSf x 

Carts, - x6o 


Ploughs, • <o 

Mafaoi, . 

Dfaaght borfieSt - Mi 



j6 Statiftical jicuaint 

Saddle and carriage CatUct . 808 

horfesy *- 8 Skeep, laoo^ 

Minerals and Mineral £prings^ — On the Un^s of Lf itb- 
ball, there is a marble quarry.^ on tbofe of CxaigbalL free- 
ftone, and in^l and luBeftone on Cukf \ but the «B»ot of 
fiock or of induftry has hitherto pre>nented the tenants firooi 
availing themfelves of ihis la^ fource of opulence. Tjiere 
are two mineral fprings on Colonel Hay's €(late, one of 
them on a farm named flarlsfield, is of late fa^en into difre* 
{^xte. Tbe ot^ior in the mols of the Melfhachi of the cha- 
lybeate kind, is ftill in ^reat ^tfiputation amopg the com* 
mon people f. 

Ftfa/.-^Tbe fud in general life \» peats ( but «s the siof^ 
les are weaniag out, fome .of the heritocs curry coaU £rom 
Aberdeen to £i¥e tbcm, and Jto biive tbeir ]iriiiQi|l»l apt^nc* 
raents more comfortably warmed in winter. In former e- 
ges, the mois of KirkhtU faa^ bcea covered with v^poA \ for 
£0 late as ^o years ago» Irees in dbundAOce welTf fcimd 
by digging a few feoc below the furface. And, amimg o* 
ther kindft, meittion is te^iz of an oak about 40 feet long» 
^nd thick in proportion. Fir, junipert hazel, aldec^ oak^ 
were all blended together in this ipot. 

* Horfes feU from L.3 to L. 15; oxep tnd cows, from L. 3 to L.8; 
wedders tnd cwet and Umbs, froaa 4 $• to 8 1. The only r.A'ine nifc4 
for fale, are a few abobt the milU. which bring from L. t tp L. 3.' 

t They life it "both internally and Mtemally in the fnmmer feafon, 
particularly In the month of May. Its (anative qualities are not confined 
to man, they are fuppofcd to extend even to bnit^ ^ thii fprtpg pro- 
bably cbtaine<( vogue at firft in ^ys i^f ignorance and fuperftition, it 
would appear that it became cuftopitrY to leave tt the well part of the 
clothes of the ficic and difeafcd, and harnefs of the cattle, as an offering 
of gratitude fo the divinity who beftowed healing virtuet on its wmbm. 
And now, even though the fupttftitioiis principle n6 longer e^ift|| tlf|p 
^nftoiiied offerings are ftill prefcnted. 

A^f « f>> y »T^ T ^iegejfl \ bavrgw^ orcsim q£ ftoAes» jvhich 
itts never been openedy 00 Old 4GidaQderllQU, % farm bot 
iMgpng ^o VLx Gofd«» & 41 |>roi4if«j t^nipk oa Arilair^ 41 
£hdbi ctf ColosMJ H^y'fi* aaothor k& cooiidetje on Cults, .ao4 
vm^ or three fldiie^ ia n katiii^ pofitioa 00 the lands <if 
Gtiftghtitlj £ttd iUr be xeoQr4led io t)ic {UPelbytery books of 
A tf opd. IGhe only other article is the iloae allil^ed to a* 
howcy oommoitl^ l»Bed Ke«aeth> grave-ftone. The 4xadi« 
tioo of the ji^rifli jU, that tbis flonei which m ihape refem- 
Ues a cefin, was iMioyed -fiBOcn «he <:hii|Lrch-7ard;gate, (the 
gave of one of the Keimeths), into the churqhi where it 
mow lies, by a finnilyiof 4dbe aasKe of Cordon *• 

Fmri^ — ^Xhe proprietor of Raanee bas ^a tkle to two aa« 
Dual ^ira, ooe at Kirkhill 10 CXEMior for catde, tinBdier, 
and merchant goods, and the other at Chrift*s ^ir]^ ia the 
month of Maj. This fair was kept on the Green, and ia 
the Bight ; henoe it t^as by the people called Sleepj-mar* 
ket. Ahaox 35 or 3.6 years ago, t^ proprietor changed it 
&oin mght, to day \ but fo ftrong was the prepofleffion of 
tke people in &¥oiir of <be old Giuftom, that rather than 
cooi^y widi the alteration, tiiey chofe to negled it alto* 


* Its dimcnfions are, length 6 feet % inches; breadth at the head, a 2 
Whes, and depth 15 inches. There is a Hiield on it, on one quarter of 
vhich a boar's head is Tifible. Under th^fhield are the ivitidAHM. in- 
)>i^ capitals ; and under them a mort-head, fand-glafs, bones, and cof- 
fin. Then there is a crofs with I. H. S. ; and below all, the date 1685. 

\ The name of this place naturally enoaglk brrngs to recotte^lon, the 
ctltbrated ballad of Ch rift's Kirk on the Oeeen, commonly tfcribed to 
J»ocs L Ring of Scotland. The fcene of it never has been aicenained 
«^tk any degree of precifion. Ghrifl^s Kiric, in nSy apprehenflon, has no 
^Q claim to that honour. It is well known, (hat James Wfited the «aft 
&^^l parts of his kingdom, to hear comphiiifts and redreft ^fievaa« 
c:i. And it is not tmpotBbIc, oor even vei^ improvable, that, ifa Mi - 


78 Siaif/Hcal Account 

CharaBiT ofihi Piopb^ Slc>— They «fe temp e i - at ey indo- 
llrioaSy and firngftl» modente in their princiidflSf and regu- 
lar in their attendance on public worOiip and the other or- 
dinances of rdtgion. Thej are all of the Eftablalhed 
Church, except 5 or 6 who occafionallj attend Eptfeopol 
meetings. The dreft of both fezes is confiderably impro- 
ved of late» efpedallj among the young. In all places t^ 
public refort they appear in their beft Clothes, with a chcar- 
ful countenance and contented mind. Their honfies in ge* 
neral are bad, and have not that appearance of cleanlineis 
and neatneb which is always commendable. But aa the 
heritors are difpofed to give every reafonable encourage* 
ment to the fober and induQrious^ we may foon hope to 
fee a fpirit of improvement prevailing in their houies £« 
milar to that which they have already begun to ihow in 
their dre&. 

Adwuitages and DiJadvantages.'-'^Tht only diIadvaota« 
ges are ihort leafes, lervices, and the diftance firom manure 
and from market. Mod of thefie are capable of redrefi* ' 
It has already been mentioned, that one gentleman, who is 
proprietor of more than half of the pariih, has difpenied 
with the ufual fervicas ; and it may be added, that he is 
difpofed to grant long leafes on equal terms, with every o- 
ther encouragement that has a tendency to make his te- 
nants profper. If the other heritors were to convert their 
fervices and cufloms, they would promote their own bte- 


progfeft, he mtj have lecn or heari of Chriil's Kirk. Now, whit place 
more likely to ftrike the fanqr of this Mooarth, than one diftingniflied by 
lb fingnlar a cuflom. The circomftance of the market at midnight, may 
be fappoM to lall In with hit hnmaiir, and gite birth to fuch fcenei as 
be haa defcribed. £Ten the name of this performance is defcriptive of 
the place ; for the Green ftiU encircles themtns of the Kirk^ and it is be« 
ides the only one in Scotland that I am acqwunted with, to which the 
i tf the ballad if applicable^ 

^f Kenctbmont. 79 

rAs and confer a fignal fiiyoar 00 their tenants. In good 

Y&^j tfaefe ought to be aboltibcd, and hmg leafes givea, 

«ith fufficimt encouragement to open up and employ fuch 

HoQites of manure as the pariik affords. In the mean time» 

theindnfirioos tenant may betake himlelf to other refoor- 

«. Several of the fsums have the command of water. 

Lime maj be had at Hnntlyy bat whether in fafficienc 

qoandty for the porpofes of agricultare^ is doubtful. At 

tbelimekilna, howeveri it maj be purchafed in any quan- 

titj, and at a cheaper rate, but at a greater diflance. The 

kemon have been long in the cuftom of ufing it on thofe 

Uds which were to be laid down with grafs-feeds, and 

ktu ever found it beneficial. But the tenants in general 

oever 'nfe lime nor fow grais-feeds.— Their fuel, as the 

aoflei are near, is eafily procured \ and, comparatively 

fpeakbg, with little trouble .and expenfe. In fummer 

there are many annual fairs at a convenient diftance for 

ieUing their cattle and flieep. Huntly affords a good week* 

Ij market for cheefe, butter, bee^ mutton, fowls, and moft 

ocher articles which the farmer can fpare. Bear finds 

Ra^j vent at the numerous ftills in the neighbourhood. 

And when the demand for meal ceafes at Huntly, it may 

k carried to Aberdeen, where there is a ready market 

>&& good prices. The diAance is much greater, but the 

pnce generally compeniiates it. The accommodation is 

pod, and the road, fince the bridge was built over the 

^ at Inverary, perfe&ly fafe. Befides Aberdeen has 

diis adrantage over Huntly, that all thofe things which are 

(itber oonvenient or ufeful to the farmer, may be bought 

m it oa the beft terms, and in any quantity ; and therefore 

liis finaU fiock of neceflaraes is generaUy purchafed there K 


* noagli Oe tenanti lear a confiderablt nvmber of cattle* thej fel- 
^ tte a£ (Ming «Bj/ Whhoot green crops, feeding cannot be ad- 


8b Sttttiflhal Account 

tt ma J, in the oplnrcm of fome, be no fmaB- recommenda 
tion of the parifli to farniih objefis of amofiniient, as we] 
as of profit. By rtpttiting to the Bogie, which sbonnd 
with trout, the angler may find entertainment at Icrfijn 
hours; and the Qk>rt£nian, wfaodefights in more a6tive di 
Verfipn, can traverfe hills and dales with his dog and hi: 
gun in fearch of hares, plovers, dncks; raib, groufe, par 
tridg^s, fhipes, &c. in their fieafon. 

Tttittscouf, ii«r will tf^'oiUivttioii «f greai oro^ in all protebility, 
bMomB gtnonl, till winter httding be •io|F9duce4. The cauk m^ 
ibccp are of a fmall hretd* and, whci^ properlj fffd» bring ^ood prion ; 
hecanft they are reckoned fweet and well-flavoured. The farm of Leith- 
ball, where Colonel Hay refides, is fnperior to moff. It bat a ibutherly 
ezpoTare, fertile foil, and' h well (beltercd. It b eqitalljr adapted fta 
naring. cattle, and producing gran. The piant>t|0nf aldrd (batoer io 
i0intv, and the ibiohem expofure raifts- early gnfs in fprbg ; and in 
fununf r the richnefs of its pafture can hardly be exceeded. 


' tfkintdt^. 8i 


Parish or kiKTORE, 

(CoOntt akd StNbD OF Aberdeen, Presbytery or 
Gar IOC H.) 

By ibe Rev. Mr George Adams. 

Name, Boroiigb, Extent, Surface, Sot/, Uc* 

^HE vrord Kiniore is certsdoly Gaelic. I am not ac- 
quainted with that language, but am informed, that it 
%iifies *' the head of the wood/' and it is certain, that in the 
tulieft times, there was a royal foreft in this neighbour- 
tiood« The hunting feat, i^hich was inhabited fo late as the 
hft oenturj, being the firft feat of the family of Kititore, 
KH calkd Hall-foreft, remains in ruins indeed, but a ruin, 
that Jhows it once to have been a fortified and ftrong place. 
The foreft is iaid to have extended from the weft part of the 
ptfiih of Kintore, eaftward to the church of Dyce, j or 6 
£ii^fli miles. Dyce was in the earlieft times, called the 
" Caiapel of St Fergus, near Mo6 Feetach." There is ^ 
Vol XIII. L frrm 

82 Statifiieal Account 

faxm in the pariih of Kinellar, in that Iine» called GlaT 
gow fbreft, and the forefter is faid to have had his dwelling 
at a place called TiUiriach, in the pariih of D jce. Xhia 
place had very early been made a Royal borough. Its be- 
ing Royal lands, accounts for this. It is faid to have been 
made by one of the Kenneths, and prior to that of A.* 
berdeen : If it was fo, and Aberdeen^ (as is faid), was 
made a borough by Gregory, Kintore muft hove had its 
privileges from Kenneth Maccalpin. There are fcveral 
traditions among the people as to its antiquity ; for ezana* 
pie, that feveral privileges, which it once had, were tranf* 
ferred to Aberdeen ; and th^re is a caufeway at the eaft 
end of the freedom of Kintore, near Kinellar, on the 
way to Aberdeen, ftiU called the IVine Cauftway \ to 
which it is faid, in old times people came from the harbonr 
to paycuftom •• Till lately, there were few houfes better 
than country houfes, none but the manfe and a houfe built 
for Lord Kintore *s fa&or, the church, and a very neat town- 
houfe and prifon, built about 50 years ago. Two good 
houfes, one of them elegant, were built laft year. The pri- 
fon is feldom ufed, owing to the good morab and peace* 


* It is not to be expelled, that charters nearly of that a^e (hoold be 
found ; and it is fiid, that die charters and papers relating to this bnigh* 
which reached the laft centaiy, wm ^ftro) * Provoft Fialer, only 
one having efcaped his hands, which is a cbuter of coniirmaiton of this 
burgh, by James the V. (till extant. The town-conncil, who eleds the 
delegate for choofing their reprefentative in parliament, confifts df 1 3 
members, among whom is a provoft, 1 bailies, a dean of^Ud, nda trca- 
fiucr. The Earls of Kintoro, and the late Ea^l Mariichall, while he held 
^c eftate of Kintore* have been prorofts for about a century paft. The fetof 
the burgh, does not oblige them to change a councillur nor an officchesrer. 
The bounds of the freedom of the burgh, are pretty large, particularly to tfcc 
eail, the freedom extends to near the dmrcfa of Kinellar, dwve % in^* 
UQi miles. The revenneis faid to hvm been once oonfid^Brtbic, tat is 
now. much diminilhed. 

of Kintore. 83 

Hat dilpofition of the |»eople. Id what is properly the 

roiniy without counting the reft of the fi-eedom, there arc 

57 dwdling boufesy ibme of them poflefled bj fingle per* 

kta ; and it contains 228 fouls ; 94 males, and 134 fe« 

aaks ; and there are 54 horCes, 168 black cattle, and 300 

ikep. A, coofiderable part of the old parilh, is withib the 

Swdom of the burgh, till yon go about a mile fouthward *• 

licoatains, mrith^the new pariih, abore 7000 acres, (without 

ciwating a large common, between Ktntore and Kindlar)^ 

moft of It has been meafured. It is bounded on the N. and 

N. £. bj the river Don, and on the £. partly bj the fame 

nver. Its extent is near 6 Engliih miles from N. to S» 

3from £. W. The grounds about the town of Kintorci 

which has had on the one fide, the head of the foreft, and 

on the other, lies along the haughs of the Don, are flat ; the 

rijing is gradual to the W. and S. W. to the N. and to the 

Lthe rtfiog is more fudden to hills ; but the S. part of the 

pariih, till you come to a ridge that bounds the parith, is 

m ^eral marfliy. Yet the marflies empty themfelves in« 

to2 ftream that runs paft Kintore, which fliows them to be 

coQ&derably above the level of Kintore. The other ftreams 

gcoenlly run from the weft into the Don. The haugh here 

abroad, and following the windings of the Don, near 3 

»3cs long ; it is very deep in foil, and is enriched by the 

overflowings of the river, and needs no manure, for the ri- 


* la theyeax 1754, or 1755, that part of the parifli of Rinkell, which 
^ta to the weft of the Don, vu, the Unds of Creechy and Thainftown, 
««Rby decreet, annexed to Kintore, and the other part to Mount-kiggie, 
■•• nlled the pariOi of Kinkell, or Keithhall, and in 1 760 the annexation 
^ pUce, hy the death of the incamhent at Kinkell. This pariih 
J^^ged formerly to the Preibyteiy of Aberdeen, but by an a£t of Synod 
^ 1732, was for a time annexed tt> Oarioeht and ha» continlMd in that 

84 StattJHcal Jccauni 

Irer nms fo flow, that it has more the appearance of a kdce 
than a torrent. In a flood, the river 15 fometimes more 
than a mile broad. I'hough thefe floods enrich the ibtl, 
thej often mud the grals and hart the crop ; and if thej hap* 
pen after xhe ear is formed, and before it comes out, they 
totally deftroy it. The great flood that was on the xyth 
of September 1 768, carried away the. moft of the crop, it 
being all cut down, and but little of it led off from the 
haugh. The town is alfo in apparent danger of the river 
breaking in upon it, efpeciaUy when ihoals of ice come down, 
which cut the deep banks. Yet the many turnings and 
windings of the river, both make a pleaiant profpeft, and 
moifien and enrich that large traft of haugh. llie hill of 
Creechy and Thainftown, on the N. W. is the higheft 
ground in the parifli, more than 100 £eet above the bed of 
the river at the top ; firoai that there runs foothward be- 
tween Kbtore and Kemnay, a ridge of hills, little lower ^ 
and at the fouth extremity of the pariih, almoft at right 
angles, a ridge turns eaft ward, and terminates at a place called 
Wardhoufe. Near the river, the foil is a rich loam, but 
mixed with fand, and gradually in going from the river 
weftward, it becomes of worfe quality. More than half of 
the parifli is covered with a fiout dry heath, and in the 
places at a fmall diftance from the town, the arable fields y 
are furrounded by heath, not fix inches long. The naarfhyr 
farms, have their foil in many places black, partaking of 
the nature of the adjacent peat-mo(s. 

Rivers and Mills* — ^The Don is the only river which 
touches this pariih ; it bounds the pariih on the N. W. 
N. N. E. and partly on the E. It produces falmon, which 
are caught both by the net and rod, and are fold from 4 d. 
the ^und in the fpring, to ad. in fummer. It produces 


. of Kintore. 85 

&lfo trout, eel, pike, and fometiznes a kind of flounder, but 

thefe are fekiom fold. A ftream rifes in the maribj parts 

of the pariih, and enlarges fo as to have three water-mills in 

its courfe ; for the firil and longeft part of its courfe, it is 

called the Sherrif-burn \ but when it goes on, it is called the 

Cooning-bom, from a burrow of conies that was kept here ; 

and near Kintore, where it falls into the Don, the bum of 

Tuack. There b another mill upon the Don. The moft 

part of the pariih is thirled to a mill ; none now except the 

£mall heritors of Kintore pay multure. Thej pay for fer«> 

vice, called knavejbip^ the 33d peck. 

Population. — By the return made to Dr Webfler, die 
nnmber of fouls then, was 830* — No proper account can be 
given of this fubjeft for any time paft, though the people 
formerly were certainly more numerous than at prefent. 
The old pari(h, before the annexation, was faid to contain 
between 700 and 800 fouls ; and about 200 were added by 
the annexed part of the pariih of Kinkell. It contains 
at prefent, including the town, 862 fouls, whereof 392 are ^ 
males, and 470 females. The knitting of ftockings, partly 
accounts for the proportion of females, though that manu- 
fadure is much on the decline, and the price reduced, Cnce 
loom frames have been fo much improved ; and many of 
fte males learn trades, and go to other places, there being 
no tradefman or manufafturer here of any kind, but what 
are necelTary for the work in the pariih. Baptifms in 1792, 
were 13, 8 males and 5 females. Average of births 
for 5 years paft 16, ditto of marriages 6, ditto of deaths, 
or rather burials 14. The air b healthy, and the people 
not much liable to confumptions, fevers, or epidemical 
diftempers. ^ Many of the inhabitants live till between 80 
and 93. One farmer lately held his plough, till feveral 
yean above 80. 


i6 StaH/Hcat Account 

' Uvf'Jfock^ Cu/tivati&nf ^r.— There ar^ at prefest in the 
pariiii (ezclufive of the to^n) io6 horfes, 800 blade cat* 
tie, and near 2500 flieep. One verj inteUigeot &r- 
mer has, fer more than 20 years* given an excellent exam- 
ple of improTiftf( his land, by bringing in barren patches^ 
ditchingv draining, liming, raifing turnip^ fowing gralst 
fee. and his neighbours, who were not much difpofed to 
fellow the earlieft improvers in the pariih of Kinellar, that 
had other means of living than by their farms, are now be- 
ginning to fee the benefit of following his example. A. 
better kind of plough is introduced, and carts, which 40 
years ago were unknown, are now generally ufed inflead of 
creels and packets and curracks, as they were called, which 
£d little work, with more oppreflion to man and horfe. 
There is another farmer in the pariih that occupies a farm, 
(on which 10 oxen and a proportional number of horfes 
were formerly ufed)r, without any family or fervicc, but 
himfelf and a houfekeeper. He alone manages a [dough 
with four horfes and two cattle, on a farm abounding with 
rocks and great (tones, carries a fpade in his plough, and 
inakes work that is far from bad ; and he thre flies, dries, 
and manages his grain himfelf. There is no manure in the 
pariih but dung and a mixture of foils, to which they now 
add lime frdm Aberdeen. * The chief produdions are oats, 
barley, pcafe, potatoes, and lately turnip is raifed in confi- 
derable quantities : The advantage of turnip for cleaning 
and improving the ground, and alio for rearing and fatten- 
ing cattle, b now generally known. A confiderable quan- 
tity of oat-meal and barley, above what* the pariih needs, 
is fold every year in Aberdeen, and a great part of the 
rent of the parifli b paid in thefe two articles. There is 
reared and fold every year from this pari(fa, anddriven 
fouth, a number of black cattle ; but this part of the coun* 
try has never been able to raife a fufficient fuppljr of good 
horfes. The price of every thing here, is much the fame 


ofKifUon* S(f 

as at Aberdeeot froopi which tbe zith mile-ftoae is in the 
town of Kintore«-i— The eftate of Kiotore, till the prefeot 
Earl fucceededy had beea in general long out of leafe, and 
coofeqaently little would be done to the houfes ; but fince* 
in r782, he gave new leafes, farmhoufes have been much 
improved ; for this he gives encouragement ; but a num* 
her of fiibtenants or cottagers have been removed, from an 
apprehenfion of the molTes wearing out. The old parifh is 
better provided in fuel than the new part, which has no 
mols at all ; the moiTes in general in this country are faft 
wearing out *• 

« Seed-time mti ffarvefi.-^OotB are fown from the beginnicg of March 
till the middle of April ; near the river, where the (oil is. warm, they maf 
be a fortnight later in fowing than others, and will reap % fortnight fixnw 
er. Barley is fowa from the middle of April to the middle or cod of 
May ; but the earlier in that time the better, as often frofts aod mildews 
b harreil blaft the bear, and prevent tt^ filling. Harveft is genezaUy 
from die beginning of Auguft to the middle of O^ber. Turnip gene- 
rally is Ibwn about the longeft day. In Ibme bad feafons, the harveft is 
better. The pariih has fufTered much from thefe : in 1732, harveft was 
sot done in November, and in I7t^3> the bad feed made a very fcanty crop ; 
bnt in T790, had there not been plenty in fome of the neighbouring 
pariflies, this parilh wonld have fuffered much more by a thunder fiona 
that happened npon the 30th of July, accompanied with ince6Suit ihpwera 
of oncommooly large hailftones pointed, and many of them meafuring % 
iaches round. They fell in foch quantities as to cover the ground in « 
great part of this parifh» (or -more than 14 houn, and it was more than Z 
days before they were all diflblved. The hail covered a tnA of country^ 
b eiwe cu f and to miles, from weft to eaft, and 4 in breadth, beginning in 
the paiifhes of Midmar «id Clunie, on the weft, coming over fome pait 
of Monymoft the mofsof Kenmay, and of this parifh, andfpending itfeif 
in Fintniy. The greateft cloud divided in two, when it had paflcd ovtr 
this parifh, and eome to the moor between this and Kinellar ; the largeft 
dirifioo turned down the Don to Fintmy, and a fmaller tucaed t^a the 
pariih of Kinellar. It did little damage in that parUht except where the 
Urge brandi came over their haughs. This hail, with the Craft that n»> 
toxaily followed, totally deftroyed the badcy, and moft of the potatoci^ 
and very mnch damaged die oau tod die tnmlp. The harveft of 278^ 
wtt very bad, and the laft and greateft ft H>d, the 8th and ^ of Hoveia* 
bcr» canied off a remainder of the crop from our hangha. 


88 Statijikal Acdount 

Patron, Heritors^ Stipend^ School^ Poor, tf r. — ^Thc Earf 
of Kintore is patron, and alfo chief heritor of the pa- 
rifli. He has no refidence in it. The onlj other 
heritor without the burgh is Duncan Forbes Mitchell^ 
Efq; of Thainftone, who has a refidence in it. That 
eftate is faid to have belonged fome time to the Thanes 
of the county ; but while the Forbefles poflefled it be- 
fore the Mitchells, it was called Cammieftane, which is 

3 ftiB 

Pricf ef Lalettr, — ^Thc waf^es of common niechanicks, who only work 
for the neighbourhood, is much the ftme as in other pariflies already pu- 
bliflied. Day labourers get 6d. in fummer, and 4d. in winter, befides 
▼idluals : it is not many years fince 6 d. and even 5 d. a>day without vic- 
tuals, were their wages. The wages of fann-fervanu have increafed rapid- 
ly for ibme years paft. A fenrant, who two years ago would have a(ked 
little more than L. s a year, for the moft laborious part of a &rraer*s 
work, nowa(ks from L. 8 to L. fo. This it is known, proceeds partly from 
the great demand for fenrants, to maaufadlurers and to undertaker^ for 
different branches of work / but it is chiefly owing to the humour that for 
fome time pad has prevailed among landed gentlemen, for turning out cot- 
tagers. It is acknowledged, that country cottagers are the feed of fer> 
vants, and their fituation more favourable for health, induftry, and good 
morals, than a fituation in the vicinity of a great town ; and where a 
•country is much depopulated of them, the deamefs and fcarcenefs of la- 
bourers to work, moft be felt firit indeed by the farmers, but muft foon be 
felt by the landed gentlemen themfelves, in hindering the increaie of their 
rents, and even bringing them down, and impeding the improvement o^ 
their land. Indeed the prefent wages, and maintenance of fenrants, are 
much more than the rent of many of our fanners. This makes it the more 
neceflary to take off" the mod impolitic duty upon the coal ; taking that 
off, would foon increafe the revenue, by increafing the number of people 
who pay taxes, for it would encourage gentlemen to have their eftatee 
better peopled again ; and it would render the work about peats moilly 
unneceflary, which is at prefent the whole fummer-work of moft fanners, 
and it would enable them to employ their labour and horieSy more ufe- 
liiUy, in improving their farms ; and I would not wonder, if purchafing 
coal were in the power of crofters, to hear foon of heritors, in their leafes 
t>bltging their tenants to keep fo many famiUcs of cottagers. 

of KifUore. 89 

ffiU the name of a bxm upon the e&ate. There are befides 
thefe 16 heritors of borough lands *. — The Aipend is nearlj 
10 chaldcrs of viftaal, and nearly a third of the vi&oal is 
bear, and L. I !» 13 s. in money, and about 9 acresof a glebe. 
The manfe was built in 1784, and the church confiderably 
reimircd foon after the annexation took place, and new 
kfts put in for the additional number in the pariih. 
There was bequeathed by one James Davidfon, a native 
of Kintore, a fum for an annual fermon at this church ; but 
bj his filler liferenting the money, the appointment has 
not yet taken place. The fchoolmafier has L. 7 ialary, 
and, at an average, 30 fcholars in winter, and 20 in fuoi- 
mer. The feffion-clerk fee, with the perquifites, may be a- 
botttL. 3, 12 & The fchool-dues the fame as in neighbour- 
ing parilbes. The prefent fchoolmafter is alfo Poftmafter* 
—There are about 20 perfons on the poors roll, who are 
Capported by the weekly colle£lions, (amounting, at an 
average, to about L. 14 annually), the pall dues, penalties, 
tent of pews in the church, and the intereft of near L. 200 
aortified money* 

ffigbvmys and Bridgei.-^^Two highways from Aberdeen 
pib through the pariih ; they feparate at the entry to this 
fuiih, from Kinellar, near the 9th mile-done. One of them 
mnsfiratght weft through this pari(h, and paft the 12th 
niilc.ftone into Kemnay, and proceeds up Don fide. The 
odier turns N. W. through Kintore, Inverury, &c. to In- 
rernefs. The 14th mile-ftone is near the bridge oi Inverury. 

Vol. XIII. M On 

* The forefathers of one of them, of the name of HiU, have poflefled 
between 6 or 8 acres from tim» immemorial, and they pretend to have a 
charter from Robert Bruce. Another of the name of AntVib poiTefles a 
piece of groond, which is faid to have been f^iven to one of his forcfii- 
thert bf King James V. for entcrtainiag him whea pcffing thioug h thif 
place ta diigaif^ 

90 Statijlical Account 

On this road, over the Don, aboat three jears ago, was buUt 
A rerj elegant bridge of three arches, the middle arch 65 feet 
^ide, and the o(ber two 55 feet each. There are alfo br'id* 
ges over all the brooks on the high wajs. The roads are bet* 
ter in this parifli than in many pariihes around, as we have 
much (and and gravel for making them ; and on the ground 
between Kintore and Inverury, the foil being fandy, the 
road needs no making at all. The roads are made bj the 
ftatttte-labour, or commuted at x s. 6 d* for the fix dajs ^. 

Fore/h. — There have not been for fome centuries, any 
remains of the old forefts, only large trunks of black oak 
have been often found in the river and kaugh ; the mofles 
abound with fir, and oak roots very large are found in the 
neighbourhood. A large plantation of fir and other wood 
planted near the cafile of Hall Forefi, in the memory of mn- 
ny perfons yet alive, is now all cut down and the ground 
planted again \ the fir wood of it was reckoned the befl of 
our low country wood, and the prefent Earl of Kintore, 
fmce he came to the eflate and honours in 1778, has plant- ' 
ed a large foreft of feveral hundred acres, and there are two 
confiderable plantations of Scotch fir, well grown, on the 


• Kama cf P/aees. — Tic old names of places are gep^rally Gaelic, 
iiich as Creechic, Tillibin, Drumoalieatb, Blairs, Anquhiten, Dalwearic, 
and probably Tavelty, the old toad to Aberdeen, called the RufliUch, 
part of the prcftnt rbad called the Skair, the fordr of Tillikae and Pit- 
ctirn, with many names of Sclds. Oii the extremity and'top of an hill 
bordering with Skene, is Wardhomfe, an Englilh name, which, though it 
has no veflig^ of a camp, nor of an houfe better than ordinar}-, hat pro. 
bably had a watch and guard kept on it in perilous times ; for this, the 
fituatlon dcfcribcd before, renders it very proper, cfpecially, as it ftands' 
po ground nearly as high as any in the parilh, and has an exteniive pro- 
fpe^ both to north and fduth, and many hills at a dtftance are feen 
froin it, cveti the Gpua|liBii htlb, imd to the north, much of the Oariod>* 

hill of Thadnftown and Creechy, one belonging to Mr Mit- 
chell of Thainftown, and the other to Lord Kin tore. 

.Antiqtttiies and VCrflditions. — I (hall for the fake of pre- 
ferration give all the traditions that 1 have learned, howv- 
ever unimportant fome of them may appear. I have alrea- 
dy medtioned the Foreft, and the Caftle of Hall Foreft, 
which has been very ancient. A part of this foreft with ^ 
the caftle, was given by King Robert Bruce to Robert de 
Keith, Great Marifchal of Scotland, after the battle of 
Banoockhnm, and it remains in the hands of his dcfcen* 
daat the Earl of Kintore to this day, having been difpo. 
ned in the laft century by the Earl Marifchal to his fon or 
farocbcr Sir John Keith, who was afterward created Eafl 
of Kintore. It may be conjedured, that a part of what 
was given to the Marifchal, was bounded by the Sheriff* 
bmn, which feparated it from the reft of the ihire ; f6r, 
when it pafles on from what had been the old march to the 
fineedooi of Kintore, it lofea that name, and becomes the 
Coney-bnrn and the bum of Tuach. There are the re- 
mains of three done circles near one another, between Kin- 
tare and Liverury, and there is a fourth in another place. 
There it a tradition of a battle having been near Cam- 
miefiane, where a general or chief, of the name of Camus 
or CambuSy was flain, and b buried. There is on the fide 
of die highway, between Kintore and Inverury, a long, 
and to appearaMt, an artificial trench or ditch, about 8 feet 
deep, caHed Bruet^i ff^w, in which it is probable that Ro« 
bert Bmce concealed fome part of hb army, for a particular 
paipoie, about the time of the battle of Inverury, or his 
cagpgeaicnt with the CuQUoioes in thb neighbourhood* 
Upon the head of the hill of Creechy, it b faid, ihs Earl 
of Hnntly pitched hb camp, when marching fouth ward be- 
bn tb^ battle of Gonrecchie } and that having been warned 

92 Statiflical Account 

bj a wizard, to beware of Correecbie^ and heariog the name 
of this place, he took the alarms thinking this to be that 
place he was warned about, and he immediatelj decamp* 
edf and nuurched forth to the Hill of Fair ; in a hollow 
place of which, called tbt How ofCorrucbitf the engage- 
ment waft *• 


* Oa the Itrge moor between this parilh and Kinellar. ildiottgh there is 
no tnditlon about it, ther^ has Tome time been either a battle, or a great 
camafe in a flight : this appears bj % great nomber of caimi. gieaur and 
leflkr, that are upon it In taking Dp one of the larger cairu iboK years 
ago, for building fencet on his farm, Mr John Lumftlen in Eog-heads 
fowkd in the outer or higher part of the cairn, feveral pieces of a bTack 
fubftance, lighter than cinder, with dots of adilferentcoloar, and perforated 
as for being ftringcd. When he came to the boCtom and centie of the 
caira, he found fomething like a coffin, foraaed of long ftones aitificiaUy 
put together, » or maf whicb coffin, (for as it was diibrdered and filled 
with the earth in raifing, he is not fure which), tliere was a large ring, 
that would contain two or three fingers* of a mbftance like veined marble, 
and an urn containing human hair. Theft things appcuttd feu ciBerjr per- 
fim here that has feen them, to have been before the days of Chriftiaoity 
ta this country. The articles dug up, he fays» are at prefent in the hands 
of the Earl of B'uchan, where they may be feen. There is alfo on the 
iame moor another larger cairn, where probably one of the chieft 
has been buried ; but I have ner^ heard* an ancknt or •Qaellc name to 
any of the cairns. Therr lies upon the eaU fide of Kintore, near the Don, 
an artificial mount of earth, called the Caftlehill,. which probably at firft 
fervcd for a Law, and afterwards for a watch tower ;. for I am informed, 
thatr upon any fudden iovafion of the country^ it was one of the places 
where fires were kindled to fpread-the alarm f{*eedily thioagh Scotland; 
and indeed Kintore was a place much relbrted t« in the days of the wais 
that weae in Scotland, being not only a fine field, before there was much 
tillage 10 the country, but centrical, and on the way north both from A- 
berdeen and the paflages of the Grampian hills. . There is on the weft fide 
of Kintore a marlh ftill called theRoUo mire, which, with oAer ai^acest 
lands, is find to have belonged to one of the name of R<dlo,. who iettled 
and made a figure here foon after die days of William the Conqueror. 
It is from this mire, and the river, which at this place is like ftandbg wa- 
ter» that the mildews xik, that in hanrcft b often blight our bailey crops. 

of Kintore. " 93: 

Afi/ceSaneous OhftrvatUm. — ^Thc people lare in general 
peaceable, and not given to feuds or divifions, charitable 
and isdufirious, flrangers to luxury and vice ; and in the 
Roy^l Burgh, not much given to political fpeculations. 
There are onlj two public houfes or taverns in the parifli, 
and thefe are neceflarj in Kintoce for the great north road. 
The advantages of the parifli are, good foil near the river, 
cafily managed, and producing crops without manure ; the 
fobriety and indufiry of the people, and accefs to Aberdeen, 
die principal market, not being ^ifiScult, and that there 
are few fervices^* or what is called bondage, required* 
The diCidvantages are thefe already pointed out, from the 
overflowing of the river, nearnefs to Aberdeen, raifing 
wages more than in places at a diftance, ihort leafes, none 
of them above 19 years, though the heritors are not difpc^ 
fed to remove their tenants* It is laid, the entail upon the 
lands of Kintore refirids from giving longer leafes than 
19 years. Improper divifion of farms is likewife a^difad* 
▼antage, rents not being exaftly proportioned, and that 
there is in many farms a want of (locking, owing to the po- 
verty of the farmers. — If there are any mines in this coun- 
try, they muft be of Iron, for all mineral fprings here are 
impregnated with iron-ore, and fome of our ftones are co- 
loured by the water ; yet the flones here are generally of 
Hat beft granite. Outliers, as they are called, abounding 
in quantity, are more ufed than quarries, becaufe they are 
both more eafily got at, and taking them away, clears the 
ground. — There are few DilTenters from the Eftabliflied 
Church in the pariOi, only 2 families of Nonjurors, and 
I of Seceders. The living and drefs of the country -people 
are much better within the laft fifty years, and even fince 
I was (etded at Kintore. Inftead of country made fiuff, 
^ich men formerly wore, they now purchafe cloth at 
Aberdeen, and the women now ufe cardinals of different 


^ Stafifiicai Account 

kiadSf inftead of plaids which thej foriqerlj nfed.-^fleiim 
proTifioQS are much improved, and more generallj aCrd 
fince the introdudion of turnip hufbandrj.— The hills iim 
this parifli are all covered with heath ; whereas in Skenc» 
to the S. £« and the united pariflies to the N. £. thej are 
green and bentj. Our green hills are a cold foil ; thej pajr- 
take of the nature of mois, and Ihow lies long and deep cn» 
them ; whereas hills* covered with heath, are iandj^ and 
'the adjacent foil is warm and earlier, the air is more 
kindlj, and the grain on fuch grounds u richer, yields bet* 
ter, and is of betto' quality \ the country people (aj^ it is 
Jbarper and neanr tbe meat. 

N U M- 

of Straibmartin. 95 


(Goarr of Forfar^ Sthod of Angits and Msarksi 
Presbytery or Ddmdee). 

Sj tbi Rev Mr Alexander Stracbav. 

Situation^ Extmt and Soil* 

nPHIS parilh forms a part of that pleaiant aod delight' 
^ fill Strath, anciently called Srathdightj. The deri- 
vadoQ of the name is uncertain. The parilh is very fmall« 
l)mg oalj about 2 miles fquare. The foil is light, part* 
I7 gntTel, partly clay bottom. The air is healthy, and 
the lohabitantB in general long lived. 

ProfirieiarSf ImproffementSf Cattle and frodnce^r^Thett 
2rt a heritofs in the pariih, Captain David Laitd of Stradi- 
niarda, and Walter Ogilvie of TuUedaph-hall. About 
Syemago, Captadn Laird, who diftinguilhedhimlelf by 
hispllaiit behaviour in the iervioe of Govemoient, during 


2(6 Statijlkal AccoufU 

the late American war, boaght the eftate of Strathmartin. 
His lands have been mofilj in his own pofleffioo, fince he 
^porchafed the eftate. The greateft part of them is endofed 
with fubftantial flone fenoes, and in a high ftate of cultiva- 
tion. He has lately let one of his farms, at L. a, 2 s. the 
acre, another at L. i, xos. and a third at L. x, 10 s. Cap- 
tain Laifd has erefied a good dwelling-hoofe, where the an- 
cient fiibric reared its head. The oflkes and garden are 
at a diftance from the houfe. He has enclofed 200 acres of 
the moor, called Clatto, in the fouth end of the parifli, 
with an earthen fence : 5c acres of it have been planted 
with aih, elm, &c. which will in a little time relieve the 
eye, that has been a long time hurt by the black heath. 
150 acres of this moor are defigned for a farm ; and ex- 
cellent offices have been ereded on it. Qn a lew acres of 
this farm, which were pioughed laft feafon, a good crop of 
turnips has been raifed. Thirteen old houfes have 
been dcmoliflied, on the eftate of Strathmartin, fince 
the year 1785. Eight fubftantial houfes have been built 
on or near their fites, each of which might contain 2 fmall 
&milies; they are covered with flate or tile. Several 
new houfes have been ereded for tradefmen, and a good 
houfe for a brewer, with a brewhoufe, malt-bam, kiln 
and bal^houfe. Mr Walter Ogilvie of Tulledaph^hall, 
has qiade very confiderable improvements on that eftate. 
He ha^ enclofed a great part of his lands, with excellent 
ftone fences, and built fome good houfes for his tenants. 
His farms are let from L. i to L. 2 the acre. People 
who underftand the art of farming doubt if the produce 
of fo light a foil, will enable farmers to pay fo high a 

The valued rent of the parifli is L. 1180 Scotch. The 
parifli of Strathmartin ^ras formerly very ill laid out, and 

3 confequen^lly 

qfSiratbmariiiL 97 

coBfisqnentl J not verj famcms for cattle ; what k cdlcd tbe 
TVBTidge being commoo in ever j quarter of it ; bat fiace 
the Tonridge was abolifiied, improvements have gone on 
witb ^irit. Oxen of a large fize have been introduced 
by the heritors, for the plough and wain. Horfes which 
were bought twenty years ago from L. 7 to L. 1 2, now 
coft firom L. 15 to L. 25. A confiderable number of cat- 
tle, fince turnips began to be raifed, have been fed, and 
Hold not only by the heritors, but alfo by the farmers. 
Calves have begun to be reared in abundance, for the mar- 
ket, and farmers ufe. No flieep are kept in the parilh, ex- 
cept a few for private ufe, though formerly almoft every 
fsffmcr had a flock. The ground produces good oats, bar- 
ky and peafe. The manure ufed here, is lime from Fife, 
brought to Dundee by water, marl from the mires of 
Anchtexlioufe parifii, and compofis of dung and earth. 
There are fome excellent (lone quarries in the parilh* 

Watery Bridges and JfsSr.-^The rivulet, commonly called 
Dtghty water, which has Its fource in Lundie parifh, and 
nms into the frith of Tay, glides through the middle of this 
pacilh. Some fine bum-trouts, and a few pikes and perches 
of a middle fize, are to be found in it ; they abound moil 
in fpring, but are never caug^ for fale. By the exertions 
of that public fpirited gentleman, David Laird of Strath- 
martin, 2 bridges have been thrown over Dighty, one on the 
road leading from Ghmmis to the Carfe of Gowry, and the 
other on the road from Sidlaw-hill to Dundee. A bridge has 
likewife been built of late over Dighty, to the eaftward, at 
the expenfe of the corporation of bakers in Dundee. Ther6 
are 10 mills in the parifh ; a corn mills, I flour, i barley, 
tnd I fulling min, in the intereft 6f Captain Laird. On 
Mr Ogilvies' icflate, there is i corn, i fulling, and x lint 

Vot. XUL N mill. 

p8 Staii/lical Account 

mill. In the eaft end of the parifli, are a floar*mills, on^ a; 
piece of ground feued fometime ago, by the town-council 
of Dundee* and commonlj called the mills of Baldovao, 
and have been long held in tack bj the baker corporatio» 
of Dundee. 

ManfCf Stipendf Cburci, School^ Poor^ ^f .— -The manie 
was built in 1775. It is a piece of good mafon work, but 13 
too fmall for the accommodation of a family. The offices 
were built inhafle,and have undergone a repair, althoagb 
finilhed only in the- end of the year 1775. The (Upend 
is 30 bolls of barley, 3a bolls of meal, and L. 26 : 14 : 7 
in money, including L. 3 for communion-elements ; which 
is too fmall a living for a clergyman, who has a numerous 
fiaraily. The teinds are ezhaufted* The church was re« 
built in X779.— -A new (chool, and houfe for the fchool- 
mafter, were lately built on a fmall piece of ground, taken 
from the church-yard, with the confent of the prcfbytcry, 
Thefchoolmafter's ialary is 100 merks Scots, and L. i, f o s« 
as fef&on-clerk. The number of fcholars in fummer is 
from 20 to 30, and in winter, from 30 to 40. The en^ 
couragement given to fchoolmafters in this parifh ancl neigh* 
bourhood, being feiall, they betake themielves to land- 
meafuring and marl gauging, or commence au&ioneers, and 
thus the education of youth is negleded : a remedy for 
this evil has long been defired.— The poor are maintained 
by the weekly coUe£Hons, which amount to % s. or 3 s. 
each Sunday, and by the intereft of L. 150. 

Population. — According to Dr Webfter's report, the 
number of fouls then was 368. The following lift of 
births, marriages^ and deaths^ is estraAed from the feflion 


9f Stratbmartin. 






X776, ' 














« 3 
3 6 

The regifier of marriages and ba< 
rials has been neglefted. 

There are 340 fonis in the parifli. The people in general 
are quiet, peaceable, and well difpofed. In the parifli, are 
2 Antiburghersy and i Epifcopalian. Since the year 177O1 
the wages of men-fervants, maid-fervants, and day labour* 
exs are nearly doubled, owing to the flourifliing ftate of ma- 
nofadnres and improvements in agriculture, in this neigh- 
bourhood. There is a remarkable alteration to the better, 
in the drefi of the parifliioners, fince the year 1780. 

Aniiquuies. — On the weft fide of Cktto-moor, are the 
traces of a camp. It is generally believed to have been 
occupied by a part of Agricola's army, and afterward by 
Alpin, Wallace, and Monk. Tradition reports, that ** Wal- 
^ hce pitch'd his camp on Clatto-hill, and ground his com 
^ at Philaw's mill," which is about half a mile from the 
place where the traces of the camp are feen. To the eaft- 
ward of Strathmartin houfe, there is a hiU, called the Gal- 
low-hiU, on which the Lairds of Strathmartin, in the days 
of feudal tyranny, exercifed their power in hanging for 
petty oSences. In the north end of the parifli is a large 
ftone, called Martin's ftone, of which Gordon takes notice 
in his Itinerary, (as belonging to the parifli of Tealing.) 
a Tradition 

too Siatiftieal jtccwnt 

Tradidoft bjBf that mt the pkce where the flooe is ereded, 
a dragoiiy which had devoared nine maidens, (who bad 
gone oat on a Sunday evening, one after another, to fetch 
fpring water to their lather), was killed hj a perfon cal« 
led Martin, and that hence it was named Martin's ftonc. 
There is alfo a ftone on the weft gate of the cburch-jard^ 
which has the figures of 2 ferpents upon it. 

N DM. 

4/* liff and Btrvie. loi 




By tie Rev. Mr Thomas Constable. 

Vniofif Es^ent, Surfafi* 

THE iinioo of tbie pari(hes of liff and Bervie took place 
in Nov. 1758. Liff comprehended the old pariihes 
of Logie and Invergowrie ; both of which, as appears from 
the records of the kirk-feffion, were united to it before the 
middle of the laft century. But Logie, quoad facra^ has from 
the £uDe remote period, belonged to the parilh of Dundee, and 
a coofiderable proportion of the ftipend payable out of it, 
been allowed to the minifter who has the charge of the 
cmmtry parilh there *• On the W. apd S. £. owing to 


* The notires to tlitt trinfaAion cannot now be difcovertfd ; but 
moft probsbly oHginited from tbe relative cireiiniftancei and connexion 
a/ both pariOics, a part of Logie, u it is (kid, having been formcrlf en- 


io2 Statyiical Accoura 

the interfefiions of the neighbouring pariihes, the form o 
liff and Bervie is very irregular. It may be reckoned, oi 
an average, 3 miles in length, and the lame nearly ii 
breadth. The appearance of the furface is in general high< 
ly pleafing. The ground rifes with an eafy afcent for tkc 
fpace of 3 miles from the river Tay, except towards the 
S. E. where the end of the hill of Bolgjty^ which is very 
moderate in height, and either wholly planted or cultiva- 
ted, and a low narrow dale, extending from thence weft- 
ward through the village of Bervie, intervene. Along 
this agreeable expofure, are interfperfed houfes, trees, and 
fields in culture. The higher grounds form, as it were, a 
ridge, ftretching fomewhat obliquely from W. to E. Be- 
hind thefe, is a bleaks extenlive trad of moor, where are 
fome thriving plantations of fir, but hardly any mark of 
improvement or cultivation. This moor falls northward 
in gradual declivity,, and forms, with the oppofite grounds, 
part of that Strath or valley, which beginning in the parifh 
of Lundie, and extending eaftward a few miles, is called 
Strathmartin, an appellation given to one of the pariflies 
adjoining this diflrift. In the middle of thb ftrath, runs 
a fmall and rapid ilream from the loch of Lundie, which 
meets an additional fupply, colleded here from the bills 
above Auchterhoufe, and is then called the water of Digh- 
ty. This brook is the northern boundary of thcfe united 
pariflies, dividing them from Auchterhoufe, and is nearly 
parallel to the courfe of the Tay, the principal boundary 


fifoachei! upon by one of the principal Hreets of Dundee, Logie there- 
fore, comprehending the lands of Logic. Blacknefs. and Balgay, as being 
part of another fpiritual charge, falls not properly to be confidered in 
tbii account of the united parUhci of Liff* including Invergowfic and 

) ofLifand Berme. loj 

' m the finttfa. In this diftriftt there are two other dreams ) 
mt finnn the £• through Locheye, and another from the 
W. which meet about half a mile from Invergowrie, be* 
ure they fall into the Taj. After jun£lion, thej are call- 
ed the bum of Invergowrie ; and here, in the months of 
March and April, fea-trout are fometimes found of 4 lbs. * 

CEmate^ Chalybeate Spring. — ^There are no endemial 
diflempeis. The air is pure and wholefome, owing in a 
great meafore to the ebbing and flowing of the Tay on one 
fide, and the ground riiing from it to a confiderable height 
OQ the other. In one low and confined fpot, occupied 
chieflj by manufadorers» few or no difeafes appear, that 
are not common in the mofi healthy fituations. Among the 
oldeft inhabitants, is a married couple, w\iofe joint ages 
make X75, and who have lived together 59 years. There 
are many of both fexes in this difirid, whofe lives are pro- 
longed to upwards of 80 years, Confumption and rheu- 
matifnTi, di&rders the mod fatal to fociety, efpecially in 
the coontry, owing principally to the want of good and 
comfortaUe accommodation among the poorer clais of peo* 
pic, are not more prevalent in this than in other quarters, 
where the fame proportion of the people lead fedentary 
lives. Nay, many perfons from Dundee, of delicate and 
fickly confiitutions, have found their health greatly impro- 
ved by a few months reiidence here in fummer ; and there 
can be no doubt, that the chill wind and damp vapours 
from the eaft, which prove fo unfriendly to the redoration 
of health, are le& fenfibly felt here, than in places more 
immediately adjoining the mouth of the nver. In all ca- 
£», therefore, where fea-bathing is not required, this quar« 
ter perhaps ought to be preferred. — There is a chalybeate 


104 Siatt/lkal Account 

fpriog at die vilhge of Berrie, which was finowriy k- 
forted to with advantage, by valetudinary peiibas in tfae 
neighbourhood, bat which is now in no great rcpate. 
From the taftc of the water, and the colour of it, wbca 
mixed with fpirits, it would appear to be ftsongly impreg^ 
nated with iron. 

Po^£i/fo«.<— According to Dr Webfter*s report, the num- 
' ber of fouls at that time was 1311. The number of inha* 
bitants at prefient in the weft part of this diArift, compared 
with the amount of the whole, bears no fort of proportion 
to what it did at the beginning of this century, nor even 
within a much ihorter period. Two oppofite canfes hare 
united to produce this remarkable diftrence : ift. The ali- 
enation of the lands belonging to the feuars of Liff-, and« 
afly. The late introdudion, and rapid increafe of manu- 
fiBi£hires, to be afterwards explained, particularly in the enft 
(juarter of this diftriA. The lands of Liff were part of an 
endowment to the monaftery of Scoon, and appear to have 
been fcued out by the commendator of that monaftery into 
eight parts, about the time of the Reformation. This bid 
the foundation of a village, formerly denominated the 
Kirkton of Liff, which from limdry particulars in the fief- 
fion-record, but more efpecially from comparing the num- 
ber of elders in it, widi diofe in the other divifions of the 
parifh united, appears to have contained in 1650, one third 
at leaft of the whole inhabitants, who, it is obfervable, ac- 
cording to a report made by the minifter about that time 
to the preftytery of Dundee, amounted to 400 and up- 
wards. This village continued to increafe, and was in a 
flourifhing ftate until fome time after the beginning of the 
prefent century, when almoft the whole of thefe lands 
in fen, came into the poffeifion of a principal heritor, and 


of liffand Bervie. 205 

In confequence of the improvements made by liis extended 
pleafiire-groond, «nd the eatcambioD of ^ebe tiknd clher'lMi9» 
little now remaiiis of the former srppeftriuioe and GOiidicio|i 
of diis i^iot. The vfllageof Berrie* diftant abbttt A mil^<firailk 
that of Liff; hai alfo ih former times been itttfre coh&UraUi. 
At prefeot, it feems to labour under pecuKai^ diladWfitfei- 
ges, and muft -in a iUort time be entirely deferted,*'UilllA 
thefe Ihall be reraoTed. But though population may hai^ 
declined in the weft» it has of late yean increaled be- 
yood the ordinary proportion in other quarters -of tilts 'dd- 
trift, particularly in the eaft, at Locheye and Milehoofe* 
TUs will appear firom comparing the number of ezami* 
nabk perfons in the years 1753 ^^^ <?9^* ^f ^ tdtfij 
61 die inhabitants in January 1792, the number of enml* 
nable perfons, or of thofe- above xo years old, amounted 
to - - - - 1451 

By dcctect of annexation for Liff and 

Bervie» dated Augoft 17539 
The examinable pedbns in Liff were re* .. 

ported to be • . - • • 650 
The examinable perfoos ^ Bervie, 150 


Increafe of examinable perfons from 1753 to 1792, 
a Q>ace of 39 years, ' • • 65 K 

This unufual increafe has arifen chiefly from fome confide* 
fable feus granted out of the eftate here, belonging to the 
£unily of Londie, between the years 1735 and 1740, 
which proving convenient for manufadures, has been fub- 
fened fince that time, and is now remarkabi^. £Iled with 
lobabitaDta. New hoofies ave erecUng 00 it every jear» 
but no fort of attention is paid to form or method in pb* 
VoL.Xin. O dflf 

xetf Statijlical Acewni 

h>. . •.. . 

4iflg:tb^fl». . .Fran.the aaufKintiffii, tbP inlubiUnU of die 
fMorifli of tA^rviQ.htve rather ' 4iiE)i|iiib€d tb«a incregfiBd, 
ifo.tM tft9 vbole'a4ditioo iiitde:.tQ the niuntMP of p^oplp 
.fir almoft 40 je^n |d both pariflici^ .has ;b^ii ttlirdj o|& 
iilf).fi4e 9i Vf ** It » furth^i; to.^c rwMij^qff Ui«t ^ tliat 
•^peiiod tht^pppulodoo of both Ijiraa4'Berv|e, ^yi^^ probably 
fAwa^U ^cft (bao it had beea for '«ianj jrears befof^, ftt lesft 
. jaiJBg tbc.inccrv^ batwtfm ths iipprovf rneots abo^e mca- 
lioiieiiy a|»d the ofi^liibment aqd gfowth (if maoo^itAaroay 
.Ulld honpe tl^ftt the amount of czamiaable perfons at th^ aa- 
.ntacat^oapf the pariflKSi is not, ftri£Uy fpeaking, tp be cod- 
•^dered af 'poQvcjing a prc^r idea qf the ancient flate of 
.poyoVitioa in this diibrid. Tb^ prefent munb^r o{[ the in- 
Jiftbitant^ amoonts tp 1790 : Of this onmhery.tbere i^re 339 
^koned under the age of ten, which faUs fomewhat 
ibort of the ufual proportion, owing to the late irregular 
accefTion of fettlers, the frequent ' change of fervants, and 
the various fucceis of manofiidures. The native inhabi- 
tants are few in botnparifon with the ftrangers who have fet- 
tled lately. There are many of the former who are able 
to trace their anceflors back fpr feveral generations ; and, 
in particular, there is one family, who without any change 
of circumftances, unlels what has neceflarily been produ- 
ced by the gradual and flow operation of time, now inhe- 
rit the fame fpot cultivated by tbcir forefathers, prior tq 
,the mA o£ the. Reformation. 

'- - The 

^ Itkofe who are carious about {(iv^ftigationi of thU fort, may from 

' the abdve-accWknt, and titediflbrent inattentions given of the inhabitants 

. dC Liff, 'iaibra dieaiiclvtt prettf wscvatdy of the ftste of iti popnlation 

j^(^. i6j^o to x^53„afid irooL thwu d^wi) |o 17111, iocl^dins « p^4 o( 

pa left than 142 years. 

of lAff and ^^rvUi^ ipy 

llie hou&hdlden amount to - • « 


brtli«fe, the number ol: weavers, ezcbifrire 

of ferrantSy ifi . . . X7I' 


Irewers, who at £ime time retail their owh 

• . i/ 

ale, - - - - a 

Rccaileiftof aleaiulfpirits» - - 7 

• ■ I' • 

Talots, - - - - »3 

. -' .« 

Shoeflaaken^ « ^ * 3 


SmkliB, . . - 4 

MaibiBi about 4 of whom live in the honfes 


of dieir parents, : • w * ^ jj 

Wrights ^ - la 


FiazdreflerB, ^ . . . 5 


Garters^ - • - a. 10 

' ' ' '^ — ^ 


Tworefidbg heritors, furmeraifeuars, fmall.te^ 
nants, and a few females, houfeholders, make 
up the remainder, amounting to about - 68 

fifairkges, on aik average of 6 years, ending January 
179a, accordmg to the record of the kirk-fefllon, amount- 
ed to 15 ; bapdCms to 58 ; and buriak to ap. In cafes 
oC marriage here, it often happens, that the man is bx 
left advanced in life than the woman he inarries.' The for- 
mer depends much on the experience of the' latter, and 
gcaeiaOj too on the iavings of her induftrj, to enable hun 
to begift with firnie oemfost amarried life : This difparitj 
of yean happening oh the fide of the woman, muft needs 
be a hinderance to population *• 


• ncragiftcrofbtptifime^cttUr in' lb pdfNiloiai i diAri^ u tki«» 
ii Ml ID be ceBli4arcd u %mag la accantte Kcovat ot the Uigth* in It^ 


xo8 Stati/Rcal Account 

SoS^ Agriemlhtr*% (^f.— TIm ibil varies in diffeiwt pl»- 
ces, but in generml that of the higher grannda i» Kght, 
mixed with fiuidt and has fomMmesrock for its bottom, and 
fbmetimes mortar. The lower grounds are either of a black 
foil, inclining to loam, or of day. At prefent npwaids off 
aooo acres are divided into la £M*ms,nooe of them oofttain- 
ing lefi than loo acres, and one 400 nearly. The ttmmm% 
grounds in the diflriA, allowing for about 400 acres plan* 
tatioQ, and perhaps even more for roads and moor or 
wafle, particularly towards the extreme boondary ;on the 
aorthi are for the moft part occupied by (mailer teoanls, or 
by feuaxs. Some of the more confideraUe ftrms have 
rented of late at two guineas an acre ; but one half of tfaefe 
being either liferent tenures, or held upon old leafiess, the 
medium rent of the whole cannot be eftimated higher thaa 
-firom L. I, j 8. to L. i, 10 s. SmaUer holdings rife in va- 
lue, in proportion to their vicinity to ]>undee, thoie efpe^ 


CbiUfCD th»t vrc fttll born, or dii nobcptised* are^iapcr 1 
the public tegifter ; befi'lei, tbore Me pereoti^ vrhofometiincf from De- 
fied, and (bmetinics from parfimooj, do not inleit in it tbeir cbildreni 
lumies, and by Diflentert diii duty Is often omhted cntirdy. Soee allows 
wee may Ukewifc be aeceflary icfpeAing tbe deadit bevL HiHif pofrna 
from other qitait^ Kftvisf fettled of late, yean m fbii dMbiC^rfi"«t §i 
tbefe after death, are conveyed to the parjOies whence tb^ came» apd 
othen' are interred (»rtvately in the neighbouring churcb«>ard of l(^ie» 
tfbicb appertaiBtf to thefe trnited pariihes, bat has become fa<M#.tlie^ bvi- 
lial place of peo|ile from Dwidec. Aad In aU.eifet».vikft;tbsmiMtFltUk 
Imie he tailed for, (wbieh it femetiaiH. pnrenta^ in ths lAftapca pi Cu- 
rtail at Lofte, by private mortclotba .being hired cheaper in ,Daiuiec,) 
i|0 meotioB is made in the record of the perfons deceafed. The burying- 
ground in each of thefe united parifbet is ftili kept facred for the lecep* 
tioa of tbe dead ; but the chnrch-yaid of Liff, and nest to it, diat of 
logic, are aaot frafoently oM. y%ij few in compa i ifec ait bsried in 
Bervir, ai^ in lofergonrie Ml abof» two bttraalsoaaaamrage wiiibap- 
fa fa tbe year. 

of tiff and Berme. 209 

ddlj duit are calculated for a cefidence to an induftrious 
aad poor funilj, and which confift only of a houfe, and 
oae or more acres of land. Accordingij, while the village 
acces about Li£f and Berviey upwards of 4 miles firom mar* 
ket, pay a rent of L. % a-yearj thofe of far inferior quail- 
tjin Locheyewid Milehoufe, (fo. called to mark the di- 
flaaoe from Dundee)i originally feued between 1735 and 
1740 at xo s. an acre, yielded fome years ago L. 3 feu-duty ^ 
aad ia one place adjoining the late turnpike-road, they now 
^re L. 5 or L. 6. As the fame line of road pafles through 
the Ids inhabited q«arter of this diilriA on the north, a 
CQttfiderable traft of ground in the ftrath or valley mention- 
ed there, which, for the moll part, is now rated only at a- 
bottt 10 s. the acre, m^y be ejq>eded in time to rife in 
value. The fitnodon is precifely fimilar to that of Locb- 
eyc but fiuther removed from market, and the land in 
general Xeems more fufreptible of improvement and culti- 

The method of cropping mail needs be fuppofed to Va* 
ry aocordtng to^ the difiereoee of foil and ezpofiij:e.( but 
eveA'wbere cfa^fe are the fiune, one fixed and uniforiia ro- 
tation 18 not yet adopted. On one or two fiurm$, where a 
icgnhrnodeof ottkivtotioo b goiog.forward, thefuccellloo 
of «ropB is as ficillows ; 1/?, Oats^ %d^ Fallow-, 3//, Wheat; 
4li^, Tnniiprand!poiatoea; 5^ifr, Barley, with gralMced^f; 
^^ i^fyj two: years, grais, ' cut the £rft year and. paiiured 
die lieflt. list tad fwrfe make ibmetimcs a patt of the 
g^ven csBp,' bati imgdneeal^ not much of either is fowii. Ja 
Cbelil^ter foi}; wbcreef aiiliige proponionof this .difirift 
iseompofed, both isaow. and wheat are often laiddoiwii. 
Marl is ibaetimes.etoplo7ed<aa.aAaattre from the neigh- 
: parifh of Fonlis, efpecially in the higher grounds 
3 towards 

1 to StatiJUcal Account 

towards the north and wcfl, and in the back moor rf lifi/ 
but lime is generally preferredt and is brought fometim«# 
from England, and fometimes aerols the Taj from thtf 
oppofite county of Fifei and landed at Invergooiie* Be* 
lldes the dung made on their farms, the fitrmeiB are often 
obliged to get an additional fupply from Dundee | and 
every lading of a cart and pair of horfes from thence, cofla 
them no leis than is. 6 d. exclufive of tolls and carriage^ 
The beft improved land here rarely yields above lo bolb 
of wheat or any other grain the acre. Inftances have in^ 
deed occurred of much higher returns than this, but they 
are too rare to be confidered as a fiandard by which toefti- 
mate the produce in generaL A confiderable part of the 
diflrifi is enclofcd with done fences, but few of the endoii 
fures, however, remain long in grab for paftnre or grs^ 
zbg ; thofe that are let for this purpofe are rouped an^^ 

j nually, and bring from L. a, los. to L«3 Sterling thit 

The Scotch plough, with amendments, is in cotmnoil 
tife r At the fame time, firom the late general fpeculatioo 

. and improvements on this ulefid machine, it ha^ beoome 
more than ever an objefi of attention both here and ;i& die 
neigfabouriiood, and many frirmers are at great pains to 
^ve their ploughs faihioned after the mofi approved mo- 
dels. It is the pradice to employ two horfes in each 
plough, unlels the occafioa renders the addition of <sie or 
more neceflary. Two threihing machines have been ertoA* 
cd' for fome time; they go by means of horfes, and ara 
looked upon as ufefiil both in refpeft ta profit and coavet 
fiience. There mre 5 com^mills, a flour-mill, a fiitiff-^rilli 
and three mills for deaning yam. Thirlage and kain ate 
ffiU continued upon bmt lands, bat tbefe ieem the onl^ 

of iiffand Berv'^e. in 

0aBB£&aos of which the farmen and IjaaaDer tenants haye. to 
^complain. ^- 

The number of draught-borfb about iSo* and of thefc 
not above a dozen. or, fifteen may be laid to be kept for 
coQTenienc^ or for anj purpofe but that of hulbandrj* 
Very few horfcs.arc bred here or in. the conntrj aronnd, 
and accordinglj their price has advanced. beyond all former 
ezpcAation. Forty pounds Sterling is now confidered as a 
very moderate price for a pair of ordinary cart-horfes, and 
they are feldom to be had for lefs than fifty. Milch cows 
are very numerous, every family almofi, whether with or 
)¥ithout land in their poiTcilion, having one or ^ore of 
tbem. No attention is paid, efpecially by the poorer fort 
of people, to their breed, and in general they are of a di- 
fniftotive fize. Their number may amount to 382. In 
Locheye and Milehoule alone there are about 117 for the 
nfe of the families in that quarter. But neither there, nor 
in one or two places more of this diftrift, are thecoma and 
horfies maintained by the produce of the land in pofleifion 
of their refpe&ive owners. A very confiderable ihare of 
the provifion neceflary for them is porchafed trom the 
neighbouring fiinners, who find it their intereft often to 
anfwer demands of this (brt, by expofing to lale in diffis* 
rent lots, one or more fields of ilanding com, grais, or tur« 
nip, as they can beft fpare of each. In thb way it happens^ 
that in fome years a confiderable quantity of oats and bar- 
ley is brought from neighbouring parilhes into this diflrif^, 
but this is nothing equivalent to the difFerent kinds of 
grain, and of barley efpecially fold out of it. The yearly 
amount of what is thus difpofed of^ cannot be accurately af- 
certained ; it is, however, certain that, nnleis in years of 
extnordittary fbarcity, this diflrift will do far more than 
fixpport itfelf. Befides, there are feveral portions of land 
now Ijing wafte and negleded, which, if properly impro* 


1 1 2 Siatifikal Account 

ved, would fiilly indemnifj both the expeafc and troable. 
There are a good number of calves reared, and fome catde 
alfe are fed for the market; but this pradice is by no means 
unirerfal. The market- town is Dundee, where there is n 
ready fale for grain of every fort, hay, milk, butter, cheefe» 
poultry, Stc. And to chofe who have not the means of 
^ubfiftencc within themfelves, every article except potato^ 
is as high as in Dundee, where the expenft o( living has 
jncreafed of late, with the indutby and wealth of the inba^- 
' bitants. It is a pleafure to fay, that the principal brmers 
are in general accommodated with good houfes, bnt the 
dwellings of the fmaller tenants, and indeed of the great 
bulk of the inhabitants, are as yet ill adapted either for 
health orxomfort *• 

ManufaBtires. — ^This diftri&i {rom feveral portions of it 
being let in arofts or fmall pofleflions, fa highly favoorable 
to the eftablilhment and growth of manuiadures. Hence, 
in every hamlet within its bounds, as Lift Bervie, Den< 
fiead,' &c. the weaving of linen doth has become the 
prineipal employment* Bnt the quarter which is both the 
mdll populous, and contains the greateft number of manu- 
fafhirers, is that drip of land, which having on the fouth the 
hill of Balgay; and forming with it a narrow valley, fa com- 
prehended under the names of Locheye and Milehoofe. Tlie 


* Ttiey trt kepi hovrever neat ud cltto, miA ilib taftc umj Ibon lead 
to fabftwitisl ia^llov•lBtllCl. Tkc comnon vagti of « pl(.vghaguwi, from 
JUS to I"-io s-yeor, ci^r with bis viAuali in bis mailer's hoafe, or z 
pecks of oat-meal a*week, an4 a proportional quantity cf milk fur fubfir- 
tence by hbafelf. The waxes of women-ftrtantSp L. 3, inclodinf ffoum- 
Hi* or prcfems, wblcb bowover aM tipabMod for. The hire of a day* 
kBottferfromfd. loii.tHlbbi»vi6hi«l«;biitfortwoye«ispaft, ilhai 
lilbn ^cjopd tbi% owinx cbidljr jto tjbff.otstriA work done npoa the new 
roadi kadiog from PotbOuie tfaroogb tbii coun^. 

/ tf JUffand Sen>ie. 1x3 

peculiar attraftions of tfab fpot to manafadarers, befides its 
being in the couotrj, aod at a convenient difiance, either for 
cirrjing what they can fpare to market in Dondee, or for 
hriogifig neceflaries from thence, are theiie : i^, The prc^ 
mife of a fixed refidence, almoft the whole land having 
been fubdivided into fmaller feus and poflellions, a &mi- 
Ij, according as thejare able, maj either purchafe or renty 
what will £trvt for a commodious habitation. 1^, Everj 
wd) of cloth, as foon as it comes from the loom, maj here 
be difpofed of, without the trouble and ezpenfe of convey- 
ing it for fale to a diftance. The firft merchant weavers 
were, a family of the name of Coock, who continue (till in 
die (kme line, with much credit and advantage to them- 
felvea, and to whofe induftry and example this diftrift is 
principally indebted for its prefent flourifliing condition. 
But ylf What above every other advantage has tended to 
enhance the value of this fpot to manufa^rers, and without 
which it might have remained ftill in its original unim* 
proved ftate, b a fniall brook or dream, that pafles from 
Milehoufe weflward, through Locheye, and furniihes a fup« 
ply of water for boiling and bleaching, as much as fs ne- 
ceflary of the cloth manufaflurcd in the di(lri6t. Thefe 
caoies combined, point out Locheye and Milehoufe as a 
highly convenient ilation for manufafiurers. The hou(e* 
hold linen made in thb dlflrift is not worth mentioning, 
and the number (Of Ofnaburghs is companttiveiy fmall. 
The flaple manufafture b coarfe linens, which are carried 
to London, fome of them for confumpt in Britain, others 
for exportation. They are named from their breadth, 
as yard wides, 3 quarter wides, and wide thin linens, and 
the price of each fort is regulated by the quality of yam 
of which it b made, according to the market. A very 
iknall proportion of the yarn made ufe of, is fpun in thb dif- 
tnft though fevend women apply themfehrea to it ; every 
Vox.. XIIL P weaver 

I X4 StatifHcal Account 

weaver being for the mofi part Tupplied with that article 
from Dundee. Some of the cloth manufadured is fold by 
individuals at firil hand, at Dundee and Inchture ; but the 
quantity thus fold does not amount to more than is pur* 
phafed by the merchant weavers in this diftrift, from neigh- 
bouring parifliesy who, therefore, may be faid to deal to the 
lextent of the whole cloth manufadured here. The mer- 
chant weavers are 5 in number, and are themfelvcs included 
in the lift of operative mannfafturers. All of them, one 
excepted, who buys to the greateft eattent, difpofe of their 
whole ftock either in Dundee or Perth, or Cupar of An- 
gus, prefierring a fmaller gain at home, to the rifle of a 
greater in the hands of correfpondents at London. Almoft 
half of their cloth is bleached before it is fold^ and of late 
they have adopted the method, of what is termed here dry^ 
bUacbing^ which is nothing more than after boiling the 
ploth in water, mixed with a due quantity of pot-aihes, to 
wafli the lees from it, and leave it to whiten on the ground 
by the adion of the fun and weather, without, as former- 
ly, fprinkling water upon it. The cloth by this means is 
equally well bleached, and much labour as well as expenfe 
is faved. The following is a pretty accurate flatement of 
jhc webs manufadured in one year, and the prices at which 
they are commonly fold by the manufaflurers. 

Webs. Price. 

3800 yard ^ides, and 3 quarters wides, 

at L.2, 10 8. the web, L. 9500 

550 yard widcs, at L.2, las. - 1430 

Z50 3 quarter wides, at L. 3, - . 430 

60 ditto, atL. 4, - - 240 

300 Ofnaburghs, at L. 3, * .. '900 

48^ !«• 12,520. 


tf Liff and Betvie. 115 

Of the above webs, 2830 were bleached, and la that (late 
being fit for (hirting and roanj important ufes, the profit at 
{econd hand is more confiderable than that on the green or 
unbleached.' Confidering the number o£ weavers who are 
houfeholders, and that feveral among them keep i or 2 
lervants, or more properly apprentices, it may perfeaps be 
ezpeded, that a third more cloth at lead (houM be manu- 
fadured in the year within thb diftrift. In reply, this much 
may be obferved, that fome of thefe houfeholders are a^ an 
advanced period of life, that the greater part have more 
or leis to do of rural labour on their fmall poITelfions, and 
that many quit their own employment entirely, and en- 
gage with the neighbouring farmers, in the time of har veft. 
It would tend greatly to promote and encourage manufac- 
tures here, were a ilamp -office eftabliihed as at Inchture 
and Meigle *• 

Antiquities. — frnder this head may bf mentioned a tem- 
ple, called Druidicial, meafuring in circumference about 43 
yards. A Roman camp, as defcribed by Maitland in bis 
hiftory of Scotland, which« from its vicinity to the frith of 
Tay, he confiders as having been one of thofe which, ac- 
cording to Tacirus, In ^ita Agric, contained occafionally 
both the land and fea forces. There were obvious traces 
of this camp remaining a very few years ago, which the 
plough has fince entirely effaced. The fpot, however, is 
ftill diftinguifhed, being known by the name of Cotter 
Milley^ evidently a corruption of the words quatuor miller 
meaning thereby to expreis either the number of troops 
aifembled in this fortreis, or. the diflance of the encamp- 

• The namber of looms employed in this diftri<fl, tmounttto 2')t\ ap» 
preaticcs and fexvaiiu to 104. 

1 16 StdtiJHcal Account 

ment from fome other flation. Within the confines of tb» 
diftrift on the eaft, is a place named Pitalpie or Pit of Al- 
pin, from its heing the fcene of that memorable engage- 
ment in the 9th century, between the Pi£b and Scots, in 
which the latter were routed, and Alpin their king, with 
many nobles, flain *. Near to the prefent church, Mnd iai« 
mediately within Lord Gray's indofures, are fome remains 
of the foundation of a caftle, long known in the country by 
the name of Hurly Haukin. It is now iropoffible to judge 
with any certainty of its original dimenfions, but it has evi- 
dently been of confiderable fajt and ftrength, and furromid- 
ed on all fides, except the north, by a pretty deep natural 
fofl<S. In digging about the remains, burnt alhes were found 
and an iron fpur, of the kind long ago worn. It was built 
by Alexander I. King of Scotland, and the hiftory of it 
tends to throw light on the ancient fiate of this difiird f . 


# Th« King's hetd, after the battle, being failene4 to % pole, waa 
carried by the enemy to Aberoetby, at that time the mod confiderable 
Pi^liih town, to be expofed there to public view ; but hit body, according 
to tradition, wu buried at Pitalpie. On the top of a little hill eaft of 
Piulpie, if flill to be feen 1 large ftone, called The King's Cro(s, having 
a hole ta the middk about a foot deep ; as the Scots were encamped, h 
is faid, at no great di fiance from the Tay, the King^ may have fi^ed his 
ftandard in this ftone. Not very remote from this is another little hill, 
in which were difcovercd eight or ten graves^ hiving the bottom, fides, 
and top of flag-ftones. The head of each grave was due weft. The 
bones mouldered away on being touched, 

t ^Alexander, according to the cuftom in thofe days; having a dona* 
tion made him at his baptifm, by the Earl of Gourie, his f^odfather, of 
the lands of LiflFand Invergourie, no fooner fucceeded to the throne, than 
he began to erecl this palace, as Fordoun calls it. He was not however 
long permitted to remain in it without being diftarbed« Some of his fol- 
lowers or attendants from Meams and Mnrrayfliire, having joinod in a 
con^iracy to feiae on his perfon, the plot was dUcovered, in the aa«iienC 


6f Liffand S^rvie. 117 

lavergoiiriti at a. place of Chdftian worfliip, is of remote 
aatiqiiity» and perhaps the moft ancieot on this fide the 
Tay. The firft chim:h was built by Boniface *, a legate or 
miflkmaiy, on hk landing there with feme attendants from 
Home, daring the 7th century. The fame perfen pro- 
ceeding into the interior parts of Angns, feunded other 
diarches. The walls of the church of Invergourie, uied in 
hter tioneSt are fiill very entire ; but they indicate no fupe* 
zior aadqmty or workmanihip, and are probably thofe of 
a fibrtc leis ancient than the firiL The church-yard is 
on an eminence of a fingular flxape, which, oa one fide, 
is often waflied by the Tay ; and fome people, from the 
variety of moold dug up, have conjeftored, that the whole 
or greater part of thi^i eminence may have been compofed 
of forced earth. We (hall finiih this article, with an ac- 
coant of a fubterraneous building dificovered a few years 
ago near Lundie Houfe, which, it is believed, will be ac* 


ribcy w€tt endeavouring to force the doors of the palace in the atgbt, aod 
the King, affifted by his chamberlain Alexander Carron, the ion of that 
CvTon whom Malcolm III. bad diftinguiHied by the faroame of Scrim- 
|toar» Mid preferred to the office of cirrying the royal ftandard, happily 
cfieAed hta efoapc. £mbarkiog then at lovergoarie, he dirc^ed hit 
coaric to the ibuthern parts of the luagdom, where he raifed a gi«at forca 
ia order to repel and pnniih this iofurre^ion. But before proceeding 
io his expedition, he founded, as a tribute of gratitude to God for the late 
dctiyerance and prote^ioa he bad experienced, the church of tb^ 
■ooaftefy of Scoon. and made over to that chmch ia dvtem §t gltUm^ 
Ihc Land* of Liff and Invcrgourie formerly affigned to him as a prefcnt 
t; the £ari of Gourie. Vide Fordoun*s Sco. Chron. alfo Buchao. 

* Vide Boctb. Hift. alfo Archbifliop SpottiiWood, and Forbes on Tithes. 
The two Uttar agree ia one aeooent, which is evidently copied from 
Boeec^ hot with veiy great Inaccttiacy. They make Boniface to .hajra 
haded at the moatk of a finall riYcr, dividing Angus from Meami^ 
A. D. 6p7. ; whereas Boece points clearly at Invergoorie as the landing 
place* and BKiftioDS the fa^ at having happened about A. D. ^ao. 

its Siati/Hcal Acciuht 

oepuble to many readers. This building was diicoT^eci 
in a field that had long been under culture, and often had 
refifled the plough, in paffing along the fpot under whiclx 
it reded. In digging this fpot, to remove the (tones ^hicU 
oocafioned fuch interruption, they were found in general 
to be of a furprifing breadth ; but at the fame time, eichc^r 
violently rent afunder,. or difturbed in their pofition bj^ * 
the frequent intercourfe and collifion of the plough. Aod 
it appeared on thnr removal, that thefe ftones hid beea ia- 
duftrioufly brought hither, and ferved to cover certain ar- 
tificial recefles or buildings, which now difcovered them- 
ielves. Among thefe different buildings, which are to be 
confidered as compartments of one and the fame fabrici laj^ 
one of them at a fmall didance from the others/ bnt coo- 
neded with each by a paflage or communication about two 
or two and a half feet wide ; and it was diftinguilhed alfo 
by its fuperior fize and dimenfions. This principal com- 
partment was about 6 feet in breadth, 12 in length, and 5 
in height \ the walk and floor were* of ((one. It extended 
in the diredion nearly from eaft to weft, and befides the 
pafTages already mentioned, leading from it to the other 
compartments of the building, was furnifhed with one to- 
wards the fouth, peculiar to itielf, and fuppofed to have 
been the main entrance. The whole of this flrudlure was 
extremely rude. Many of the ftones that compofed it, in- 
ftead of being laid flat, or in fuch a way as accords with 
(kill in the art of building, were placed endwife in the 
walls. There were no arches, though the feveral compart- 
ments required them ; the upper courfe on th6 waUs on 
each fide was of large ftones, with their ends projeded in- 
wardly, and the opening or vacuity between covered all 
the way, witb others of a correfponding breadth. At the 
fame time, confidering that no mark of any tool or inftrti- 
ment w^s to be feen, and that no mortar of any kind hdid 


^f Liff and Bervie. 119 

ken ofedy the walls were certainly put together with miKb 
2itj and compafhiefs. The building Hood on the Ihel* 
7'ing fide of a rock, but the different compartQfient» were 
placed fo irregularly with refped to one another, and with 
:o little appearance of regard to order or method, unleis in 
fo far as that each (hould communicate with the larger 
and principal one* that nothing could be inferred from 
their relative fituation to one another. On the compart- 
ments being firft opened, all of them were filled with a 
rich black mould, which, whether it had been purpofely 
depofited there, or m the courfe of generations pad, had 
iDfinaated itfelf from the fur£ice above, through the cover- 
ftones not being entire, and having been difturbed by the 
plough, cannot with certainty be determined. But upon 
removing this earth, were obferved the remains of fome 
burnt matter, and feveral fragments of bones, fo fmall as 
rendered it impof&ble to aicertain whether they belonged 
to the human body or not; likewife were found fome 
querns or hand-mills, about 14 inches diameter, which, as 
they appeared to be much worn, had no doubt been ufed 
for grinding com of fome kind, although they had beeii 
made with fo little dexterity, that it is not eafy to conceive 
faow they could have anfwered that purpofe. In the cen-. 
tre of fome of thefe querns was faftened a fmall bit of iron * 
ihowing the handle to have been of that metal. Before this 
building was clofed up, it was minutely furveyed by the 
hte Sir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes f. 


* C«&r Cooiinent lib. 5. c. il. Utnntur (BriUnni) aut sre, ant ta- 
kis, fcrrcia ad certam pondni examinatis, pro nuromo. Nalcitur ibt 
piBiDimm album in Illediterraneis regionibus, in maritimis fernim. 

t SubCerianeons boildiogi of tbe fane kind are reported to have been 
acctdenulij fallen upon in tbii neighbourhood, in particular, in the pa- 
rilhcs of Anghtcrhovfe, Fottlis, and Tealing. And it is the Vulgar opi- 
■ioa, and b^ acfmeaai ifflprobsbie, that there are others beneath t particu- 


I idr SiOiyHcal Account • 

Etclifia/Ucat SMi.^-^mng the long and intricate pro- 
eels about the right of patronage to Beme« prerioas to 
the admiffion of the incntnbent May 1785, a propofal w^as 
fet on foot to boild a Secedmg meeting -honfe tn this diftriA. 
And after incredible pains beftowed in gaining profel jtes, 
and raifing contributiondi this propofal was at length car- 
ried into execution. A place of wodfaip and dwelling- 
hottfe were ereAed, and foon a pafior was called. Bnt not 
long after his fettlement^ fome proceedings of his own cler- 
gy againil him not meeting the general fatis&ftion and 
opmioo of the people, they fplit into two parties, the one for 
^apportmg the clergy^ fentence, the other the right of the 
mioifler. Some points in queftion by the latter, were 
long and ^caloufly contended for at law, and the conteftfub- 
fifted with no fmall prejudice to the peace and morals of 
many concerned, till lately, that a compromife took place, 
on the minifler refolving to withdraw from his charge. A 
fncceflbr to him is not appointed ; and in this fituation of 
things, the namher of that communion i|i the diftriQ can* 
not prefently be afcertained. According to the heft advice, 
they never exceeded X20, and of thefe a few families have 
been always Seceders. They now fall Ihort of this a- 
moont, as fome of them, in confequence of the late differ* 
cnce, have returned tp the Church. There arc three or 
four families of the clafs of Independents, and but a few 
individuals of any other feft or perfuafion. The inhabi- 
tants at Milchoufe frequent divine worfliip, efpecially in 
the winter feafon, at Dundee, but all attend their own 
church at the miniftration of the Sacrament* 

Ux fpot in this diftri^l which yet remaio to be exploied. When tiae or 
accident (hall lay thefe open, it is to be hoped, that moie light will be 
afforded the antiquary, for afcertainin^ the orifia and caufe of thefe £n* 
gnlar and hitherto nesle^ed monuments of hi|iBan workmanship ao4 

I of Liffand Bervie, , 12 1 

ObttTcby Manfi^ Stipend^ School^ Poor^ l^c. — The prcfcnt 
church -fabric, except the aifle, which in every view ought 
either to have been raifed higher or rebuilt, was erefted in 
1774, to accommodate the inhabitants, and refts nearly on 
the foundation of the former building. Either the founda- 
tions muft have given way, or the mafon-work been 
flightly executed, as fome rents already appear • in the . 
walk. When the bulk of the inhabitants refided in the 
weft part of the diftrift, the fituation of the church was 
then mdre convenient. The manfe, which is placed a 
little ' way from the church, is alfo modern, and was 
built aboilt the time when thefe pariflies were united in 
1759— i7tSo. It is a handfome building, but the roof 
is much decayed, and the infide work very fuperficial, 
and by ncr means correfponding with the outiide appear* 
ance. It (lands about 297 feet above the high water mark 
at Invergourie, and commands a varied and delightful pro- 
fpeS, comprehending the Tay in its courfe for fevera^ 
miles, with a well clothed, fertile tra& of country on the 
one fide of it, and the tteepy boundary of Fife on the other. 
The ftipend is 7 chalders vidual, and money about L. 53 
Sterlingp including L. 8, 14 s. which is no part of the teinds 
of this diftrift, but of a grant conjointly to two other mi- 
ni&ers and the minifter of Bervie. The glebe and garden 
contain about 10 acres* Heritors, comprehending thofe of 
Logie parifli, 9. The whole valued rent L. 6680 Scot9. 
—The average number of fcholars at the parochial fchool 
does not exceed 35. The fituation is centrical enough 
with refpeft to the whole difiiriA, but yet not very com- 
modious for one or two places, which contain by far, com- 
paratiTcly, the greater number of the inhabitants. Be- 
fides, the accefs to fchool from the well, is in a great mea- 
fure fliut op, and in winter the roads iu every other direc- 
tion are to children almoft impafiable. To thefe caufes, 
Vol. XUL <^ the 

122 StaiiQical Account 

the firft of which it were diflkult to remedy, are chiefly to 
be alcribed the low ftate of the parochial ichool, and the 
introdudion of 5 private ones, for the mod part indi&rent- 
I7 taught. At the formeri the quarterly payments are, 
for Engliih, xs. 6 d. ; for writing, a s. ; for arithmetic, a s. 
6 d. The falary allowed the fchoolmafler is L. 7 : x : xo 
money, and a bolls X4 pecks oat-meal i as feffion-clerk, 
he. receives L. x : 15 : 6, and about L. 3 : x : 6 more 
for baptilms and marriages. The whole emoluments are 
too inconfiderable for a teacher of any merit and capacity. 
-—With refpefi to the poor, there has never been any a£. 
feflment for their maintenance. The funds for their relief 
arile from the dues of mortdoths, proclamation of marria- 
ges, rents of a few feats in the church, money at interefi, but 
chiefly from the colleftions at the churdi door. Befides the 
number now on the roll, amounting to xa, there are leveral 
families and individuals which require occafional fupply. 

MifceOamoui Obfirvatiom. — ^The principal plantations are 
on the eftates of Lord Gray and Colonel Duncan of Lun. 
die. Thofe furrounding the hou(e of Gray, are reckoned 
highly beautiful, and certainly do honour to the tafte of 
that acGompliihed nobleman, John Lord Gray, by whom 
they were laid out. The diftriA abounds with what is 
here called freefione, but in ftrata ; the prevailing colour 
is givyt incliniog to blue. Some grey flate has been 
found, but very little whinflone. A proper pier at Inver- 
gonrie would be of fingular advantage for the importation 
of lime, and coal which is the principal fiiel in this qnar* 
ter. • 


^f Kennoway. 123 



(CouKTY Aim Sykod of Fife, Presbytery of 


By thi Rev. Mr Patrick Wright. 

Name^ Extent^ lie. 

TT ENNOWAT is fiud to take its name from its fitua- 
-^^ tion. The church and village are built along the top 
or height of a very beautiful and romantic den ; the fides 
of which are fteep and rocky, and contain fome caves, 
which the feuars and inhabitants ufe as pigeon-houfes. Of 
this particular fituatton, the name is (aid to be ezpreiBve, 
Kennoway fignifying in the Gaelic, " The town above the 
^ cave/' Its form is nearly an oblong fquare ; its length 
from £. to W. about 3 miles ; its breadth about 2. The 
church and village are placed in the S. £. comer of the 


X24 Stati/iical Account 

fquare. The whole parifli lies on a bank, afcending from 
S. to N. : the profpeft from almoft ^rvery part is extenfiv^c 
and beautiful, commanding' a diftind view of the ifland of 
May, of the Bads, of Inch Keith, of the (hipping on the 
Forth, from which it is diftant about a miles ; of the coaft 
S. of the Forth from Dunbar, to the W. of Edinburgh ; of 
the Lammer moor hills, Slc. From the N* part of the 
parifli, which reaches the top of the bank, there is one of 
the moft exteniive views imaginable, taking in not only 
the forcmentioned profpeft to the S. but comprehending al- 
moft all Fife, and a great part of the counties of Angiis, 
Perth, Stirling, the Grampian mountains, &c. 

Soil^ Climate. — The foil is all arable, and generally fer- 
tile, coniifting on the S. of a light loam, which in fome 
places approaches to fand and gravel, and on the N. of 
loam and clay ; the crops are both rich and early, particu- 
larly on the S. The air is dry and wholefome, and many 
iaftances of longevity have occurred of late. A woman 
died 14 years ago, who remembered to have feen Arch- 
bifliop Sharp at the ^lanfe of K^nnoway, the day before he 
was murdered. Within thefe 7 years, one died whofe fa- 
mily belie ve^ him to be above 100. \ another of 94 for 
certain, and feveral of 90. In the a houfes next to the 
xnanfe, there are 2 men living, the one bom in May 1695, 
the other in July 1700, the oldcft of the two ftill enjoys 
great health and ilrength *. 

Minerals.^^The village is built of freeftone, taken from 
the neighbouring den, but it is coarfe and foft, and fboQ 
moulders dow6 with the froft. The Ibarcity of good ftone^ 

f piey are both alive at prereiit, May 1793, 

of Kenmway. ' laS 

is one of the difadirantages under which this, and fome of 
tk neighbooring pariihes labour. There are appearances 
cf coal in fieveral parts. Some of it was lately wrought ; but 
as the quality was not very good, nor the feam thick, and 
33 there is great plenty of excellent coal in fevend of the 
ceighboaring pariflies, the mines that had been opened, 
vere fpon abandoned* After this it is unneceflary to add, 
dutthe only fuel ufed in the pariih is coal, and that the 
great plenty of this moil neceflary article, with which the 
Qcigfabourhood abounds, is one of thole advantages which 
it enjoys in common with all the S. coaft of Fife. 

ffipulatum^ ^f.— -According to Dr Webfter's report, the 
population then was 1240. The number of the people and 
^KioSies, feems to have been nearly the fame for centuries. 
I& 1785, the whole inhabitants of the pariih, (of whom the 
v31age contains abojUt one half), amounted, from the age of 
going to (chool, to x2oo, of whom 800 atttended the Eib^ 
bliihed Church, and 400 were Seceders. A Burgher meet- 
ing houfe was ereded in the village, about 40 years ago, 
and all that do not belong to the Eftabliihment, attend that 
meeting, except a very few of the Relief party, for there b 
not a fingle perfon of another perfuafion in the pariih. All 
the hoafes are inhabited, none are allowed to go to ruin, 
aad very few are known to have been built on a new 
^Qoadation. About ao yeas ago, and for fome time be« 
fore, the village exhibited a very ruinou^^ appearance. A 
coofiderable malting buiineis was formerly carried on in it ; 
^e great road, too, between the ferries of Dundee and 
foghorn, pafled through it ; but about 40 years ago, that 
^finels failed, and the road was carried 3 miles to the 
v^ftward. In confequence of thefe events, the malt and 
l^cw Headings, which amounted to X5 or x6 in. the village, 


1 26 StatyUcal Account 

befid«8 two or three in its near neighbourhood, became 
nlelelst and/oon fell into ruin : the whole, however, have 
been repaired or rebuilt of late, and are now inhabited bj 
weavers and other trades pec^le. There are at prefisnt* boi 
two brewers in the pariih, keeping ale-houfes, none of wbicb 
can well be termed an inn. A turnpike-road is makini; in 
the old line through the village, 

jlgrtcultmrCf ISc — ^After what was faid of the nature of 
the foU, little need be faid of the crops it produces. Xhe 
greateft part is endofed or endofing, and every fieuin bears 
wheat, barlej, oats, peafe, beans, potato, and turnip. 
The foil of the greateft part is particularly adapted to po» 
aoto. That root is therefore generally and carefully cul- 
tivated. Nearly the whole grais is fown. The valued rent 
is L. 444a : 13 : 1 Scots. The real rent of land, about 
L. 2400 Sterling. The rent of land rofe to a great height 
here feveral years ago: about 125 acres, that lie couti- 
guotts to the village, and had for ages been let to the inha- 
bitants, at from 14 s. to L. i, 8 s. the acre, were let 8 years 
ago at L. a and L. 3, and the greateft part at upwards of 
L. 4 the acre. For fome years paft, the form and falhion 
of the plough has been perpetually changing. The wright 
and fmith feem now (o underftand their intcreft juft as well 
as the button and buckle maker. The principles of this 
uleful inftrument feem to be but imperfe^y underftood as 
yet ; and till they be undeiftood, the operation of tafte and 
faihion, and art cannot be excluded. The plough in ufe at 
prefent is (aid to be Small's, fomewhat improved, f. /• al- 
tered. It was lately introduced from the coaft of Angus, 
into die north fide of Fife, and has become pretty general 
over the county. It is drawn by two horfes, and held and 
managed by one man \ the beam and handles are (hort, 


of Kennoway. itj 

die head and mould-botrd are made of iron; its value , 
lixnt a gniiicafi *• 

Siipmd, Scieol^Poor.'^Thc ftipend oonfifts of 80 bolls 
meal and bear, and 500 marks monej, amoimdng, mdi.a 
glebe of 6 acres, to abodt L. 80 Sterling. The chnrch . and 
maniie are old, but were lately repaired. The King is patron. 
—The Ichool was rebuilt, and the fchoolmafter's houfe re- 1 
piired, 6 years ago* His falary, including a donation of 
L toScocs, is L. 8 : 6 : 4 Sterling, His perquifites about as 
nmdi. He values the whole of his income at about L.40 
Sterling.— -Only 6 poor perfons receive alms at prefent, and ; 
^ only fund provided for their maintenance, is the week- 
Ij coUedions at the church-door, which are very fmall ; 
tbere is not however, a travelling beggar in the pariih. 

Uifciltaneous Ohftrvattons^^^TLvtij perfon almoft that is 
not engaged in the labours of the field is employed at the 
loom. A confiderable quantity of coarfe linen is made in 
the pariih, which is fold brown, and fome alfo of ta better 
quality, which is bleached and fold at the fummer markets 
in the neighbourhood, to merchants from Edinburgh, Stir- 
Gag, &c. at from i s. 6d. to 3 s. the yard. All are re- 
markably fober, induftrious, and economical, fo that even 
the dearth of 1783 had no vifible efieft upon the poorcft 


• PrUet and ITiyw.— The price of botcher meat is from 5 d. 
10 6d, a ponod tron, at different feaCoos of the year ; of a hen, from i s. 
s^ t» ti. 4d ; of butter tfrom t d. to 9 d. The wages of ftrm-ferrants 
ire ffoni 7 to 8 gniaeu for a''maD, and from L.3 to L.4 for a woman. 
^ wtfcs of a fiifficieot daf-laboarer, i s. 3 d. ; of a gaideoer, z 1. 6d. ; 
^f « Wright and aialbn, « 1. 1 d. 

1 28 StatiJHcdl Account 

and loweft of the peopk ; nothing was done £br them by 
the heritors, jet all fupported themfelves in their nfual 
manner. — Onlj one inftance of fuicide has occurred ^^itbin 
the laft 20 yearsy and not a perbn belonging to the pariili 
has been ponilhed for anj crime or even been imprifoned, 
on any account whatever, during that period. 

N U M. 

of Abernetby and Kincbardine. 1 29 



(CouHTiEs or Murray and Inverness *, Stnod or 
Murray, Presbytery or Abernethy.) 

Bjf the Rev. Mr John Grant. 

Name^ Exttntt Soil^ Surface^ Climate^ IScu 

THE name b defcriptive of the fituation of the church, 
with refpeft to the river Netby^ being near the en- 
trance of it into the Spej. Abernethy, or the Inver^ or 
lennination of Nethy, is in Gaelic, Abcrneich. The mean- 
ing of the name Nethy^ or Neicb^ is not known ; that 
of Kincbardine^ or Kinie-cbairdin^ is the " Clan of Friends." 
In what follows, l^oth parilhes mud be frequently men- 
V0L.XIII. R tioncd 

• About one Half of it in the county of Murray, the othey half in the 
flure of Inremefs. The middle part bein^r in Murray, and the two ex- 
treme parts of it in Invemefs-lhire It is a little remarkable, that at the 
ibuth eail point of this parifli, between Glenlochy and Glenbrown, th« 
&iret of Invemefs, Murray and Banff meet ; fo that when Handing on 
tke Bridge of Brown, one mjiy thmw a Hone into any of the tbitt conn- 

1 30 Statiflkal Account 

doned under the name of Abemethy. It is 15 miles inr 
length, and from 10 to 12 in breadth, and about 30 mile» 
fiom the fea at Invernels, Nairn, or Findhom. The fur^ 
£ice is verj much diverfified with corn-fields, woods, and 
n^oantains. The foil is various -, fome parts, deep, others 
thin and drj, fome wet and cold. A firetch of about 3 
miles of low deep land and meadow, on the bank of the 
Spej, IS often overflowed in times of floods. The Spey 
here runs fmooth and (low, and of courfe the overflow is 
fo too. Although many hundreds of acres are in thb fi- 
tuation, and would increafe greatlj in their value, if free 
of this encroachment ; jec it appears doubtful if embank- 
ments could fave the ground ; and ftill more problematical, 
whether the acquifition would be worth the ezpenfe, which 
behoved to be very great, on accottnt of the great height 
to which Spey rifes at certain times. What increafes the 
difficulty is, the great body of water which, in time of 
floods, comes from the mountains in the Nethy and (mailer 
rivulets, and which would come in behind the embank* 
ments *, bcfidesv the proprietor has a great deal of land ou 
the other fide in the fame predicament, fo that double em- 
bankments would be neceffary. The arable ground bears 
but a fmaH proportion to the uncultivated. A great pro- 
portion of the furface is covered with woods, much of it in 
hilb, mountains, and rocks. The ground rifes towards the 
mountains, and the air and climate vary accordingly. 
Healthy every where. The people in general enjoy 
health to a degree that is not exceeded in many parts of 
the kingdom Thf* fmall-pox b the only difeafe that is re- 
markably fatal. Inoculation is not general, though, upon 
the whole, peoples prejudices againft it are much removed *.. 


• Zofjevity, — A Donald Cameron is 98,— A Marjory Grant loi. It is 
to be regretted, that fuch pciibos are obliged to beg or be fupportcd i» 


ofAbernetby and Kincbardine. 131 

Kivers and Laie-t.-^Tht only river of any note, befidcs 
€bc Spey, is the Ncthy, which, rifing in the high hills, . 
wterfeds the pari(h, running through or near the fir- 
woods, for above 7 miles, and empties itfelf into the Spej. 
In dry weather, it is very inconfiderable ; but after rains or 
€haws, it fwells fo as to bring down loofe all the timber 
that is cut in the woods, either to the faw*mills or to 
the Spey, whence it is fent in rafts to the fea at Gar- 
moQth. There are feveral lakes in Kinchardine ^ the moft 
confiderable of which, is the oval bafon in Glenmore, near- 
ly two miles diameter. It is in the bottom of the glen, 
furrounded with fir-woods, rififig gradually towards the 
mountains. Here is a pleafant fcene in a fine fummer day. 
In Glenmore likewife, there is a green loch, in extent about 
one acre, fiill of fmall fat green trout. At the foot of Cairn- 
gorm, is Loch Aven, from whence the river of that name 
JHues, containing plenty of trout, but dry and indifferent 
.Mes to«at. 

€ave and Mountains. — At one end of this loch, furround- 
sd with vaft mountains, is a large natural cave, fufScient 
to hold a number of men fecure from fnow, rain, or wind. 
People often lodge here for nights, fome from neceflity, 
others when hunting or fifhing. It is commonly called 
Chlachdhian, or the " Sheltering Stone." Of the whole 
range of mountains in view df the pariQi, the Cairngorm^ 
(or blue mountain), is the moft remarkable. Stones of va- 
lue are fometimes found at and near it, but rarely now, and 


tlieir qntitart hy t|ie neighboun. A Jamet Stuart, keeper of the Duke of 
Qot6oa*9U)Tdk» and game* b 93, a blooming, corre^ {cnfibU man, and 
comet to church the coldeft day in winter. The laft incumbent, Mr 
William Grant, who was 60 years minifter of the pariih died in z7tf4» 
a|ed 96 ; and Robert Grant of Lurgg in X771, $7 ycan old. 

131 Statiftical Account 

that foroetimes bj chance or accident ; at other times, by 
^>Sg'°g f<^r tbeni. Some pretend to know the vein where 
the7 may mod likelj be. It is an employment not: 
worth following. Numbers of ilones of variegated co- 
louT3, and regular fides, as if cut bj the lapidary, are 
found above ground, particularly after thaws or floods, 
which wa/h off the furface, but when examined, feldoxn 
worth any thing. Thefe high mountains, to the fouth of 
the^parilh, occafion much cold and frofl. Cairngorm is 
feldom free of fome fnow any time in fummer. On the 
tops of thefe high mountains, there is very little pafture, 
but a downy foggy cover on the rocks. The fir-woods ne- 
ver grow up the fides of thefe high hills, or approach thq 
regions of cold. Cairngorm commands an extenfive view. 
Rois, Sutherland, and Caithnefs, are feen from it. 

Woods ^ and the Progrefs of ManufaBure. — Befides a 
great deal of birch and alder, there are two very large 
fir-woods in thefe pariflies, almofi meeting in one place. 
The fir-wood of Abcrnethy, belonging to Sir James 
Grant, is of great extent, and of an exceeding good 
quality, and very thriving \ but is kept from coming to 
a great fize, by a conflant manufadure, for about 60 
years backward. Before then, the making of deals by 
faw-milU was little known, and lefs pra&ifed. The firft. 
and early method of making deals, was by fplitting the 
wood with wedges, and then drefiing the boards with the 
ax and adze. A high room in Caflle Grant appears to be 
floored with deals made in this way, and never planed. 
The marks of the adze acro& the boards are ftill vifi* 
hie. And though thb floor appears to be of great aa* 
ti<]tiity, fneh is the fiiperlativc quality of the timber, that 
it may continoe as found as it is now hundreds of years 
hence. This floor has another mark of antiquity^ the 


f^ Aberwthy and Kincbardine. 133 

Sits appear all to have been made bj a tountry^mitb, ac- 
.rding to the times ; the bontiets being as broad as a 
aaU halfpennj. Afterward the country-people got 
ic fmall-firamed &w> Tbeit being no demand for deak» 
xuher did the j know how to fend them ont of the coun* 
2r?» the heriton todc any thing tbej could get for the 
wood that was mamifadured. It is not a very long time 
bvk fince the loird of Grant got only a merk a-yeari for 
vhat a man chi;H>&d to cut and manufa&ure with hisjaxe 
aod iaw ; peojde now alive remember it at x s. 8 d. a-year, 
tffcerwards it oame to 3 s. 4 d* and then the Laitd of Ro* 
tliiemiirchiiSt commonly called Maccalpiih brought it up 
:o 5 s. a-year, and i lb* of tobacco. Brigadier Aiejcander 
Grant, (who died in 1719)9 attempted to bring fome mafia 
from his woods of Abemethy to London. But though a 
man of great enterpri^ in his military profeffioo, did not 
perfcvere in this, owing to the many difficulties he had 
to encoimter, fncb as the want of roads in the woods, ikill 
in the coontry-fieople, and all kinds of neceflary imple- 
ments. About the year 1730, a branch of the York- 
Vuxldiog Company, purchafed, to the amount of about 
L 7000 of tbefe woods of Abemethy, and continued till a- 
boat the year 1737 ^ the mod profufe and profligate fet that 
erer were heard of then in this comer. This was iaid to be a 
flock-jobbing bofinefs. Their extravagancies of every kind 
mined tbemfelvcs, and corrupted others. Their beginning 
vaa great indeed, with 1 20 working-horfes, waggons, ele- 
gsuit temporary wooden houfes, faw-mills, iron -mills, and 
every kind of implement and apparatus of the heft and moil 
cxpeafive forts. They uied to difplay their vanity by bon- 
fires, tarJ>arreb, and opening hogfheads of brandy to the 
comtry-people, by which 5 of them died in one night. 
Xhey bad a Commiffaf y for provifions and forage, at an 
hindibme ftfaory ; and, b the end, went off in debt to the 
^ I proprietors 

134 StaiiJIical Account 

proprietors and the coantry. Bat yet their oomin^ i 
the country was beneficial in many refpeds ; for» bcfid 
the knowledge and ikill which was acquired from theti 
they made many ufeful and lading improvements. Xhc 
made roads through the woods. They ereAed proper iani 
mills. They invented the conftruAion of the raft, as it . 
at prefent, and cut a paflage through a rock in Spey, witt 
oat which, floating to any extent could never be al 
tempted. Before their time, fome fmall trifling rafts wer 
'lent down Spey in a very awkward and haaardoos mannei 
10 or la dozen of deak, huddled together, conducted by 
man, fitting in what was called a Curraci, made of a hide 
in the ibape, and about the fize of a fmall brewing-kettle 
broader above than below, with ribs or hoops of wood ii 
the infide, and a crols-ftick for the man to fit on ; who 
with a paddle in his hand, went before the raft, to whicb 
his currach was tied with a rope. This rope had a ran^ 
ning-knot or loup round the man's knee in the currach, fa 
that if the raft flopt on a ftone, or any other way, he 
loofed the knot, and let his currach go on, otherwife it 
would fink in a ilrong dream ; and when, after coming in 
behind the raft again, and loofing it, he proceeded again to 
make the heft of his way. Thcfe currachs were fo light, 
that the men carried them on their backs home from 
Speymouih. There is one of them now in the parifli of 
Cromdale below this. The York*bttildin>; Company had 
x8 of thefe currachs in their employ at firft, with which 
they made little progrefs, till Mr Aaron Hill, one of 
their number, conftruAed the large raft, as it is at pre* 
fent, confiding of two or three branders of fpars in 
the bottom, joined end to end, with iron or other 
loups, and a rope through them, and coadnfied by two 
men, one at each end, who have each a feat and oar, witll 
-vhich they keep the raft in the proper diredion. It i| 


of Ahemetiby and Kinchardine. 135 

fiea&nt to fee a number of them going down at once -, each 
tf them carry down varioufly, according to the quality of 
die timber^ from L. 10,. L. 15, to L. 20 worth ; and at an 
i^rage, the expenfe of each raft to Spejmouth, is about 
Li, 10 a. At prefent, there are 4 law mills in Aber- 

Glenmore Wood. — ^About 8 jears ago, the Dnke of Gor- 

doQ fold his fir-woods of Glenmore, in the baron j of Kin- 

cardme, for L. xo,coo Sterling to an EngUfli Company, 

There were fome inferior companies tried it formerly, but 

vere not fuccefsful. It appears pretty certain now, that 

this Company will fucceed in bringing away all the wood 

within their contrad, before their leafe is out, which was 

16 years V and it ought to be the wifh of every well-think- 

iflg perfon, that they may have profit in the end, as they 

do much good to the country. They are regular and juft, 

and carry on their bufinefs in every department of it with 

mQch exertion and propriety. This was the oldeft, the 

hrgeft, and the bell quality of fir-wood in Scotland, 

>&d the beft accommodated for water-carriage to the 

^P^Ji by means of the loch before defcribed, that is 

in the heart of it, and out of which a river iflues, that 

brings down even their mafis loofe to Spey, a diftance of 5 

or 6 miles. The quantity of fpars, deals, logs, malls and 

fliip-Umber, which they fend to Garmouthi or Speymouth 

Tcarly, is immenfe, and every ftage of the procefs of ma« 

nufaftory, brings money to the country ; generally once a- 

jear, they fend down Spey a loofe float, as they call it, of 

^boQt 11,000 pieces of timber, of various kinds ; whence 

they fend it to England, or fell it round the coall. For 

^e years, they have fent great numbers of fmall malls or 

7^ to England to the King's yards, and other places, and 

htvc built abont ae veflels of various burdens at Garmouthi 


136 Statijlkal Account 

or SptTmouth, all of Glenmore fir. Among otherd, tberc 
is one now on the ftocks, above 500 tons. Without doubt 
thefe manufaftures raiic the price of labour and other arti- 
cles, and make fervants for the farmer more difficult to b< 
got The fit-woods of this country exceed all the natural 
fir-woods in Scotland put together, without comparifon. 
Sir James Grant's woods of Abernethy, of many miles 
circumference ; next, the Duke of Gordon's, in Glen- 
more \ then Mr Grant of Rothiemurchus*^^ who* is fuppo- 
fed to have more trees than either of them ; then the Duke's 
again; after that, the Laird of M'Intodi's in GHenfifliy, 
s^ in a line, of about 20 miles in length, cm the fouth fide 
of Spey, and all having the advantage of abundance of 
water to bring them to Spey. Befides, Sir James Grant 
has another wood, of an exceHent quality, on the other fide 
of the country, on the river Dulnan *. 

Po/>«rte/o«,— -According Dr Webfter's report, the popu- 
lation then was 1670. The ezaft number in this parifh at 
prefent is 1769, of which a6a are below 7 years of age. 
Births, at an average for 6 years pad, 45 ; marriages, 10. 

Produce^ and State of HuJbandry,-^TYie animal produc- 
tions confift of black cattle, flieep, fome goats and horfes. 
The principal proprietor does not encourage great fheep- 
farms, nor are there any large trads laid wafte for fucb 
flocks. It is computed, that two or three farms in Aber- 
nethy which are wholly given to fheep, and what the £ng- 
lifli Company have in their own pofl*e{Iion in Kincardine 
without tenants, had about 200 inhabitants when let in 


• ^mdrufeds and Birds, iSc, — Red-4eer, roe, foxes, hares, moorfowl, 
partridge,' tarmakan, eagles, hawks, and the other birds common in the 
Highlands of Scotland, abound here. 

of Abernetby and Kincbardine. 1 37 

Cmall Sums. However, the (heep are greatly increafed of 
late years, and the fanners endeavour to keep as man j cat- 
tk S9 formerlj ; fo that, like Pharaoh's kine the one coa- 
fames the other. I'he fkeep are almoft all of the black- 
faced kind, though few have the breed genuine, but croC- 
fed. By the tenants increaiing their number of (heep, and 
ftin flriving to keep up their former number of black cat- 
tle, neither the (heep can be expefted to be fold fat, nor 
the cattle ii> general in decent marketable condition ; bj 
wtuch nieans they muft always be fold at prices inferior to 
what they would fetch if properly grazed ; fo that the pa- 
rifh in general is only a nurfery for rai(ing lean cattle and 
flieep, to be fattened elfewhere *.-*The crops here are, 
barley, oats, rye, potatoes, chiefly the fmall black oats ; on 
fome farms peafe and a good deal of white oats. The 
crops here are often precarious, and frequently mifgive to 
a very dillrefling degree. Tliere are only 5 farms in the 


^ The cattle being oflen half fttnred id the winter, owing to hiving 
too many for the ftnw, and Tent in fuminer to hilh covered with flie^, 
nc oftea prefented to the drovers in Auguft and September inith tb« 
fonner year's hair on them. Such in the parUh as do juftice to thetr 
cattle in ftrawlng them fafficiently, and grazing them well in fummer, 
have very cpmely good cattle. But thefc are the feweft, the tenants in 
general keeping their numben of black cattle while the flicep are in- 
(enfibly increafing around them. The promifcooos pailurage of flieep 
•od black cattle is unnatural, and mnit be a lofing game; people 
Ice the error bat do not mend it. This miima^agement is not peculiar 
to this dxftri^ ; many neighbouring parifhcs and counties go on in the 
fuse tra^. While people follow the (heep fyllem as they do, common 
icnie would Teem to dilate to them, that they ought to let the whole hill- 
paftnarge go with the flieep, and only keep as many cattle as their to> 
land farms would graze properly in the fummer. By thefe means fewer 
bealU would exceed in iralne the prdent nnmber. Few horfes are reared in 
dbat pafUb, and great munhcn of finall ones ufed in it by the generality c^ 
the tenants, which takes a great deal of money yearly out of it, and which 
iB^ht be much remedied, if every farmer were to rear a foal every fecond 
fr thkd year. Proprietors ought to attend to this and encourage it. 

Vox. XIII, S 

138 StaHftical Account 

p&riih in any degree of improveineiit : On tfaeie thexp aro 
good hoofes, offices, and fome good eQcIofiires, limed and 
prepared with green crops for grais, which anfwers welL 
Peafe grow well in limed fields here. Tbele farms have 
the advanuge of the beft climate in the parifh. They 
are ploughed with Elnglifli or Scotch ploughs, according to 
the ground. Upon thefe, there are good horfes, oxen, 
carts, and the other modern implements. The want of 
bard wood in the country is a drawback ; becaufe, without 
it, ther« can be no durable infiruments of hnfbandry . There 
are feveral neat farm-houfes built of late through the parilb ; 
but the &nns tbemfel ves in general are in no better ftate than 
they were 100 years ago. The braes, or Highland parts 
of the pariOi, are not fubjeds for the modern improvements 
in hufbandry, but they might be much benefited by liming, 
the limeftoae and peats being near their fields in one quarter, 
but hitherto that has not been attempted. The abfurd ri« 
diculous method of run-ridge dill takes place in a great part 
of the parifh. — The produce of the parifh is com and po« 
tatoes s it never maintains its inhabitants, and often, when a 
failure happens in the crop, &lls far fliort \ fome often 
buy meal for 6 months in the year. After a pretty exaA 
calculation, it is found, that only about 6 firlots of meal 
grow at an average of years, in the two parifhes, for each 
perfon in them. It is fhown thus : There are 7 mills in 
thefe parifhes, a of them fuperior to the refl ; and, upon 
(lire information, computed, at an average of years, at 20 
bolls multure for each, /. #. for both, - 40 bolls 

5 fmall mills, at 8 boUs each, « 40 

Total nmlture, 80 

The multure here being the 33d part, gives the vrtiole pro- 
4uce, except feed and horfe cornj namely 2640 bo^U* 


ofAbemctby and Kincbardine. 139 

i boQ to each i^erfbo of the sumber of inha- 
bitaiits, is - * - - X759 

I \ bfdl to each, is - - 884 

2653 bolb: 
This (hows What attetitioti oDght to be giyeh to increafe 
the Talue of cattle^ becaufe all depends on the returns from 
catde, fheep, wool, butter, and cheefe, for paying rent» fcr? 
vants^ 8bc. 

Luffj^tfj-^.-— The common living language of the peopM, 
io which they conveffe, do their bufinefs, and are iiiilmd- 
td, is the Gaelic ; and the nsimes of places are all Gaelk 

Reni and Heritors.-^Thc valued feiit is L 1553, 16 a. 
Scots ; the gro& land-rent of the two parifhes, beiides the 
woods, is about L. 1500 Sterling:— The heritors are two. 
Sir James Grant and the Duke of Gordon. The Earl of 
Moray has the fuperiority of thefe lands in the pariih, of 
Sir James Grant's, which are in the county of Elgin, 
one of the many inftances of feudal abfurdity, which fepa- 
rates the fuperiority from the pvctpenjr. 

Stipends^ Schools^ Poor^ Wc . — Sir James Grant of Grdnt 
is patron. The fti{)ehd 1§ only L. 64 ; a procels of aug-^ 
mentation is how depending. The glebe about 5 acres of 
middling land. The manfe and offices lately repaired. 
The church xt Abemeth/ hi elegant, and the church 
of Kinchardlne, 8 miles ftotn Abemethy, a very good 
fufficient plain houfe lately repaired ; both church*yards 
wen eodofed with a wall and hedge, and a belt of wood 
about 3 yards broad«-^There are two fchoob in the pa- 


140 Statijlical Account 

ri(h| and a catechtft from the Rojal bounty. Tbe pa^ 
rochial falary is aoo roerks, and a good fohool-houfe* 
The Society's falarj in Kinchardine is L. 9, and one 
of the bed fchool houfes m the Highlands. — There is no 
jtarochial fixnd for the poor, bat the weekly collac- 
tions in the chnrch, which will not exceed L.6 a^year at 
On average^ there being no reiidtng heritors. Thefe col- 
leAions are not fufficient to boy (hoes for the poQTt for the 
half of the year. They live on the farmers, by begging 
from door to door. It is in this way the parifluoners give 
their charity chiefly, which they do very liberally. To 
keep within bounds, the parifhioners beftow 100 bolls o£ 
meal a-year on the poor that beg, and other donations fent 
to fach as, by age or infirmities, are confined at fome home. 
This calculation is within the truth, and eaiily made : A 
ftmily that gives regularly to fuch objeds, will, in the 
cotnmon way, confume a peck of meal each week, which 
exeeeds three bolls in the year to fodi a family. This is 
a heavy burden i^n the tenants, and calls upoor heritors 
to contribute to their reliefs. 

jinti^uities. — There is a large oblong fquare buildjng 
near the church, called Caftle-Roy, or the Red-Cafile, one 


^ ITtf jA, Fuel, ^T.— *Men fcrvftnts get frofti L. 1, lei. to U 3 in thtf 
half year, women xSs. and L i, and fome more; men libouren generallj 
Is. the day; women, 6 d. when engaged for the day at f>eat5, 5cc. 
Senrants are only engaged here for the half yeir, which is attended with 
l^reat inGonveoienciei and much loft of laimir to die fanoer. In &drt 
there are hardly any regalatioiis for fervants in the north of Scotland, which 
is feverely felt. The fuel of the pariih is peat and wood, with which all, 
upon the whole, are well fupplled ; tho* tbe rafting, winning, and leading' 
of them, roakcB them much more evpenfive ten coals are te fuch as have 
eaiy acctCs to them. Befides, there not being fncfa a comfortable coifftittt 
foe, there is much wafte of time, cattle, and carts in all the operations of 
them; and after a rifle of being ill fired after aU» or getting few of them 
home, and tfaefo in bad order in rainy leafoni* 

bfAhernethy and iLincbardine. 141 

^ 30, tbeotiwr 2p j«rd»ytlie betglit abobt to« It ntfVer 
viji itxrfedy has lid lobp faok9f and orij on^ entrance to the 
sofidc. Neidier hiflory nor traditilon^ve any fatiafyiag tfc- 
coiiot of it% . - 

EmtOgmi antf Rtmariabh Men^ — ^Tbe Honourable John 
Grant, late Chidf Juflice of Jamsttcaf was a native of tbb 
parifii. At Kn<lick of Kinchardme^ in the other extremity 
of Ae pariA; was bora in the 1700 John Stuart, common- 
ly called, flmd well known by thiQ name of John Roy Stu« 
art. ifis mother Was 55 yeafs old. wh^n he was bom. 
The OQg of thrfe gentk'n^en^ was as rem^kable for certain 
tafeotB} as the othet was eminent in the ftation which he fo 
lately fitted*' John Roy Stnaft, ferved for federal years as 
fieatenant and quarter-mafter in the Scots Grays, till tht 
year 1740, when he applied for a company in the 
4 2d Regiment, which being denied him, he left the king- 
dom, went for fomc time to the continent, and afterward 
to Franc*, where he died in the year 1752, only a captdh. 
By Aefe means, his talents were loft t6 hinifelf and t6 his 
conntry. He had education, without being educated \ his 
addrefs and his figure, fliowed his talents to great advan- 
tage. He was a good poet in Gaelic and Englift. 

Roads and Bridges. — It was only about ttie year 1 764, 
when the prcfent proprietor Sir James Grant entered to the 
eftate» tbat roads were begun in thb part of his eftate, eolted 
Strathfpey, which is about 30 miles in length. Since whiich 
period, he has niade above 130 miles, when the whole is 
added together. The roads in this parifix, are remarkably 
good) «n J g^iiig Oii y^rly* ^ meahs of the ftatnte-hu> 
boor. TSe great roads are toadc through thefe pariflies 
by Sir James Grant and the Buke of Gordon. Crois 
\ roads 

i42 StatiJlicalAccbuni 

roads are oow going on, which will prove highl/ lervice- 
able. The Duke of Gordon hat made one uncommonly 
good crofk-road, from Glenmore to the Spej^ Un his £ng- 
liih Company. There is one excellent bridge, built about 
15 years ago, by Sir James Grrant on the river Neth j, at 
his own ezpenfe, an^ 1 (iaialler bridges to the eaft by him, 
with fome affiftance from the county of Invemefr. An- 
other bridge is begun, on a very troublefome rivnlet, near 
the church of Kinchardine on the Duke of Gordon's property, 
with affiftance from the county of In vemeis. The heritors of 
the county of Invemefs aflefs themfelves, widi much fpirit, 
for building bridges, &c. which cannot indeed be (aid for the 
proprietors of the low parts of Elgin. Sir James Grant has 
lately made about 7 miles of a very difiicult and ezpenfivc 
road, from Gaftle-Grant, paft his own march in the hills to 
Ihorten the way, at leaft to open new communications with 
Forres and Elgin, and this at his own private ezpenfe*; 

ManufaRurts^ — ^There are no maufiiAnres in thefe 
pariflies, but that of wood, as has been already mentioned. 
A woollen manufafiure, for Scots ferges^ftofi, tartans, 81c. 
might be tried with a profpeft of advantage in fome part 

* And yet, the people concerned in the trade of thefe towns, and the 
numeroos proprietors of the lower eftates, feem to be in danger of forget, 
ting to come forward to meet him. TKey have hitherto done nothing of 
their part of it ; and while they continue fo inaAive, his great ezpenfe 
and labour will be loft. The time was when Highlanden were fiud to t>e 
averfe to have any roads made in,, or to their conotiy. But it is a little 
fingular to fee the inhabitants of the weft of Morray, who always pre- 
tended to fiiperiur civilization to the highland people, fo outdone here. 
It is hoped therefore they will come forward next feafon to fave their re- 
putation. The advantages and fatisfa^ion of the private roads hen, and 
of the King's high road from Fort George to Perth, thnmgh the eaft end 
of the parifh, with its numerous bridges, are fo many a^d fi> fenfibly fell; 
when contrafted with the ftate of the country fome yean ago, that ir 
iwunneceflary to take up room here in itlating it 

%f Ahemetby and Kinchardtne. J43 

i^diis country, where the women underfiand the fpinning 
of wool very well for fuch purpofes ; and where there is 
plenty of wooL Something of this kind, and the fpinning 
of flax, would be of the gre^teft fervice for procuring fub« 
Mence to poor people, and keeping them from begging, 
which numbers are obliged to do, for want; of ^ipployment 
of this kind *• 

MifetOaniOus ObJirvaiionsm''^Thc fixe of the people is ge. 
nerally very good ; at an average 5 feet 6, 8, and xo inches, 
and many above that height ; handy and aflive in their 
peribtts ; generally iagacious and well informed according 
to their ftation ; frugal and economical, and in general very 
tahcr. There is no whiiky dill in the pariih, becaufe there 
is no grain for it. None have been condemned for a capi^ 
tal crime, fince the days of the regality jurifdiOion. They 
make hardy, clean, tradable foldiers when in the army ; 
nambers of them are excellent markfmen. Their chief at- 
tachment is to Highland corps, which Government ought to 
make always as provincial as poifible ; this would increaCs 
their attachment, and their fpirit to a degree that none can 
imderfiand but fuch as know their tempers, A man that 


• Raifiog of flax has been and is tried, but has not come any great 
length as yet, owing to ferenl caules. Several parU of the lands near 
the Spey, are very well adapted for fuch a crop ; but it never can be ez- 
peAed to anfwer in the braes or highlands of the pi^riih ; the foil and 
climate being totally againft it. Fumiihing fuch people as are nnac- 
qoainted with the kind of crop with feed, without any price paid for it, 
4>r at a very low rate, might, with proper direAions given them, bring 
this a greater length and do much good. The want of employment, and 
the large tra^s of land laid under Ibeep in many parts of the High- 
lands, has increafed the number of beggars much. And if the price of 
tratiber advances a little further, beggars will not be able to travel for 
want of (boes; as they wiU not be able to get as much as buy them. Such 
hi^Uaiid (hoct as the people here wear, have increased within thcfe Za 
yeaif (rom lod. and is. to J s. ^^fl 3s. id. the pair. 

r44 SiaitJHcal Accfnmt 

is harfh and auflere, and fond of feveritj and ponifhn^eat, 
is not fit to command a Highland corps; b^t their officers, do 
them juftice» fpeak to them in a difcreet friendljr manner, 
and encourages them bj a little familiaritjt.aaA they 
find them refpedfiil, attached and obedient. The vaga- 
bonds that are recruited in cities and towns, ought never to 
be allowed to mix with them. The method adopted by 
Government •f lace, in making their Highland Feacibles 
prQvinctal on/es, m a wife meafure, and will aafwer the end 
|»t)pofed. It is peculiar to this parifli td have two heri* 
tors, who have (got tach a Feopible rtgtment. The Duka 
gf Gordon and Sir James Grant, and who havt not only 
laifed them in three weeks and a few days, bat have each 
of them fuperouineraries, for additional companies, in form* 
ing a coniidcrable part of fecond battalions, if Government 
fliould need thera ; and all recruited in an eafj, difcreet, 
fimooth manner, without farce or compulfion. Men fo plea- 
fimtlj got, and fo content when well ufed, cannot mifs of 
giving iktisfa^lion to their officers, and may be reli^ pn by 
the nation. The people here are loyal to a degree ^at 
cannot be furpafied ; amazingly attached to their King« be« 
caufe they like his character and his virtues, and that he is 
a good man. Political or religious fanaticifm have got nq 
footing here \ of courfe it is very eafy to live in pe%ci: a* 
raong them. There are no religious fedaries heire, the pcor 
pic being all of the Eflabliihed Church. Their language, 
their garb, their fecial fituation, their climate and modes of 
huibandry, have kept them hitherto a people dI£Ferent in 
charader and manners, from the inhabitants of the low 
country, and from being miiled by the dodrines of thofe 
itinerant fanatics that infeft the coaft. The poifonous doc- 
trines of political pamphlet writers, have made no progreis 
among them \ yet many of the people hare feem often 
n^ch diflatisfied with their condition in fome refpeAs. 
I What 

of Ahernetby and Kinchardine. 145 

What thej complain of chiefly is, the method followed in 
letting their farms when their leafes are expired. It is 
leldoia that the tenants are called on to renew, till within 
a few months of the term of removal, and then perhaps, left 
for years in fnfpence, before they are fettled with, and 
tried for fome addition every year ; and every year recei- 
ving a fnmmons of removal. The ofiers received are gene- 
raOy kept private ; and when they get a leafe, it is only 
for 15 or 19 years, which they think too fhort. The ef- 
fisds of this method are very bad, both for mafter and 
tenant. For during the laft 2 or 3 years of the leaiie, they 
are under apprehenfions of being removed, and of courfe 
plough up what they ought not, or would not, if they were 
certain of continuing ; and all this while, carelefs about the 
repairs of their houfes and buildings. By thefe means, they 
either hnrt themfelves, if they continue, by renewing, or 
their fucceflbr if they remove, and the proprietors ihtereft 
in either cafe. Befides, that while people are kept long in 
faience, it occafions much unhappy anxiety, and reiUefT- 
neis of mind *. 

Vol. XIIL T Cattle, 

* The following or fome fuch rules, if attetided to, might be Wneficial 
both to mailer tnd tenants, i^, That tenants onght to be fettled with, 
at leaft a year before the expiration of their leafed. 2rf, Tliat no pri- 
vate ofTen onght to be admitted at all. They arc' often, when inju- 
dicious, unfafe for the mader and precarioui for the tenant. Becaufe a 
tetiant is at a lofs how to aft, when he'^o^s ncJl* Ivhat is offered by o- 
tben, and of courfe may offer different times above himfelf. \ pu- 
blic roup would be fairer than private offers, becaufe then a perfon fees 
what he is doing. iBefides that when people are prciTed by neceffity, 
or hurried by their paffions, it is dangerous to rely on their offers. The 
method of encouraging people to offer* privately or publicly upon each 
other, is mo^« the very eitence of Chriftianity, by deftroying 
frieo4n«ip and good., will, and introducing much ill will, revenge and 
quarrels. It b common to lie&r of peoples threatening, to. offer for their 


146 ^ Stati/lical Account 

CaJttU mariits^^Thc people here, as well as ia many 
parts o£ the Highlands, have hot too much caufe to 


netghboun peflefltom fevenl yetrs before tfaejr expire. In ibort the ill 
temper produced by the(e unlucky interferences, fometiraes lives longter 
than the leafes. It is hird, therefore, to throw unnecef&ry temptatiotis 
in the way of pe^le; and therefore what might remedy all dus and 
anfwer better, is, yify. That the mailer » after being well informed, and 
doe coofideration of the nature, quality, climate, advantages and difadvan. 
tagesofeach farm, fliould fet a fpecific rent on it, aa high as he thinks 
it can bear, and then oflfer it to the pofleflbr, and t^ none other, if he 
does noi rt\f£t it, paying due regard at the fame time to abilities, in- 
duftiy, chara^er and principle ; and if the pofleflbr declines it, then 
to give it to fome other proper perfon, who may think it worth that 
rent. 4thfyt That when a proprietor gets good tenants, he ought to give 
two or three nineteenS| with a certain rife of rent at certain periods. 
, This would make their minds eafy, and induce them to wGt with fpirit, 
becaufe of their having a pretty fiire proipedl that they or thein might 
reap the fruits of their induftry. Fifteen or 19 years leafes are very bad for 
people of circumflances and induftry ; becaufe when an induftrlous man upon 
a (hort leafe puts his farm in the beft order he can, he makes it the greater 
temptation for others t» o&r for it and remove himielf. There is ano- 
ther thing which the tenants of the principal proprietor complain of_ 
much, and which they reckon a grievance, tho* it is only the confcquence 
of their agreement by their leafes, that is, the payiag for the building or 
reparation of church, manfe and fchool-houfe. This was no doubt in- 
troduced in time of wadfets or mortgages, of which there are none nov^' 
on the eftate.. Jt would be equally for the intereft of the heritor to take 
this all on hknfelf, as is generally done over all Scotland, and fubftitute 
an addition to the rent in place of it. This would likewifc be moft-plea- 
fant to any incumbent ; becaufe, when any thing is wanted in that way» 
the people murmur and complain* and look upon themfelves as diftrefied 
by the minifter. 

Cottager s.'^Thcit is a dafs of people much negle^ed, at leaii: very 
little attended to, not only here but in moft countries in the Highlands,. 
I. e, the cottagers. They not only ha^e their houfcs from fnbtenants, but 
fometimes from the fubtenants of fubtenants ; and few of them allowed 
to keep a milch cow or a hbrfe, even for paying for them. This, in a 
country where there is not conftant employment for fuch, by daily laboufy 
mull of courfe keep them mi&nbly p^er, and force them often to beg 

of Ahemethy and Kinchardine. 147 

ftplain of lofles faflained by the failures of little dro- 
▼eis. It is thought bj fome, that this might be pre* 
vented from being fo frequent. The common method of 
bojing of cattle is, for anj one that attempts droving, to 
can a market for himfelf when he fees proper. The ne- 
ceffitj, ignorance, or greed of many, induce them often to 
venture their cattle, for a (hilling or two more a^head, with 
a man that would be ruined if he loft a crown a-piece by 
bis parcel at Falkirk. Sales are by thefe means often par* 
tial, and feldom general, — ^picking a few beafts here and 
there out of parcels. It is thought, a few public markets 
in centrical places, correfponding to the fairs in the fouth, 
would anfwer better ; that heritors ought to attend to this, 
and that they and their fafiors ihould get the bed informa- 
tion in their power of the prices of the times, and get men of 
charaAer and fubftance to come as buyers ; that the fafiors 
ihould attend them, and perfuade the tenants to fell in a 
reafimable moderate way, according to the times: This 
might make the lale more general, and often prevent much 
money from being loft to tenants, a^d^ of courfe, to heri- 
tors. For, furely, confidering what a fatiguing, hazardous 
bofinefs droving is, men that pay well ought to be mu6h 
foD^t after, and much encouraged ** 


or tempt them to pilfer. If heritors were to aflSgn ihull fpots of land 
for diem in centrical places, near the principal firms, from whence labour 
might be czpc^ed moft, and let each of them have a houfe and garden, 
and aboat two acres of ground for corn and potatoes, this would maintain 
a cow, and perhaps a finall horie ; and they might join about ploughing 
their fpoCs. |Fo«r or fix would be enough together ; crowding a number of 
poor people together might defeat the defign. This might anfwer well 
for foiall tradefmen, fuch as country Ihoemakers, tailors, weavers, &c. 
and promote their comfort, honefty and ufefulnefs to the neighbour- 

* Stait if Gtehes,^^HtTtt though out of place, a few obfervations occur 
to be made on the original and general defignation of mioiflen glebes, the 



148 Statifiual Acceuni 

Prognfs 0/ Civilization. — ^It is worth obfeirving, what 
change there is in the modes of thinking of the people 
within tfaefe laft 45 years. Two events have contribotetly 
in a remarkable manner, to a better waj of thinking, and 
fiibmifBon to order and government. The rebellion of 
z 745-6 in its good effeds, and the fubfeqaent abolition of 
the jarifdi£tion-aA. Previous to that period, property iw^rs 
chiefly protefted by force, and the exifting laws known in 
theory, but little regarded in many parts of the High- 
lands. Thieving was a trade in many countries, and car- 
ried on on a large fcale, with much contrivance and faga- 
city, and countenanced fometimes in private by thofe who 
undertook, for a certain pay called black meal^ the protec* 
tion of neighbouring diArifts. Prefident Forbes of Cullo* 
den paid his proportion pf this afleflment, before the 17459 


If gnl quantity being four acres and a little graft. It would appear that it 
was thought then, that minifters were to live abftnufled from this earth aU 
together. There is fuch a difference between four acres in fome places or 
countries and othtrs, that there was no juftice in the general rule. What 
furpufe car many glebes of four acres of poor land in many parts of the 
Highlands anfwer ? Will fuch a glebe maintain cattle to plough itself, or 
two horfcs to lead the minifter*s peats ? Which way is his family to get 
fuel brought home, or meal, carried from the low country, at tlic dif- 
tance of 30 or 40 miles or more ? . Was it fufipofed, that minifteri would 
be able, at any rate when old, to go on foot through their large parifiies, 
from one preaching place to another, ^t many miles diftance, through froft 
and fnow ? Thcrerore without regard tp quantity, every glebe ought to 
maintain two cows, and two good horfes fpr ploughing, for the roiriiter*s 
riding, for leading his peats and niealtroraany diftance neceflVry. It is faid 
herrtors reckon it a great hardfliip that the Court of Seflionlhould decern for 
vidliial to niiniftcrs in pariflics which pay no vi<5lual-rent, and perhaps 
when enough is not produced for the inhabitants. Some heritors grudge 
every thing that is given to their clergy, as if they had no right to any 
thing. But, befides that viclual is the only payment that keeps pace with 
the times, does it hot appear "a greater hardfhip, that a micKlcr fliould fend 


of Ah^^Mthy- and Kinchar dine. 149^ 

to a certain pcrfon to -the weft of him^' Wlioft '^(yWer and' 
ainence ivere fo great, ^t he wMld.bslveTaindlhis'is^ 
late if he had- refbfedi to compfyv ' T^e latfd of Moray 
bdag, it fieenis, always^ a land of ptentji feems to h^ve 
been devoted ta be. pltmdered. \ The people to the weft ap- 
pear to hove^ikdmed sL right to li^diari^Qff Che f^odadiotis of 
it. They u(p* to regret, that their fcom-ftacks would not 
drive like their eattltt^^-^The homitlation produced -bj the 
V ^ . , .. defeat 

» a Sreat diftance ior'-wbat his ftmily reqiwre^^Dd nesiftld • 
fecai diaitable* that at aqv nte 20 or 24 bolUmeal and bear Cbould be tur^ . 
dcred ; which, with the produce of the glebe, mi^ht be fuppofed to an- 
ffrcr for the confunaption of the houfe. 

* There is a remarkable correfpondence {between Allan Cameron of 
Lochiel, and the Latrd of Ohmt about J 40 years a^o, wherein the pnn- 
ciplcs of the time^ are .clearly feeOf The • correfpondence is publiflied in 
Sir John Dalrymple*« CoUedion of original papers and letters. The ftory 
is briefly tbos: a party of the Camerons had come down, to carry tifpreatb 
of cattle, as it was called, from Morray ; they unlackily carried off the cattle 
of Graat of Moynea in Naim-lhire. - Moynes'complained to his Chief, the 
Laird of Grsot, and he fent a party after diem»: and iiktt a ikarp confliA, . 
broaght back the cattle, Lochiel writes, a Jettar to his friend the L^ipliLi 
of Grant, regretting the misfortune, aflerting that when hWfricndjiweflt wt, ,^ 
they did not intend to trouble his Honour's land; nor did they know that 
Moynes waa a Grant, otherwife they would* not have gohe near hnn, or * 
troobled hym more than any man iir Strachfpey, but they Went io Moray* ' ' 
Uody he lays, *' where ail men take t^eir prey,** X^K-hiel mentions thenum* 
Ler of killed and wounded of his friends in the (kirmi(h'; and (ays, they 
were aU to much taken up about the curing of their friends, that they 
coald oot attend to any bufitiefs -fo/ the time. 'But when that was oV^,*'h& ' 
^.-as wiUiogto refer the- whole to their mstnal friend SeaArth, whicU if^ 
done ; and it does not appear^ that Seaforth had much difficulty in mfikin^ - 
the two chieftains as gooi friends as they were before. A little after this 
period, the Laird of Grant was obliged to build a itable within his court, 
to prerent his own brother from taking away his befl horfes. .1 his ftablt; . 
w« takeis dowA about 40 yfcars ago. The incumbent remembers wYieh 
thft people of this eonntty- loppt odt a ^atch^in Ih'e fummer-months, for 
protedsog dieir cattle, andtheie watches kept up by a round of duty, and 
rtlieb at certain periods. In &ir country^' 'wli:ere that ^u&icfs was hot 

' fqllowe^ 

X$p< StatyHcfU AeccmU 

defiMt oCtfae mdertaking of ^^AS'^9 ^^ ^^ ^^ plan o^ 
employiag the HigklafMien in 1757 in the public oatife, 
contribated by degrees tp introdnoe loyalt j and fabmif&aa 
to tbe laws into the very leats of dilafibAioa and 'rapine* 
The condu&.of the peopfey when employed in fnpport 
of tbe nation, ibowed that they were only mifled at 
home. It is to be regretted, that £0 many Uiowfiinda 
of tbeie now loyal brave people have been fioflrced to a 
foreign fliore by necef&ty, for want of employment, 
habitationi or ground to fubfift on. However advanta|re- 
ous the flieep-brming mvy be, it is poffible it may be o^ 
verdone ; and if ever that happens, it will be found to be 
impolitic in every fenfe, as it is cruel in many places at 
pre£ent. It is dangerous in tfaefe times to drive poor peo- 
ple to defperation, as it may make many difpofed to join 
in tumults and riots, who would never think of them if they 
had a home and the common neceflaries of life. To increafe 
our gratitude for the proteftion afforded by our conftitution 
to the lives and properties of individuals in thefie countries 
at preient, we will mention the bleffings we enjoy by the 
abolition of the jurifdiffion-aft in the year 2748. That 
delegation of feudal power was dangerous in the extreme, 
becaufe it was generally abuled. When we confiilt the 
traditional hiftory of the country for a century and up- 
wards paft, and the extraordinary condufi of fome of thefe 
defpots, the bailies of regality, and the precariouibeis of 
life and property often within their juriidifiion, one is ex- 
cited to grafp with fondneis the Government that has anni- 
hilated* their dangerous power. They often punilhed 


followed profeinonally for fome Umep^, the people in fevenl plaoeumd 
paiTes were often obliged Xfi be difcreet and bootable to theie uitniders* «s 
tbpy wentto the low countries, and no doubt there were connivenind aid- 
f n among them, who kQQw very well for what they were fo. 


of Ahemethy and Kincbardine. 15 1 

dmeSy bj Gdmmitdng greater ones themfelves. Tbej of- 
IB, no doubt, tried hy jury ; but feme of them, at other 
ines, in a fummaiy, arbitrary, and ^atraordinarj man- 

* A few infiances will be enongh to mention, in cafe the reader fhould 
tuagine, tliat tfacic things were lately done in Tippoo Snhan*s domi- 
aiois. One of thcxn lived in this pariih» named Robert Grant, commonix 
olkd Bailie More. It b faid, he ufed to hang people for difobliging 
^am. He feldora called jnries : He hanged two brothers on a tree witfaui 
t tboo&nd yards of this town, and buried both in one grave, on the road- 
tie. The gfmve and ftooes above it are ftiU vifible. Another, aimed 
Jmes Onnt, comtaionly called Bailie Roy, who lived long in this parilh* 
loosed a man of the name of Steoart, and after hanging him, fct a jury 
« Um, and found him guilty. The particulars are too long to be inferr- 
ed here. The Bailie had many reafons for being in fuch a hurry. The 
MO was* wdnckily for htm, wealthy, and abounded in cattle, horfes, 
ihccp tnd gaats^ all of which were ioftantly driven. to the Bailie's home; 
Stoart's children let a>begging, and his wife became deranged in her mind, 
isd was afterward drowned in a river : It is not very long fince. This 
^me Bailie Roy, on another occafion, hanged two notorious thieves, par- 
boiled their heads, and let them up on fpikes afterward. At another 
time, he drowned two men in facks, at the bridge of Billimon, within 
1 few hundred yards of this maofe, and endeavoured to compel a man from 
Gkamore, in the barony of Kinchardine, to affifthim and the executioners 
^ bad with him in the bufinefs ; which the man refufiog to do, the Bailie 
&id to him. If yon was within my regality, I would teach you better 
nnaoers than to difbbey my commands. This Bailie bought a good eftate. 
There wu another of them, called Bailie Bain, in this country ; who became 
fo odioas, that the country-people drowned him in Spey, near the church 
of tnteiallan, about 2 miles firom hence. They took off his boots and gloves, 
left then in the bank, and drove his horfe through a nigged place, full 
of large ftones. The tra£l in the fand, boots, &c. difcovered what had 
become of him ; and when a fearch was made for him down the river, a 
Btto met the party near the church of Cromdale, who alked them, what 
^ were iearching for ? they anfwered, for the Bailie's body ; upon 
wiiich, he (aid, ** Turn back, turn back, perhaps he is gone up againft 
** the river, for he was always adling againft Nature.'* As their power 
*tt great, and generally abufed, fo many of them enriched themfelves. 
The) had many ways of making money for themfelves ; fuch as, x . The Bai- 


152 Suuiftical Account 

lie's Dank, ts it wu caU^, or e day't Ubour ia tlie yus fnm every te * 

nant on the eftate. 2. Confifcations, as they generally feixed on all tli e 
goods and eflfe^s of fuch as fuffered capitally. 3. All fines for killing 
game, black-fifli, or cotting green wood, tvcre laid on by tfaemfelres^ 
and went into their own pockets. Thefe fines amounted to what they- plem- 
fed almoft. 4. Another very IncratiTe perqnifite they had, was, ^irlaac 
was called the Herial Horfe, which was, the beft hocfe, cow, ox, or 
other article, which any tenant on the eftate poflefled at the time of Izis 
death. This was taken from the widow and children for the Bailie, at the 
time they had moft need of affiftance.' This amounted to a great deal 
on a large eftate. Tins pra^ice was aboliihed by the late Sir Ludovick 
Grant in this country, in the year 1738. 


tfMcldrum. 153 



Bj^ thi Riv. Mr Thomas Tait. 

Name, Extent^ Air^ Soiif iic^ 

THE ancient name of this pariih was Betheln j ; the 
church and manfe being at that time fixated in a prart 
of the parilhy which retains that name, and where there isi 
ffill a chnrch^yard, and borial place for the family of Mek 
dram. The prefent church was biult near to the village 
of OU-Meldrum, with a view (it is laid) to ahnex the 
potilh of Bourtj to the parifli of Meldrum, for fo it has 
been called fince this church was built, about the year 1684 ; 
but this annexation did not take place. The figure of the 
parilh is irregular, meafuring about 5 Engltlh miles in 
length, from S. to N. along the poft-road from Aberdeen 
to Banfi^ which paffing through the town of Old Meldrum, 
divides the pariih into two, but not equal parts. The 
breadth firom £• to W. is in fome places, more than 4 
Vol. Xin. U Englifh 

t54 Siati/Hcal Account 

Eng^ miles, and in othen onlj about 2. It contains 
nearlj 6000 Scotch acres. The air is healchj, and the foiT 
ID general good. The whole pari(h almoft (the mofles ex- 
cepted) might be brought into cultivation by the ploagh 
alone ; and accordingly, a good deal of barren ground has 
already been, and flill more is jufi now bringbg into tillage 
in thb way. In the fouth part of the pariOi, where the 
town of Old Meldrum b fituated, and a good way around 
itt the foil is a flrong rich loam above clay, which, wbea 
properly maniured, bears luxuriant crops. The north part of it 
lies higher, in a thinner (harper foil, does not require fo much 
manure, and yields not fo weighty crops. Inhere are feve- 
ral quarries of the granite to be fiound in the parifh, fome 
of them very eaiily wrought, and of fuch a quality, as that 
the ftones may be drefled almoft for any purpofe* There 
are no fmaU rivulets in this parifti, but fuch as take their 
rife in it ; and yet there are upon the confines of it, 3 meal- 
mills belonging to it, which are moftly driven by water 
rifing in it. 

ViOages.-^^li Meldrum was ereded by charter into a 
burgh of barony m the year 1673. The bailies, 2 in num- 
ber, are eleded by Mr Urqubart of Meldrum, fuperior of 
the burgh, and have the fame authority as the bailies of any 
other burgK of barony have, fince the abolition of jurifdic- 
tions in 1748. There is a very good weekly market in it, 
for all kind of provifions, the beft in the county north of 
Aberdeen. The inhabitants in number about 783, confift 
of merchants, tradefmen of all kinds, and day-labourers ; 
and from thejnhabitants, one may judge of the number of 
feus, aU the houfes in the town being built on feued ground. 
There are no manufadures as yet. eftabliibed in it, but iot 
the hofiery Ene. But from its local fituation, it appeara 
▼cry well adapted for the linen and thread mano&auretr 
3 these 

of Meldrum. 

t ) 

there berag plenty of foft running water all around it. 
TlierD' are a diftillery and brewery, lately eftabliflied in it, 
aiMl both are in a thriving way. 

Poptilation.^^A,ccoT6mg to Dr We fter*s report, the 
number of fouls then was 1603. In 1785, the inhabitants of 
the town were in number 775, and thofe of the cobntry part 
of the parilh 738, amounting in all to 1553. In 1791-39 the 
town contained 783, the country 707, in all 1490, of whom 
728 are males, 762 females. They are in general of the £• 
flablifhed religion, a few Seceders, Epifcopalians, and Qua* 
kers, excepted. The decreafe of inhabitants in the country 
part of the pariih is to be accounted for by the fize of the 
farms being of late increafed, one tenant juft now poflef- 
fing what was formerly occupied by 3 or 4 tenants ; and 
alfo by an improving tenant choofing rather to occupy the 
gronnd himfelf than to let it to fubtenants. The marriages 
are, upon an average of 10 years backward, 10, and the 
births 26. There is no regifter kept of burials. 

Stipend^ Churchy Poor^ School^ C/r.-— The ftipend isL.45 
in money, 3 chalders of vidual, the one half meal, the o- 
cher barley. The glebe meafures between 8 and 9 acres. 
The manre and church were lately repaired. Mr Urquhart 
of Meldrum is proprietor of the whole parilh, and patron. 
— ^The number of poor receiving alms is 30 -, the annual 
contribution for their relief amounts, at an average, to a- 
bout L. 33, los. which, with fome donations fent from 
time to time by natives of the place at a diftance, make 
the whole of the fund for their fupport. The greater part 
of the poor refide in the town, and the inhabitants in ge- 
neral are very humane and charitable to -them, lending o£- 
ten to their honfes what their neceffitiea call for ; and they 
have aHb at times public contributions through the towQ 


156 Stati/lical Account 

for the relief of the mod neceffitous *• — There is a very 
gopd ichool at prefent in the town, attended by 40 or 50 
fcholarsin fummery and 50 or 60 in winter. It woald cer- 
tainly be a very eligible place for boarders. The prefent 
Ichoolmafter has only had one or two as yet; but boys or girls, 
at an early period of life, may have a very good education 
in the place. The fixed £ilary is L. 10 ; but from emolu« 
ments of office, fcholars, &c« ^the living may amonnt to 
L.30 or ^•4u altogether. There is alfo a Sunday's fchool 
well^endowed by a native of the place, which promifes to 
be of great fervice to the rifing generation. It has been 
attended by 60 or 70 childreu almoft every Sunday during 
laft winter feafon. 

Agricubun. — ^Agriculture is no doubt dill in its infao- 
py in this part of the country ; but the progrefs it has 
made in this parifh, within thefe laft ao years, is by no 
means inconfiderable. T^ben only the proprietor raifed tur- 
nip in the field, now there are fome &rmers who will have 
from 8 to 10 acres of turnip yearly, and they obferve a 
pretty regular rotation of crops, and every tenant has fome 
part of his ground in green crops yearly. Of late years 
alfo, the quality and fize, both of black cattle and horfes, 
have been greatly improved, and their numbers increafed, 
owing to the improvements which has been made in huf- 
bandry. The plough now made ufe of by many is of the 
Englifh form, drawn by 4 horfes or oxen in autumn and 


♦ fVagti and P/ hei, — ^Thc wagps of fervants withia thefe 10 ycin are 
lietrly doubled. A good plonghman, in place of L. 4 or L. 5 tben, gets 
from L. 6 to t. 8, with vi<ftaal» in the houfe, and others in propor- 
tion. Good beef and mutton are fold from 1^ d. to 44. d. the pound ; 
l«mb and v^l frofii 4 d. to tf d. ditto; butter is fold from 7 d. to 5; d. the 
pound; and cheefe, from 3d. to 4d,^ ttie pound, all Aberdeen 

of Meldrum. 157 

winter^ and a leffer one of the fame kind in fpring and fam« 
mcr, drawn by two horfes or oxen, but fome ftill nfe the 
Scotch plough, with 8 or xo oxen. They have not yet en* 
ckrfed much of their ground in this parifliy there being few 
ftones to be got for that pnrpofe, but fuch as are quarried ; 
snd fiences of thefe ftones, or hedges and ditches, are too ex-*^ 
penfive for £umer8, unjefi their leafes were longer than are 
generally given in this country. However, as winter herd- 
ing is regularly obferved, the fown grafs and turnips are 
pretty fafe in winter in the open fields. The greateft lofs 
to the farmer, from the want of enclofures, arifes, perhaps, 
from his cattle not fattening fo foon in fummer, when 
followed by a herdliaaan, as when pafturing at large in a 
field properly fenced and watered \ and therefore, as they 
begin to know the value of enclofures, they are making 
fome attempts in that way. Land is rented about Old 
Meldrum, by the inhabitants of the town, from L. x to L. a 
the acre in general, and by tenants in the country part of the 
rilh, from a s. 6 d. to L. x the acre. Property has not been 
fliifted in this pariih within the reach of the oldeft records 
in the county. The farms are of different fizes, from L. zo 
to L« ao, and from L. 20 to L.70 of yearly rent. The 
produce of the parifli is oats, barley, peafe, poUtoes, tur- 
nip, cabbage, hay, and fome flax for private ufe, A con- 
fiderable quantity of grain is fent yearly from this parifh 
to the Aberdeen market *. The black bearded (mall oat^ 


* Crop 1781 proved very defeAive in this country in general^ Irat tte 
calAinity was not (b feverely felt in tliit purifli as it would otherwife have 
been, if tiie proprietor had not fapplied the inhabitants of the village with 
ilonr, oatAcal, and peafe-meal, and procured good wholefome grain for 
feed to hts tenants, which he fold out to them in time. He alio took 
but a low price for his farm-meal from fuch of his tenants as could 
not pay it in kind. He further gave a dedudlion of rent for a few yean 
folbmeofthem, upon condition of their bringing home and laying on 


15S Stati/lical Account 

iv9^ jBppQ c patrt of fnoft farms tkroogb this couatryt auid 
of which the farm-^al was paid to the. proprietor, (hence 
the diftinftion of farm-meal and white med), are now air 
mioft baoifhed from, the parifli, and the tenant, obliged by 
\i% teaie to^paj only farm-meal pays it in white meal^ ha- 
h^ving meliorated his ground fo much^ at to produce the 
white great oat in places of this fmall blacjk oat \ .an advan* 
ti^.fio .doubt to the proprietor, but % much greater one to 
the tenant- 

Mifcellantous Obfirvations. -^It may be worth while to 
obferve, that at firft darting in the way of improvement, 
in this country in general, they had many dii&culties to 
overcome. They be^m with giving fo little lime to their 
ground, that it had almoft no effeft. This, together with 
fon^e improper methods of laying the lime on their ground, 
retarded its progrcis much. After they learned to 
give the ground a greater quantity of lime, and it became 
grateful to them in proportion, they took 6 or 7 crops of 
oats fucceflively, and fo reduced their ground almoft to a 
caput moriuum* They alfo cropped too much after tur- 
nip. They now, from experience, know better things, 
and do not exhauft the ftrength of their ground in this 
manner, but fow it with grals-feed while in good heart. 
About 16 years ago, when the firft Englifh lime in (hells 
was brought to this pariih, they fpoke of it then as fuch an 
ezpenfive manure, as the ground could never repay, and 
confequently the farmer could by no means afford. But at 
this prefent time, the fmalleft crofter in the pariih finds his 
advantage in ufing the EngHih lime in (bells, and will go 


^eir ground Umem pioportioa tlieitta. , This niied fucfa a fpirit of in- 

inikry atnong them, that they have improved their ground more fince th&t 

time, thai^ thej did for double that period bcfofe ; and they have, opon 

the whole, bettered their condidon. 

o/* Meldfum. i59 

wWi his fin^ horfe and cart t0 Aberdeen for Acm? fo 
that landholders niay fee, froirf^AlftKttJe that haibtitfiiA- 
ready done tn this corner of the conntry, iii the way^lrti* 
prorcmeht, how mtich they havfe it in their poweir ^o'^ 
celcmc the progitfe df it by giving ^opcr encourage- 
ment to induftnboi tenants -, yea thofc large trads of wafte 
ground, tbbfc fecn every where through thi» xrounty, fomi 
of them covered with heath, but with evident trac^ of thfe 
old ridges in them, might be brought into 'cuhivataifc 
Thb would give employment to the induftrious, prove <)r- 
namental to the coiintryrand perhaps more aivantagedos 
to the proprietors, than the fextcnfibn of property. 

Among the advanl^cs froih local fituatiod, to th«J ittha- 
bitants of this parffliand ncighbouAood, a good weekly 
maricetin otf Meldrum may be juftly reckoned ; where 
the form*-, at any fcafon of the year, can difpofc of what- 
ever part of the produce of his farm he can fparc, and in 
return bring home what may be wanted for the fubfiftence 
of his fiunily. Leafes are given to tenants for 19 and 3} 
years, with encouragement for good houfes and fences, by 
the proprietors agreeing to pay for the fame at the end of 
die kafc, as they Ihall be then valued by two men mutu- 
afly chofen. All fervices formerly paid to the proprietor, 
arc mofUy converted ; the only fervitude or ufage they 
now complain of, cfpecially improving tenants, is the pay- 
ment of roill-multurcs. The inhabitants of Old Meldrum 
are weU fupplied with fine fpring water ; and the diftillery , 
and brewery have each of them the command of a fmall 
ftream of water. Owing, it is thought, to the quality of 
die water, the porter brewed here is in great repute. The 
greatefl daiadvantage the people of Old Meldrum labour un* 
der, ariies from the want of fuel. But if the duty be taken 
off the coals, this will encourage both the manufadurer and 
£»micr mochy and prove n great benefit to the poor. It 


t6o Stoical Account 

would be a gnat advantage to tbe labooring poor m Old 
Meldniaif if foch a quuitity of coals were laid in daring 
famoier as would lerve them, and ihen fold out to them in 
winter as their neceffides called for. It would aUb be a 
great accommodation to the inhabitants of ihe whole pa- 
rifliy and this comer of the countiy, if the public roads 
from Old Meldram to the neareft fea-port towns, Aber- 
deen and Newburghi were kept in better repair ; efpeci- 
allj to the latter place, which is nearer bj 4 Scotch miles 
than Aberdeen ; and where both lime and coals are im* 
portedi and generally fold cheaper than at Aberdeen* 

The people in general are adive and indnibioDS, and 
fome of them of no little enterprize* They are, as was al- 
ready ob&rvedy very liberal to the poor. 

NU M- 

of Muirboufe. 1 6i 



Pre&bttery of Dundee.) 
By the Riv. Mr Alexander Imlach. 

Name^ Exttnif CIi$nate, l^e. 

THERE are many places in Scothnd of this namci 
though this IS the only parifh fo called, perhaps from 
its original date ; no other etjmologj can be alcertained. 
The church and manfe are fituated in the S. £• corner of 
the pariihy 5 miles from Dundee* The parifli is of fmall 
extent, a confiderable part is very good arable land, fome 
moor-gronndy amoist the property of Colonel Fotheringham 
of Powrioi and a valuable marl-pit, belonging to Mr 
Gothrie of Guthrie. The air is dry, and very healthy in 
the fottthem part of the parilb. Agues did prevail about 
30 years ago ; but the marlbes being drained, they no more 
appear. In the northern part of the pariih the air is not fo 
dry, mifis frequently ariiing, There fevers diftrels the inha* 
bitantSi and the barveft is xo or xa days later than in the 
Vol. XIII. X fouthem 

i62 Statijlieal Account 

fouthem pares. A turnpike-road goes through the pariih, 
in a line from Dundee to Brechin, lately made, which will 
be of great benefit to the inhabitants. 

Proprietors, — I. The Honourable WiDiam Ramray- 
Maule of Panmure, heritor of Ballumbie -, where there are 
the remains of an old fortified cafile. Thb efiate was farmcF- 
ly the property of a family, of the name of Lovell. Xo 
one Alexander of that family, the celebrated Catherine 
Douglas (wbofe arm was fraAured when attempting to ftop 
the aiTaffins who murdered James I. King of Scotland, in 
the town of Perth) was married, and lived in this caiUe. 
3. John Guthrie, Efq; of Guthrie, proprietor of Wefter 
and Eafter Gaigies, as alfo Muirhoufe. Wefter Gaigie has 
been long the property of that family, where fometimes a 
fon refided. Their principal feat is at Guthrie, where there 
is an old caftle, and tf collegiate church, endowed by Sir 
Alexander Guthrie ; he, or one of his fucceflors of that 
name, was killed with James IV, at the battle of Flowdcn, 
3. Colonel Alexander Fotheringham, Efq; proprietor of Wef- 
ter Powrie, Myretown, Wbitebo^fe, IMiddle Brighty, 9nd 
Mill of Brighty. Wefter Powrie had been a confiderable 
time the refidence of that ancient family. They live now 
at an elegant feat, named Fotheringham, in the parifli of 
Inverarity. 4. Alexander Wedderbum Efq; of Wed- 
4erbum, formerly named Eafter Powrie ; his funiame wa$ 
originally Scrymfeure, the reprefentative pf the noble 
£amily of Scrymfeure's of Dudhope and Dnndec. He afr 
fumed the name of Wedderbum, whan called to the ftic- 
ee£B<xi of the Wedderburns of Eafter Powrie, where there 
are the remains of an old caftle, the refidence of Gilchrift, 
Thane ^ Angus, from whom all the Ogilvys in Scotland are 
^id (0 be defcended. 5 • Mr James Ogilvy , minifter of the gofpel 

of Muirboufc. 163 

at Cificy Whe^e formetl; a family of the name of Guthrie, 
the progenitors of MrsOgilvj in the maternal line, fefided. 
Ttie valued rent of the pariih is L. ^304 Scots, of which 
Colonel Fotheringham pofleiTes L.714: 3: 4; Guthrie, 
L. 561 : 2 : 84; Wedderburn, L. 533 : 6 : 84; Ballumbie, 
L- 350 9 WeAhall, L. 145 : 7 : 44. The real rent is 3 times, 
and more, than what it was 30 years ago. There being no 
towns or villages of any extent, maoufaftures do not exifl \ 
a few weavers here and there excepted. 

Population. — According to Dr Webfter's report, the num- 
ber of fouls then was 623. The number of inhabitants 
is greatly diminiihed, owing to the monopoly of farms, the 
mode of labourihg, and the farmers fome time ago dif- 
charging feVtfal of their fubtenants and cottagers. Ix^ for- 
mer times, they laboured the ground with ploughs, drawti 
by oxen, each of thefe ploughs required 2 fer vants ; where- 
as, they now ufe ploughs drawn by 2 horfes, and i, fervant. 
Upon I farm, it is known that the farmer who occupied it, 
at a former period, employed 13 men-fervants, whereas 
the prefent tenant employs no more than 5. Then 3 
ploughs drawn by oxen were ^employed, and 6 hoifes kept; 
now fix horfes perform the whole labour ; fo in proportion 
over all the parifh. And if the proprietors of Wefler anfl 
Eafter Gaigies, and Muirhoufe, had not let a great part of 
their lands in pendicles or fmall farms, our numbers would 
not have been worthy of mentioning. The depopulation of 
the pariih is afcertained, by comparing the prefent with 
former regifters of baptifms. In the years 17341 1735^ 
1736, 1737, and 1738, the average was 24.6 baptiXms 
yearly. In the years 1761, 1762, 1763, 1764, and X765, 
the average was ao.8. In the years 1787, 1788, 1789, 1796, 
1791, and 1792, the avera^>eis 15.5. In that part of Eafier 
Gaigie, which is fituated in thi^parilhi (a great ^2X% of it lying 


1 64 StatiJHcal Account 

in the pari(h of Monifieth), there are $% m^ aad womeii« 
and II children under 10 years of age ; of the(e men 7 are 
weavers* In Wefter Gaigiey there are 72 men and womea, 
and ao children ; of thefe are 2 wrights, 5 weavers, and 
X heckler. On the land of Miurhoofe, there are 58 men 
and women, and 11 children ; of thefe 8 are weavers* a tai- 
lors, z mafon, a fmiths, x gardener, a fhoemakers, and % 
millers. In the lands of Wefter Powrie, the moft extenfive 
ellate in the parifh, and of the greateft valued rent, there are 
J) 7 men and women, and 38 children ; of thefe z miller, a 
fmiths, and 5 weavers. On the lands of Wedderburn, or 
Eafter Powrie, 40 men and women, and 26 children $ of 
thefe X fiaith. On Ballumbie, 26 men and women, and 
15 children, x weaver. On Wefihall, 9 men and women, 
and 6 children. Sam, 344 men and women, and xa8 chil- 
dren*, in all 462* 

.4grtculture. — ^Abottt 30 years ago, improvements be* 
gan to take place, and the mode of labouring underwent 
a great change ; then lime began to be uied as a manure, 
afid the land, when let out, was fown with grafs-feeds^ 
Formerly, after ley, two crops of oats ; then giving what 
dung they had, a crop of barley ; then oats, and let out a^ 
gain : Few peafe were ufed.. Since lime was introdu- 
ced, the mode of labouring b as follows : xft year, fallow ^ 
ad year, barley ; fometimes, but leldom, wheat; 3d year, 
oats s 4th, green crop ; 5th year, barley and grals-ieeds 
along with the barley, cut for hay one, fometimes 2 years ^ 
then paftured 2 or 3 years. The fisurmers, from experience, 
find it more profitable to take fewer crops, both of com 
and grals, viss. two years in grais, and 3 years in com. 
Before they began to improve, every farmer had a flock 
of iheep } now they have none. The land being moftly 


of Muirbouje. 165 

•pen, the flieep they found deAroyed their grata in the winter 
time *• Though the Cutnexs labour with horfes, they bring 
upa good many cattle ; fome rear 8 \ others 10 } and fome 
IX yearly. They do not bring thefe to market, till they 
are 3, fometimes 4 jrears old ; and then they wUl receive 
for each L. 7 or L. 8 SterUng. Some farmers fow a few 
turnip, and feed Ibme cattle \ but' this pra&ice does not ge- 
nerally prevaiL 

CharaRer of tltViople^ Wr.— They are a fober, regu- 
lar, and indufirious people, and moiily emplojed in farm- 
ing, (the few tradelmen already mentioned excepted). In 
the pariih there is neither brewer nor baker. Within 
tfaeie 30 years, their fitnation is greatly altered to the bet- 
ter, and I can, with fafety, fay, that more money has 
been acquired by farming in this pariih, and .the vicinity, 
thefe 30 years pad, than for 200 years before that period*, 
though, at the fame time, their mode of living is greatly 
improved, their houfes more comfortable,. and better fiuv 
nilhed ; they even ufe fome of the luxuries of life. I ffaall 
make one obfervation, (which is hardly worthy of notice) : 
When the prefent incumbent fettled here, which was in 
the year 1761, there were only 2 tea-kettles in the pariih, 


• Tboagb the nnmber of fenraoti tre grettly diminiflied, their wtget 
are very amch incitafed. Aboat 30 yetrt ago, a priocipal man-ferranC 
VrooM hare hired himfelf for a year, at the rate of L. 1, or L. i, tos. 
Botr they recehe L. to for the fame fpace of time. Theo, a day-kbonrer 
woald ha^ hind for 3d. a-day, and hiy Tiauals; now they i«cei?e 
X «. and thdr diet, for the lame fptce of time. Then a reaper in bar- 
veft «o«ld have been hired for the harreft for is s. Sterlbg ; now tlMy 
wiU leceivc L. f , lot. for the lame fpace. 

i66 SiMtiftical Account 

though now there is Ibarcdj ft hottfeholder who does not 
life that hixurj. 


Poor, — ^In thb parHht properly fpedung, there are no 
begging poor; they are fupported in their hoofes by the 
weekly colle6tions» the interefts of a fmall capital, and the 
rents of two galleries in the chnrch ; the heritors and their 
tenants being never aflefled for their maintenance. In the 
X782, when vidual was fcarce and high priced, and Go- 
vernment contributed for the relief of the poor in the 
north of Scotland, this parlih declined receiving any part 
of the contribution, judging that other pari(hes might (land 
more in need of relief. 

Stipend^ 6c. — ^The Crown is patron.«^The flipead, comi> 
munion-elements, and money for grais, (the ^ebe not be- 
in^ of legal extent), do not exceed L. 90 Sterling, efUma- 
ting the vi£hial at 10 guineas the chalder. In the year 
1647, one Mr James Gardner, who was clergyman here, 
died. During his mintftry, leveral changes happened in 
the government, difcipline and worihip of the Chorch of 
Scotland, of which a (hort account is fubjoined, and 
brought down to the reftoralion of Charles II. in the year 
x66o ♦. 


• The Oeuertl AStobly net at OU%ow the 8th Juae Uio, MKh«rt- 
ted the £pifoopal govcrnoicat, mmI put * period to tb^ firlt eilahlilhaicBt 
of the Piefliyteruui form in Scotland. The %€t of AfleaUy 1610 was a^ 
terward ratified by Parliamciit i^xi. Thif rcvolaiioa waa brought a* 
boot by Janief VI. at firft by lair means, and vnder fpcciouf pretencet ; ' 
but at taft the no»«onroiiiiifts were feveiely perlecuted Ktog Janes 
had been V9rj aAiM to prepare the Otaeiml Ailemblf for hit parpofii. He 
had prcTailed with the Aflembly at MenCipie m the year i6oo» lo aoth^ 
riae 14 mmiilers to vote in Parliament| not as bifliopt, but as commiffion- 
en from the Kirk, and on thefe he had fettled the revenues of the 1 4 hi- 


(ff MuirhoiUje. j6j 

ibo|M of ScotUnd ; Iwt 1^ wCt %fASkiMj tb«7 vera to be at nrnch fiib* 
jcd to their preibjterics M ever. He had prevailed with the AStnblj at 
Unlitfagow, anm 1606, to appoint conftant modcraton, and each made- 
ntor was to .«aTe I* f 00 peaHoo firom the King. The 14 comoiilioiiert 
ior the Kirfc were to prefide in the Synods. After thefe and other fteps, 
hannf got the Af&a)biy*at Glafgow prepared and packed for his pnrpoie, 
ke prevailed with the^i to diveft tbeniclvei, and all the inferior jodica- 
tarei, of that ecckfiaftical power which, in former tines, had been vefted 
in them bj the laws of the land ; and thns this firft £pi£copaej wu in- 
Crodaced in a cburduway* which was an event nnch deAred by the King, 
aod which he had almoft defpaired to obtain. It may be obferved, how- 
ever, that this was bot a mixed kind of Epiicopacy : For, by the Aflem* 
Uy at 01a%Qw, it is exprelsly provided. That the bilhope, in all 
things cooceming their life, converlation, office^ and benefice, fhoold be 
khjt€k to the cenfore of the General Aflembly. 

As this alteration was made in the government, fo a fimilar one took 
place in the difcipline of the Church. For, in the faoM yeari 1710, the 
King let up the High Commiffion Court, and committed the rod of dil^ 
dphoe to them. The members of tbis court were all the biilk>ps, all the 
commiflkries in Scotland, with many of the nobility and gentry, and feve- 
ral ainifters. They bad power to judge in all cauies that concerned re* 
li^o or a moral Ufcj either in clergy or laity. They had 00 law, how- 
ever, for their authority, but an adl of Privy Council. They had power 
to fafpeod, deprive, dcpoCr, imprifon, baoilh, fine, 6cc. It was a moft 
arbitrary ooart, and could ufe the perfons and properties of the fubjeA aa 
it pteaied, without form or procefs of law. Churchmen had the power 
of the civil, and laymen that of the fpiritual fword. As by this court, 
tike power of tlie bifliops, (b wai the King's fupremacy, cxaitod to a great 

An alteration was alfo made in the worihip fome years aAer this. In the 
AAembly met at Perth in the yew 1681, the famous five articlo, called the 
Perth articles, were enjoined. Thefe were, privato communion to fick 
people, private baptifm, kneeling at the fKrament of the Supper, confir* 
matioii by the biihops, and keeping ibme holydays. Thefe articlca were 
ntified by ad of Parliament i6ax ; but met with greater oppo&tion, both 
in the Parliament and Ailembly, than the eftabliflitoent of Epiicopacy. 
They were very diiagrecable to both laity and clergy, as appeaii from the 
rumbert who fnfiirred from the High Commiffion Court, during 10 yean, 
ht non-conformity to Epifcopacy and the Perth articles ; till at lail, 
gsiniag the nobiliqr to tbair party, Epifcepacy waa rooted out with all 
its dependencies in 2631. Prior to 1610, the ftaodard of worfhip waa the 
order of Geneva, otherwi^ called Ka<M|*s Lttmrgy, fuked to the infant 


l68 Statifticdl Account 

Ibte of the Church, aewlf emcrfed from the dirinieft of Ptopery. In 
the year 1637, the bifliopi made an attempt to impofe on die Ghwch, m 
litnrgy, or ier?ice-book, bf the aathority of an aft of CooncU, without 
m chttfch-law. The oppofitioB to which, kiadled the flame which de- 
ftroyed the church aod mooarchy, and had almoft coofamed the three 

Atmo 1^38. The National Covenant, otherwise called the King*i Con- 
feffion, \mtig prepared, was renewed and fabfcribed with great joy in the 
Orayfrian Church by a great number of all ranks, cooTcned at Edinbui^h 
for that end. The bulk of the nation having acceded to ihe Covenant, 
they ob^ged the King to grant them a free General Aflembly and Par. 
Itameot. The General Aflembly met at GUrgow, November 21 . the fame 
year, lliey approved the National Covenant, and declared it to be the 
fame in fubftance with that figned by King James VI and his houleholdy 
WHO 1 581. In this Aflembly, all the General Aiftmblies after the year 
9605 were declared null, the High Commiffion Court, the Book of Ca. 
nous, their Liturgy, the five articles of Perth, were declared unlawful; 
the 14 bifliops were all either depofed or excommunicated, except three 
who accepted of fingle charges. They reftored the Prelbyterian govern^ 
ment and difcipline as at firil. 

Next year, the General Aflembly met at Edinburgh, Aug. ly. and with 
the confent of the King*sCommiffioner, condemned Epifcopacy as unlaw. 
foL They appointed the Covenant to be fabfcribed and fworn to by all bia 
Majefty*s fobje^s in this kingdom, of whatever rank and quality. All 
thefe a^ were ratified and confirmed by Parliament in the King's pre- 
fence, Miw 1641. 

Upon renewing the National Covenant, the civil war began betweea 
the King*s party and the covenanters. The firft blow was ftrack at the 
bridge of Dee, and a vi^ory gained by the £arl of Montrofe, at the head 
of the men of Angus and Mearns, for the covenanters. 

Anm 1643. "^^e form of the Solemn League and Covenant between 
the two kingdoms of ScotUod and England, having been prepared by the 
committee!! of the General Aflembly, the Convention of Eftates, and the 
Commiflionen fent from England for that efledl, was unaaimoufly appro, 
ved by the General Aflembly at Edinburgh, Augnft 17. that year. It 
was alfo approved by the Convention of Eftates of Scotland, as alfo by 
the Aflembly of divines at WeTbrninfter, and both Houfes of Parliament, 
and on the 30th of Oaobe#, fworn to and fubfcribed in the High Church 
of £dii)burgh, by the commiflion of the Church, the Committee of £. 
Hates, and the Englifti commiffioners, who had ftaid at Edinburgh till the 
Covenant was fent up to Loadoa and returned again. Tbe'iJperemptory 
orders verctheo dii^atchedto «U piefliyteiiet to caufe the Covenant to 

^f Muirboufe. 1 69 

be tmt^m to ind fubfcribcd to by all the profeflbn of the Reformed reli- 
gioa, and bj all hit Majefty's good fubjedls. 

In the Solemn I.eagae4the govcroment of the Ghurcbiif Scotland is fe- 
coicd, their loyalty to the King declared, but limited vnSk their religion 
and libertiei, and they are bound to extirpate Popery and Prelacy ta 
both kingdoms ; yet they are not bound ezprefily to introduce Prelbyte- 
rici into England. In this particular, the fedarians outvritted the Pref* 
byteriamt. For, though the Epifcopal government wat totally abolilhed 
in England, yet the Frelbyterian never wai thoroughly fettled in that 
kingdom. In a word, the defign of the Preibyterians in the Solemn 
Lca^oe was to introduce an uniformity between the two kingdoms in doc- 
trine, worfliip, and church-government, and they made coniiderable ad- 
vaacci in that work, but the Independents and Sedianani had no fuch 

In 1643, the Aflemtily of divines fat down at WeftminMi The^ 
centiaocd their CrBions four or five years, and correfponded with our 
Aflenblies and their commiffions. Our Aflemblies (ent Commiffioners to 
tbe Mfeftminfter Aflembly. In the fiift year of their meeting, they a. 
greed on propofitions as to chutckgovernmcnt, and the ordination of mi- 
niften, which were approved by our General Afliembly. But as to the 
direAory lor wor(hip, the Weftminfter Aflembly, u appears by their letter 
to oor AflemUy, 4lid not advile it to be fo StnStXy impoftd, as to make 
it nnlawftti to recede from it in any thing. 

The Weftminlter Afiembly agreed on a Coafeflion of Faith, in 1647, 
which was approved by our Aflembly met at Ediobuigh, Augoft 3. 
that year. They agreed aifo on the Larger and Shorter Catechifini» 
wkieh waa approved by our Aflembly in 1 748. Thus thefe two Ai^ 
iemblies carried on the work of Reformation and Uniformity, in fo fu as 
both churches agreed in their principles concerning do^rine, woilhip, 
end govemmenL But after tbe year 1648, no more progreis was made in 
thift intended nnifoiinity. Our diviiions in Scotland, and the prevailing 
power of the ie&aries in Bngland, put a final ftop to ail theie defigos of 
aniibfnity and seformation in both kingdoms. 

King Charles I. being at this time priiboer in the Ifle of Wight, the 
Parliament of Scotland demanded, that the King ihould be liberated, and 
brought to London in lafety and honour, and that religion flumld be efta- 
bliihed in England according to their covenant and treaties, and for this end 
appointed an army to be raifed of 30,000 foot and 6000 horfie. The Gene* 
tal Aflembly infifted, that he (honld be obliged to fettle religion in his 
dominions according to the covenanu. Both parties were loyal, and for the 
King's liberation, but differed on the terms. The Aflembly made an aA, 
sommanding all miniften to preach againft engaging in war with £ng- 

Yoi.XUI. Y 

liadf ti ft tmAi 6f the Sotemn Leagoe. The Pttlkmetit mA ta aft 
to die contnTj. tlie miniikett tiwre veiy much cdtbttnfled, b« Ibcfa m 

Tlie IMIittiflBrot their trmf ittto fiif bud, tmier the comnand of 
theDithedf HicmUton. They ^^to Me^d )|t Prefton, Aisf. 17. by 
CndMXi. Tbii #as called ^ MAiHfnl 'e<lt*geiiieife, and all iv1u> iSi^ 
eii|[if« in tiio trar %ere 6bli^» by id of KfkaMj nek ylew, «o make 
pobUc fttisftdioa for theUr ofeii'c^. Thdfe fiMdenpeHoRded their ]ie. 
nhnce without repentance; fo thtt, by thfi piece of 'difc^plisih* oeilliev 
tneinterflfc of Tfenjpon tkef of Of! chnrjsh wis fliich fflvanced* 

itet 164'^ Jtn. 30. K^ng Charles wis baftly nrardiered by Ctomtrell 
and die fe^»Han party. Hiis execrable flA ivu deteibd and ibhoittd 
\ff all tt^ Pndbyterian party* lArho by 00 Aeam icc^ded to it, though 
*t be ialfelij^nd malicioufly imputed to them by feme. They loft a fine 
dny^ ^ifffg ^ the King when a prifdner ; and beifeit he wis brought 
to bis trial, tiwy, by their bommifllonen at Lon^a, g«^ In their prace- 
ilations «^|ainft hia trial ; «ttd,«pon die melaidioly event of h«i dfe«di» called 
hfttne his Too, and ftt das crown dn his head. The OeiriMi Aftnibly, in 
their letter to King Charles U. d&tcd Aug, 6. T649V hare fhefe words : 
*< We do frdOi our hearts abominate and dttcft that horrid fa€t of tbr 
** Sbdarfes tgailiil the life of yonr Royal ftther, onr late Sovereign, lb it 
•« k die unfei^ffed md (Burnett d^fi^ of bor foidsk diat the aMcnt monar. 
** chical government of thefe kii%iloois may be ^ftftabllflled und floorifii in 
*• )rour Majefty*k perfon all die'SiyaOf your tife, and mfcy be continned 
** in yonr Ro^l ihmlly.'* Cromwell defeated oar army at Bmbar and 
Hamilton, and in the year t6j) taifed die General hStukAjt .and lap. 
pteflcd that court during his admltdftration, b«t allowed Pnelbyteriea and 
Synods to meet The Chnith's loyalty to ^t Ring and Royal Famf If 
was very (hocking to the Ufuiper. They had brought hoifte the King 
and dl)wned Urn at Scoon, Jan. x. 1651, hating irttled with him their 
claim of rif^t, or the terms of his government. But the Ufmrper prevail, 
ed, and drove the King ontof the ifland, and forced the whole kingdora 
into a fubjedion to his rooft atbiciliiy government. The Chtarch ftood 
Urm ahd kmibaktt m their k^alty \6 their exiled King and the monaidiy, 
praying tor him hy name in the (ac^ of the Engliih foldiers, and exerted 
themfelves to the utmoft for his reftoratkm> and when the oath of the Ten. 
der was urged, abjurmg the King and Roysl Fainily, all of |&e)ta| a^ is 
laid, Mr Sharpe ettepte^» rcfbl^d it 

^Sif^«fk<iojf, x^f 





Jfy ih Rev* Mr John Gokdon^ 

.r«/>* .,ma;.h ' .>. <^ ' JIJ .. ■ 

SkUflfwj^ ExUntf if omit ^ivp's, Sur/aee, a$fd SoiU 

STRATHDON b die moft wefterl^ panlh ia l^c pref 
kj^^pj^ Synod and couQtj, to which it belong Tfa^ 
kiriL is ^p and the moft rexnote parts of the p^riih upward^ 
of io ^Jf^ik s&ile9 diftant from th^ county town ; x\ip 
nnked pariihca of Cratfaie and Braemar perhaps exQcpte^. 
b ii ^ J fitf the mo(i e|:tenfiv« pariih i^ the Synod and cou^ 
ty where it lies, ^iog abo^t ao £n^liih miles loog, bojjf, 
W. to JEU including about half a mile of the pariih of Glen* 
tns^^ by wkuch it is iqterie^^d \ and in fome places^ |rom 
7 U| S broi^ frpoi. N. to S. The modern name, Strati^- 
4j9B,( Vi^^f^Vd^^ of its fitiiation \ the greateft part of the 
jl^able. Ittd, Iji^ in a^ ^atendsM} va^ey, alofi^ the banks of 
9 ' ' Xh% 

ijz Stati/iical Account 

the river Don^ which takes its rife among the hiDs in the 
head of the countrjr, and runs through the parifli from W» 
to £. dividing it nearlj into a equal parts. This pariih 
ibrmerlj went bj the name of Invemochtie. It was fo 
called, from the kirk's being built near to the place where 
the finall river Nochtie falls into Don. Befidesthefe, there 
are 5 or (J lefler rivers or bums, which flow from the fur- 
rounding mountains, in different direftions, and fSUl into 
Don in its courfe through the parifli. Thefe are feparated 
from each other by confiderable hills ; moft of them run 
through deep hollows or glens. The ground on both fides 
of diefe rivulets, in general, as well as on each fide of 
Don, where there are alfo fome confiderable haughs, rifes 
gradually towards the hills -, and for fome difiance from 
their banks, a confiderable part of it is arable, about a 
miles up from the {likes where they refpeAively join with. 
Don. All thefe rivers and bums abound in excellent trout. 
' Salmon alfo are very Trequently found in Don, towards 
the lower end of the parifli. — The general appearance of 
the country is hilly. The hills are moftly covered with 
heath. Tliey afibrd very wholefome pailurefor flieep, and 
moft of them abound in game. The hills of Curgarff ia 
particular are famous for thb produftion \ and in die lea* 
ibn, are generally reforted to by fportfmen firom various 
parts of the kingdom. The foil, as may be fuppofed, in 
Yo large a traft of country, is various. The greater part 
of it is light and fliarp^.and when properly managed, is 
'fertile enough. In the higheft parts of the parifli, itis fpun^ 
gy, of a blackifli colour, inclined to mofs. 

.4grtcuIture.^'The ordinary crops are bear ai^d oats^ 
fome rye, with a mixture of oats, and a few peafe. Whea 
the weather will permit, (which has not been the cafe for 
Tome years paQ)/the feed-time is begun about the 20 th of 


ofSiratbdon. jy$ 

Ibfda* and finUhed about Whitftmdaj. Harveft is begun 

towards the end of Augaft, and is generally over by tbo 

i^^44\^ of Odober. In the upper parts of the parUhy the 

both fior fowing and reaping^ are rather later, oa 

It of the difference both of foil and climate* Therein 

the groand is more chilled bj the longer continuance of 

Snow in the fprisg, and bj more frequent ihowers in fiia>« 

After. The tenaats^ in thofe parts, however, endeavour ta 

obviate tbefe local difiidvantages, bj fowing their bear im-^ 

mediatelj after their oats, without any interval;, and bj 

ofing a fpecies of oats, called birle j* This grain, (which 

is alfo white), is dillinguifhed from the common white 

ootSy in its appearance, Aieflj bj its (hortnefs : It does 

a<it produce quite fo good^neal, nor Co much fodder ; nei« 

tfier is it fo hardy in bearing ftrels of weather ; it has alia 

a greater tendency to impoveriih the ground ; but it is con« 

fidcraUy earlier, and ripens nearly as foon in«che higher 

yarta of the country, as the common white oa^ does far* 

tber down, where both the foil and climate w^more £ft^ 

ToarabJe. Befides the above crops of grain, a good many 

potatoes are railed. Turnips are generally fown by the 

proprietors, and anfwer well* T^y alfo lay out theic 

fields with artificial gra^Tes, from wnxcti excellent crops are 

produced, both for hay and pafture. The tenants are not 

iufimfible of the advantages of cleaning and meliorating 

their fields by green crops, but are prevented from trying 

it by> tbeir inability to lay out the nepeflary expenfe, by 

the want of eaclofures,.and of longleafes. Another bar 

on improvements in fiurmingi is a number of fervices, 

which the tenants sve obliged to perform to the proprietors^ 

fiuh as cafling, winning, and leading their peats and tur& 

infiumner; harrowing infeed>time} reaping in harvefl;^ 

long carriages from Aberdeen and other places. Some of 

tba heritors indeed have converted thefe fervices into mo« 


1 74 StaiffHuU Aecmni 

ntjt bat odiers fiiU exaft Aem m kind : and ewa iAm±t£ 
they are converted, the rents are thereby fo much nifed^ 
fhat the core is ahnoft as bad as the dilsafe. Of cotu nfe^ 
fbt mpde of fiuming has uiidergaiie litde varialioft heiv, 
except among the gentlemen ; excepting on fome fiurms 
where there is ootfieh]^ the tenants geMtmUy go over «II 
their arable land with dang once in three yean« In msny- 
phces, efpecially in the upper, parts of the pariik, dang is 
laid on the furrow for bear, and harrowed b with Ae 
feed. In other partly it is laid on the white landt either in 
antumn, or early in the fpring, and covered with a breskk- 
furrow ; and after lying fome time in diis ftatCt is deaa 
ploughed for the feed : This is fMomtd by two fuodeedmg 
crops of oats ; after which, the ground is dvnged agais^ 
and the lame rotation of crops obfcrved as before^ and 
thus, the greateft part of the arable land here has beca 
treated, time immemorial, widiont reft» or any- other 
cleaning, Jkan throjring off fome of the weeds raifed byr 
the harrow%i a dry fbafon. Very good crops, howev«r# 
both of bear and oats, are raifed in this way. 

Few of the eftates or farms here have been meaiiired, ex^ 
cepcing on fome of tjjtejargeft farms where there is oatieM 
ground. The tenants m general pay nearly at thCfrate of L. t 
Sterling for every boll's fowing of arable knd they pof« 
lefii ; and as the fdtl is generally thin, and not in great or« 
der, it is believed that a Scotch acre will require almoft a 
hM of oats for feed. Along with this, however, every 
tenant has fome meadow-ground for graft, and a right of 
pafturage in the adjacent hUb or glens. Tliottgh tho land 
in general is little improved, the. rents have been donbledy 
and in fome places tripled within thefe 40 years palK Hiia 
circumftanoe, toge^er with the great advance in Ihewa* 
ges of fervants, makes the fituatimi of our ftcmers nAa 

nncoiAfilttable* Accordinglj, tiie tsnantrj in general are 
iiippofed to be mnch poorer than thejr were 30 or 40 7ear$ 
ago. At that time, many of the tenants bad a fall ftock- 
ing or cover ^n their poflefBcKiSy befides Ibme money out 
nt intereft.1 Now tbxit are very few of tiiat defcription, but 
c»B the contrary, roiUKj of tfaem in arrears to their land- 
lords. The tenantry in Cnrgarff, (a difbia in the upper 
part of the pariih, about 8 or 9 Englifli miles in length)^ 
^re rather in a more thriving condition, and pay their rents 
more pundaally tbftn the generality of thofe who live in 
ckie other parts of the pariih. Their pofleffions are as hi^- 
ly Irented in proportion to the arable land on them, but 
they have more extenfive paftorages. They dqiend wholly 
on catde for the payment <^ their rents, and for procming 
thofe neceflaries Which their &rms do not produoei fo that 
they can the more eafily bear a bad cn^ ^now and theni 
and as cattle have fold high for fome years paft, tiiey have 
fuffered leis from the late unfavourable feafons, than the 
farmers in the lower parts of the country, who depend part« 
ly 00 cattle, and partly on vidual. Their poflelBons too are 
moftly finally and they require fewer fervants. The fiirma 
duroughouc the whole pariih in general are ^ot extenfive, 
renting for the moft part from L. 5 to L. ao Sterling. A 
few, however^ are rented higher ; two or three from L. 40 
to L. 60 Sterling; and one fermed by the proprietor, that 
wonld fetch about the feme rent. In good years, the pa- 
isfli produces more vidual than i^^^cient to fupply the 
inhabitants, and affords a conficllpole fnrplus of butterv 
cheefe, bllu:k cattk, and fheep. Hie butter -and chyfe 
are generally carried to market at Tarland, a village or a- 
bottt 9 Englifh miles from the kirk of Strathdon. The 
aeote are fold to Aberdeen butchers, or South country 
drovto. Fbrty years ago, thcM was fcarcely a cart in the 
pariih. €t^eh only were ufed fbr eairying both dnng vA 


I9( Staiiflical Account 

'l>eats. This prafficc is ftill condnued by almoft all the te- 
nants above the kirk, where two-thirds of the pariihy as 
tb extent, are fituated : In the lower parts of it, however, 
there are now upwards of 50 carts. One of the gentlemen 
keeps a carriage. In the whole pariih, there areaboat 170 
ploughs ; fome of them are drawn hj 8, ibme bjr xo, and 
fome by 12 cattle ; fome hj cattle and hories before them, 
and a great many by horfes alone. The gentlemen pnt ge- 
nerally a hories only in a plough, without a driver. All 
the tenants in Curgarff, ' and fome in other parts of the pa- 
riih, yoke 4 hqffes a-breaft. The driver, who holds the 
halters in his hand, to regulate their motions* walks before 
the horfes after his back. In the pariih, are 55a horfes, 
aa86 black' cattle, and 8543 (heep, moftly what are called 
here half-brookad. The other quadrupeds, and the birds, 
both native and migratory, are fucb as are common in A- 

Po/idla/ioff.— According toDr WeUler's report, the nam* 
ber of fouls then was 1750. The population has decreafed 
more than 100 within thefe 10 or z 2 years paft, owing to 
decayed &rmers and others having removed to manufadu- 
ring towns, and fervants going to the (buth country in queft 
of higher wages. By an accurate lift taken fince this year 
began, the number of parifliioners amounted to 15249 
males 736, females 788, under 8 years of age 306. There 
are a Epifcopalians, uHtods of xoo Roman Catholics, moft- 
ly refiding in Curga^^ which is regularly ' vifited by a 
pr|H of 'that perfuafion, who refides in the neighbouring 
pariih of Glengairden ; all the other parifliioners are of the 
Eftabliftied Church *. 


* Moregifter of buriab hat ever "been kept here, aor ctnthe annailoum- 
tar oi births and n^rriagci be txdkXy aicertained. The Roman Catho- 

ofStratbdon: 177 

Ekritors and tbmt. — The heritors of thi9 pariffi, are the 
£»rl of Fife, Meflrs ForbeiTes ofBeilabeg, Skellater, InTe^^' 
reaman, and Achernacfa, Mr Leith of Glenkindj, Mr Aa<- 


Ues never enter in the pvifli regifter ; tod the Froteftants in Curgtrff, who 
tic generally married, and their children baptized by the naiflionary minifter 
in that difiri^, have ihewn ecjual backWardnefs to this lifeful ineafare, 
efpecially fince the triflihg tax' was impofed on thefe legiftiadons. From 
die beil information I can obtain oil this fabge^, I fuppofe that the am- 
nge of births for feveral years paft, has been about 40 ; of marriages, xo. 
Hus parifli, I imaginey has been greatly more populous in the laft century 
khan it is how. the tegifter botib of births and marriages, from 1674 to 
1710, are llill pretty entire, and appear to haye been very exa£kly kept; 
And in moft years, dttring diat ipace, both births and marriages were 
double dieir prefent number. 

Pari cf the ^fiofTarUwdn^Tbcti is fitoated Id Strathddn, ad«« 
tached oomer of the parifli of Tarhoid, quite uneonneAed with tfad relb 
of that pariih, being fepaiated from it by part of the parifli of Coldftone, 
the^arilh of Migrie, now annexed to I'arland, and the parifli of Strathdon ; 
and fome parts of it are 15 Eoglifli miles diftant from its pariflichuith. 
This diftriA begins about an Englifli nlile above the parifli ai Strathdon^ 
■nd extends five or fix to the wefttlrard, on the north fide of the rivbr Pon^ 
*rhe«are in it 188 people. Old and young, of whom about ao are Roman 
Catholics, the reft of the Eflabliflied Church,— ^71 horfes, 27 7 black cattle, 
Iit6flieep. It is the property of 4 gentlemeii, who refide either coii- 
fiantly or occafionaUy; all of Whom hoWever, (except Mr Houftoo of 
Edii^laffie), are heritors in this parifli, as will be after mentioned. I do 
aot know the valued rent of that comer, nor can I fpeak with certainty of ■ 
^ real rent, as the greater part of it is farmed by the proprietors, but I ' 
loppofe it to be worth frooi L. 250 to L. 300 Sterling, llie people in that 
quarter were formerly under the infpedlion of the minifter of Strathdon, 
for which he had a flnall allowance from the minifter of Tarland. Sinco. 
a anftonaiy minifter has been ftationed in Ourgarff^ they make part of his 
dbife, but they all communicate at Strathdon, and the greater part of 
them attand public wotfliip there, as they are nearer to this |kirk than to 
tbe placB of worihip in Curgarff. Thus much I thought propef to ob- . 
itrve^ with regard to this part of Tarland pariih, as it Ud in the coimtqr. 
of StratfaJoD ; and though . not locally in this paxifl), is dofely cofme^ed 

Vol. XIII. Z 

t^S Statijiical Account 

dorfaa of Candacndg, and Mr FarquharloA of Allergue* 
Hi» Earl of Fife has onl/ a ImaUprppoty in tbe parifl^^ 
but is fiiperior of the whoie» excepting the eftate of CM^n- 
kind]% which holds of the Crown \ only Mr Leith and Mr 
Forbes of Achemach refide in the parifli. The manfion* 
boufes of Skellater, Invereaman, and Candacraig, are fi- 
tuated in the detached comer of Tarland parifh above de- 
ficribed. The valued rent of this parifli is L* 3039 : z : 6 
Scots ; the real rent about L. 1600 Sterling. 

Stipendf School^ Poor. — ^The King is patron. The old 
ftipend is onlj L. 48 : 6 : 8» all in jnoney, with ibme peats 
and other fervices paid by the parifliioners, and ao merks 
Scots for communion-elements. A confiderable augmen- 
tation in vi&ual was lately awarded) but by a fiibfequent 
interlocutor that judgment has been altered \ and as the Inft 
decree thereanent is not yet final, ftill farther alterations 
may be made \ fo that nothing certain can be laid as to the 
flipend. The glebe» fo far as I know, has never been mea^ 
fured ; but from the quantity of grain it requires for feed, 
isfuppofedto be only about 2 acres arable, exclufive of the 
manfe. and garden. The minider has L. ao Scots for grais. 
The kirk was rebuilt in 17579 but is at prefent much in 
need of repairs. It is fpacious enough, but moft irregular- 
ly; feated, and, therefore, does not properly accomodate the 
parifliioners *. — ^There is a parochial fchool, and fchool- | 

mafter, | 

■ 3 ■ i 

* For fevertl yean, the numfe and offices were almoft ntiaons. After | 
a proceii of 2 or 3 years dependence before the Court of Seffion, the STei^ 
b7td7*s decreet, for new honfes, received their Lordifaip*i faadion, and 
they wer^ all rebuilt ftl i79< ; they have, however, been very infoffideitty 
eattnted. The wails of die nuuvfe draw water» and part of the offices 
are iLniady nnroofed ; and if not repaired foon, inll go to wreck. Unfor- 
taaite^ for any public work in this parifli, the heriton are feldom una- 

qf Strathdm. 179 

mafter, witb a &larj of 100 merks Scots ; he is generallj 
{dHon-ckrk, for which he receives L. 20 Scots. His whdb 
cmolaments will not exceed L. X2 Sterling •.—There are 


vioKkas, and of courTe require compalfion to make them execote anj 
■eifnre of tlie Itiad, which turas out in the iflhe to be much againft their 
ovn intetcft ; as a fe«y IhiUiogs tiraeonfly applied in this wax» would 
(baictiaies fave a pound For upwards of 50 yean paft, an itinerant or 
m'lSionary mini(ker has been ftationed in the upper diftriA of the pariih, 
cillcd Corgarff. He has a falary of L. %% Sterling yearly, from the FLoya^ 
bounty, with a hoofe. He hu the immediate charge of 462 people, 
old and yoangv belonging toStrathdon, and of the people in the detached 
comer of Tarland pariih. above mentioned, amounting to 188 ; but the 
people in both thcie diftriffcs communicate at the pAriih^^hurch of Strath- 
don. The ffliffionary is of fignal advantige to the interefts of religion 
ia that remote comer. The place of abont 7 or 8 £iig)ilh miles 
Jiftant from the parifli-cburch, and the habiuble part of the country ex« 
tends 4 or 5 farther to the weftward. 

ft Excepting in a mild winter, the fchool is fetdom throng, owing to 
the fitnation of the ptrifh. It abouodi in hills, and riven or bums, ib 
(bit children at a diftance cannot attend in frbft and fnow ; and owing to 
tlic icarcitt and dearth of fenrants, of all defcriptions, the generality of 
the tenants employ their children in herding, as foon as they are fit for 
it The pariih has bad the benefit of a fchoolmaller, paid by the Socie- 
ty for Propagating ChriftliiK Knowledge, for thefe 40 yean paft. He has 
been generally ftationed in Curgarflf, on Nochy fide and Kindy fide by 
tarns, thefe being t^ j^aoft diftant parts of the pariih from the parochial 
idxwl ; in all which pUces he hu been highly ufcfuL The Society have, 
with great propriety, appointed another of their fchoolmafteri to be fta- 
tionedtn Corgarff, where it b hoped he will be •continued, as the children 
in that extenfife.diltri^ are not only at a great dlftance from their own 
parochial fcbool, but are quite out of the r^h of every other fchool, at any 
feifoo ; and though their turn of the other fcboolmafter was of great con* 
reqncoce to them, it was by no means adequate to their aeceffitics. If the 
fcboolmafter'i fettlement in Curgarff is made permanent, and the fchool- 
nafler jull now on Kindy fide ihall be ftationed there, and.on Hochty 
^•3^4 y^*" altCTBAtelyy which the intercfts of religion do indeed fe» 
9Bire, all the childita in the parilh« notwithftaiidiag'iti cxteafifeaad tot- 

x8o Statytical Account 

■bout 40 perfons on th« poors roll, all of whom receiire i| 
qifling fif pplj twice in the year ; the moft neceflitous ge( 
^ often as their exigencies require, and the ftate of the 
innds will admit. The only funds for their fnpport, and 
&r paying the feflipn^lerk and pflker, are thp weekly cqI- 
kftions, which are very fmall ; together with what arifies 
from penalties, the ufe of 2 mortcloths, the rent of a fmall 
Iqft ini the church, and the intereft of 1000 merks Scots of 
mortified money ; all whichj for thefe 9 or xo years paft, 
have aii|ounted to L. z6 or L, 17 Sterling yearly, atai^ 

CUma^i^DifiafiSf'iic^^^Thc people in general are healthy « 
but there are few inftances of longevity. Some years ago, 
a woman in the parifli died at the age of lOo. There are 
a few perfons ftill living about So. The moil common 
^iftempers are the hooping fough, meafles, and fmall pox \ 
fevers. fometimes make their appearance, confumptions ve- 
ry rarely \ among old men, (lone and gravel are very pre- 
valent. Inoculation for the finall pox has not yet become 
general throughout the parifli. In one <;omer, (on Kindy 
fide), it has at different times been pra&ifed with great foe- 
ce(s, owing chie6y to the inPuence and attention of the pro. 
prietor. The parifhioners at large do toot feem to entertain 
any prejudice againft inoculation, if they could afford the 
expenfe. There is a chalybeate fpiing at Glenconry ; but 
it is little attended to, though it is faid to be nothing in- 
ferior to Tome dfewhere, that are in good repute. 


t^red fitvitioD, will, if their parenU are not ^ry faulty, be blefled with 
aa opportunity of letmiag' to read and write, and of being ioftniaed iu 
* the priociplet of the CbrifliaB religioa. 

of Siratbdon. l8l 

IfoiToiSr, PibnfoftWy ^r.— There is abundance ofgra* 
site and limeftone, and flate of a coarfe quality. litde 
fliieis made of the granite and flate^ and not much of the 
lune, tboogh the foil in general is well adapted to it. 
There are^no natural woods of eoniequence in the parifli, but 
leveral thriving plantations of fir. The late Mr Forbes of 
Ballabeg was the firft in this part of the country who be- 
gan to plant. His improvements^ confidering the fmall- 
aefe of his property, are worthy of notice. He poflefled only 
one bxm of L. loo Scots of yearly rent, and a milL He be- 
gan his plantations in 1745, which he afterward extended 
over opvrards of zoo acres. He built a commodious manfion- 
hoofe and offices ; he improved fome moor-ground, ftraight- 
ed bis fields, fowed them ont with artificial grafles, and en- 
doled a great part of them with ftone fences and belts of 
hard wood ; and fo much did he raife the value of his (mall 
eftate, that, befides a confiderable fum arifing annnaDy 
from the iale of wood, the farm is let for the enfuing year 
at L. 49, 15 s. Sterling. 

jhuifMttUtf lic^ — At a little difiance from the church, on 
|he oppofite (north) fide of the river Don, ftands the 
Doon of Inveniochtie,'a beaudful earthen mount, evident- 
ly artificial, an^ £ome time a place of confiderable ftrength. 
It has been defended on the top by a wall, which is now 
moftly fallen $ part of it, however, on each fide the gate» 
is ftiU to be feen. Its bafe is furrounded by a ditch, which 
has bete filled with water by a fmall ftream (Bardock) 
that comes from the adjacent hill. This (flream, entering 
the ditch at the north-weft quarter, divides in^o two parts \ 
and, purling along each fide of die Doun, joins at the eait- 
cmescremoty, and&lls into Don fome yards below it. 
This mount is of an oval form ; its (iirface on the top mea- 
fures about half an acre -, at the bafe it as more eztenfive. 


a 82 Stati/iical jAceaunf 

Its height, frpm the bottom of theditcbi may be 60 feet ; 
the depth of the ditch, below the furface of the adjacent 
jronnd, about x6 feet ; aad its breadth at the bottom ao 
feet. There is oo hifiory or tradition refpefting this rem- 
nant of antiquity *• The mo^ ancient building ia the periih 
ftill entire is the caftle of Cofgarfi. It is fuppofed to have 
been built by Ibme of the £aiis of Marr for a hunting feat* 
During the Ceuds between the Gordons and Forbefiesy it 
was burnt in 1571 by Adam Gordon of Auchindoun, or 
focne of his officers, and in it Alexander Fcvbes of Towie's 
(la^y, .Maigaret Campbell, .daughter to Campbell of Cal- 
der^ then big with chiidf tqgether with her children and 
feryantSyi-a? in number, were cruelly burnt to death. Ha- 
ving been afterward rebuilt, it was purchafed by Gk>¥eni- 
mea( in 1746, from Mr Forbes of Skellater, and for feve- 
ral years thereafter, 15 or 2^0 men were ftationed in it ; for 
fome years pafi, tbegarrifon basconiifted of 2 or 3 invalids. 

MifciUaneous Ob/ervations.^^Tike women in this pariib, 
ao or 30 years ago, were chiefly employed in knitting 
flockingsvthatfptciesof manofaidfaurehas now given place 
to fpioning toarfe Unt, which is moftly brought for that pur- 
pofe, by our country ihopkeepers, ftt)m mannfadnrers in 
Aberdeen and other places ; for there is not much flax tai- 

* In Tome aeigbbouring ptnthcs, theke are cmiaences ftmethog like 
this, but it is the largeft and moil complete of any thing of the kind in 
this country. In iu neighbourhood are to be feen, fome inconiiderable 
ruins of hOufes clofe by one another ; at the fame place, and alfu in anothei 
part iof the ptriih, are ^hilt the country people caH eird bouftj, Thefe 
tn bilotv gtoaod, and fibne of khtla Aid to cztaod a great Way. The 
fides of thef( iiibterraneOos maftfions ai^ factd op with dfy ftones, t« the 
height of about Vfeet, they are between 3 and 4 feet wide, and covered a- 
bove with large ftoncs laid acrois. lliey may have been, either receptacles 
for plunder, or places of (belter from the inclemency of the weather, before 
hoofes were bu ilt, or of concealment froi^ an cnemr. 

.. ofStratbdon. 183 

ltd ia the pariih. TbU; though a more fever^ and move lesCr^ 
kmftiagciBpkijrmentrOaBQcoutit of! this gre^.qu«qldt|^ f^lbr 
fiva reqoifito^ is^dbeised^more profitable^- T^womfsa ber« 
ife all cwp-baaded' Wheels, as thej call tbcio 1 .they are Jit 
geaecal capttaLfpiaofctSt and brbg a deal .of xnonej^ into the 
ptfifli« Their oettimpii ftiot is from'aa.t<^ 94 puts a^day.i 
batfinne of.tbeat oft il;ftretcb» it is. (fiid,-wiil fpin <)qh^^^ 
thasqwotity; .FArei!]^FiipAndJe»..^'ioar 12 cutbapk^. 
fpan, tkKyorec^jm6ataiteonl7:ahottt' X9. S^lin^ Tbei 
BMn are moftly.^mglejred in hufliaodry. There are aa 
niaay tradefioaen as-fupply .Ae.esige6cie)i.of th6 pariA^.esc** 
cqytiiBg flioemakers.ibnl imib&s \ to thefis: laft little employ- 
BKnt is given, except 'by the.proprietGes :. aimed all of. them 
indeed have commodious hoofes .{bbdantially .biultt and. 
pkafindy fitjutedV bntthe tenants faoufes in genecalhave 
a vefy aica» appearance, which gives ftrangers afiroog m*. 
preffion «f the pov^ry i^f the country. There aie^few pla^ 
ces wbece decent' form-houles could be. «re£be<{ at lels ex^: 
peide llian in this parifl>,' for it has within itfelf almoft all 
die matarials requifite ; plenty of ftones, clay, lime, fir- 
tbnber, and even flate ; but, notwithftanding thefe advan- 
tages, fitde reformation in this way can be expeded, tilt 
the proprietors give more encouragement to their tenants 
than they have hitherto, done.— The language fpoken is 
Ea^ifli» or rather* broad Scotch, excepting in CurgarfF. 
The people there, efpecially in the upper part of that di- 
ftrift, fpeak alfo a kind of Gaelic \ bnt that language a- 
moog them is muct^.on ^ decUne *^— ^Tbe ancient inha- 

* The names of almoft all tlie townf , fields* bills, apd rivers are, I am 

loU, derived from tlie Gaelic ; as Ballabeg, tbe little town ; Tolahefpick^ 

tie biifcep*! bollow ; DbalachUriqli,' the clerk^. baugh ; Don pr Dboin, 

<^, becanfe the river of t^ name, for foipe dld^Qce /rom its fource, 

r^as liKOVgh deep niarlhy level {(^ound \ Kochtie, or']t^uaclide, the coUf 

• .......»>• ... 1I 


1 84 StatiJHcal Accwnt 

bitants of tfab pariihy as tradition relates, were exceedingly 
r6agh and uDcivilized in their manocifl. The proprietoz3^ 
who were very numerous, appear, at leaft fome of tfaeoi^ 
(for there were ezceptioDsia the worft of times,) to bave 
been haaghty, refentfiil, and cruel } nor were xhtj at a loia 
for afliftants in executing their mofl miichievous projeAs ; 
^ their example was followed, aad^their commands inc&pli* 
citlj obeyed bj their tenants and dependents; . lliey - bad 
their feuds sod familj-quarrek, wiiich thej profec^ed in 
the moft violent manner^ withontFegaidto time or place. 
Even the chnrch-jrard on a Sunday was fomedmes ' tbe 
fcene of adion, where two faoftile fadrds, with their refpcc- 
tive adherents, ruihed upon one another with their dnrka 
and their (babbles. The minifiers in particular fek the ef« 
feds of their {avage barbarity. One minifier, (Mr Boxter^t 
at a very remote period indeed, had his head cut off at the 
manfe-door with a Lochaber axe, by a laird in his neigh- 
bourhood. Another, (Mr Macfween), towards the begin- 
i^ng of the pre&nt century, after repeated infults, was at* 


water, which tilces its rife in the hills io the N. W. qnaiter of the -psdlh ; 
Binnew, the holy hill, fo called perhaps from a ftone oo iu fummit, with 
a cavity or hollow In it, wherein, from the frequent rains and damps on 
that hiU, water was generally feen; and in the times of filperflidoo» ihii 
water was beltered to fpring out of the ftone, and to pofleft a virtue oT 
healing various difeaies : Minnagowan, which it is faid derives its ovne 
from tht/mitb, who furvived the battle, fougli^t the Inch of ^erth, be- 
tween an equal number of the clan ChatUn and clan Kai. This fon of 
Vulctn, being fortunate enough to efcape the dreadful ilmghter of tlist 
day* directed his courfe northward, and it is faid, fettled for fome time nt 
the footof the Laight, a hill which (eparates this parifh from Kirkmichael 
or Strathaven ; but he afterward removed to Canrie-fide, about a mile to 
the S. W. of the kirk of Strathdon, where he contin^ed till his death. 
The place of his refidence is (dW known by the name of the Smith's town, 
and the hill where' he caft his peats is called Minnagowan or the Smith's 
inofs. The fuel ufed here is peat, turf, and heath. The laft is. dim> 
monly made ufe of 'for drying the corns. 

af Stratbdon. 185 

tempted, it is faid, to be finothered with a wet canvas, on 
aa evening when at family prayers ; but, being a man of 
confiderable bodily firengtb, be extricated bimfelf from 
the toU ; and fome others met not always with the refpeft 
doe to their charaAer and fonftion. The manners of the 
preficnt generation here, however, are, in theie refpeds, 
changed greatly to the better. The gentlemen are well 
fared, focial, hofpitable, and humane. The country people 
tre indnftrioos, civil, af d obliging. The laft minifter, who 
ferved the cure upwards of 40 years, was refpeded and be* 
loved by his people of all ranks ; and the prefent incum* 
bent, though unfortunately engaged for years in law-fuits 
with the heritors, about his manfe and fiipend, has always 
met with the greateft civility from his pariihioners of every 
denomination.— -The roads are not in the heft order. The 
ilatnte-labour is commonly performed in kind ; it is com- 
muted with any perfon who inclines, at the rate of x s. 6 d. 
a-year. There are in the pariih two ftone bridges on Don, 
the one, half an Engliih mile to the weftward of the church, 
the other at the cafUe of CurgarfF, on the King's road from 
Edinburgh to Fort George.-^There is not a decent inn or 
public houfe in the whole parifti, where any perfon above 
the common rank could get a bed, or a comfortable^meal. 
There are only two licenfed alehoufes ; in thefe whiiky 
only b for the mod part to be got, which is alfo fold occa<> 
ftonally in feveral other houfes throughout the pariflx *. 

Vol. XIII. A a NUM. 

* price f, 6'r.^The prices of proTifiom are generally x 5s. the boll of meal 
: t 9 ftone ; fometimes about tbe term of Martinmas, it is fold lower by 
Tenants, who cannot otlierwife raife money to pay their rents ; but at other 
Tones of the year, it very often fetches more. From X6 s. to L. i the boU 
m' bear ; butter trom 10 s. to 1 1 s. ; cheefe from 5 s. to 6 s. the ftone, of 
t% poimd averdupoife ; a hen 6 d. ; a dozen of eggs i^d. There is no mar- 
ket for bntchcr meat within our reach. A man fervanfs wages arc from 


1 86 Siaif/Hcal Account 

L. 4 to L. 5 Sterling yearly, with Tidmli ; » woman (cnrant's from JL % 
to L. 3. The great aivance ia the leot of land, which his confiderably ex. 
ceededthe progrefs of improvementt ; the ferrices fonneriy mentioiied, 
together with the feaieity and hi^ wages, and in many i«#Biciei» aire* 
leflSbeia of iervyota, and ioattaniMm t» their sMfter's iotcrA are ihe pim- 
ppalgrieviace9ofwhi9l>^etena«iiin thif ptrilli4oaBt withoat rtafotk 


i^ St Andrew's. 187 


PARISHES or Sx ANDREWS, and or St 

(CouvTT AHD Stkod or FirE, Presbttert of 
St Andrew's.) 

By the Rev. JoHK Adamson, D. D. ^rfi Minifter of 
St Andrew's. 

Name, Burgh^ VnwerJUy^ Mc. 

n^HE parifli derives its name from the citj of St An- 
-^ drew'Sy formerlj the feat of the priipate of Scotland, 
and alfo of the prior of St Andrew's, whofe revenue great- 
Ij exceeded that of any other churchman in Scotland. The 
revcDue of the archbiihop in 165 x, was monej Ster- 
ling, L. %^% : o : 7^29 wheat, bolls 489 ; bear, bolls 466 \ 
and oats, bolls 1072 : and that of the prior in the fame 
jear, was, monej Sterling, L. 186 : 9 : xo,-^ -, wheat bolls, 
bog-bear, bolls 2119; oats, bolls 2426; meal, bolls 1827) 
and peafe, bolls 55. Thefe two benefices were conjoined 
^A 16359 Rodthe united revenue would now, at a moderate 
coDverfion of the vidual, amount to nearlj L. 6000 Ste«- 
a ling 

i8S Stat^ical Acamnt 

ling a-yetr *• The original name of this city was Mncrofi^ 
f. e. ** the promontorj of boars/' from muc^ fignifjing a 
fow or boar, and rofs^ a land, promontorj, or peninfula. 
Hence Kinrols, '* bead of the peninfula,*' and Culrois, 
back of the fame. But St Regnlns, (vulgo St Rule), a 
monk of Patr» in Achaia, (warned, as is l&id by a. vifion 
to fail weftward, and) having landed in this neighbour* 
hood, with fome relics of the Apoftle Andrew, about ^he 
year 3 70 ; and having been fucceisful in converting the Pi£b, 
Hergttftus, the King^ changed the name of Mncrois into 
that.of KilrymoQt, n i. Cella regis in monte \ or Cella in 
monee regb \ becaufe the king had given to Regnhis and 
his companions a piece of high ground, adjoining to the har- 
bour, on which he alfo ereded a chapel andtower in honoor 
of the monk, and bearing his name. The walls of St Rule's 
chapel, and the fquare tower, flill remain. The tower is> 
about 108 feet high, without any fpire; the outfide, from, 
top to bottom, is of thin afbler work, the arches of the doors 
and windows, femtcircular. The tower has been, at the 
expenfe of the Exchequer, within tbefe few years repaired, 
that is, fuch of the afhler flones as had fallea down, have 
been replaced,. and all tbe joints filled up with cement; and 
a turnpike flair reared within fide, from bottom to top, 
which is now covered with lead within a parapet of 4 
feet. The exemplary virtue of Regulus and his company 
caufed a great refort of people to his chapel ^ and the name 
of the city was foon changed from Kilrymont to Kilrule, 
(Fanum vel Cella Reguli,) which name is ftill retained 
among the Scotch Highlanders* The name, Kilrule, con- 

* A very £uU Account of the arcbbilhopnck and priory, may be Icen 
in Martin's Reliquis Divi Andrese, M. S. a copy of vtbich is in tbe A^ 
vacates library. Mr Martin of Clermont, the author, was fecretary to 2 
iuccefltve archbi/hops ofSt Andrew's, and dates his book in 1^85, 

of St AndreHxfs. 189 

tinned in nfe till the Fids were extirpated by the Scots, 
who'chflfiged the name into St Andrew's. At this time 
the Metropolitan church *, which under the Pids had been 
at Abemethjy was tranflated to St Andrew's % and the town 
was new peopled by a colony of Scots, particuhrly by 
tiiofe imder the' command of Fiffos Dufius, whofe great 
fervices to King Kennet were rewarded with ail the lands ly- 
ing in that ihire, formerly called Pichtlandia, and which 
diat captain* from his own name, caUed Fifland. The 
wall funrounding the priory is pretty entire ; it is filled 
with baftions, feme round, and fome Iquare. Part of the 
priors and fnbpriors houfes yet remain. Adjoining to the 
priory, are the ruins of the cathedral, which was 4cmoli(h- 
ed by ft mob, inflamed by a iermon of John Knox's. Both 
toiweiB at the eaft end are fiill Handing, having latf^ly got 
a finaU repair. One only of the weftem towers now re- 
mains, and a part of the weft end of the outermoft fouth wall. 
All the arches in the eaflern towers are femicircular ; thofe 
in the weflem tower, and in that part of the fouth wail ad- 
joining to it, are pointed. The pits are very vifible, out 
of which have been dug the foundations of the 4 great pil- 
lars that fupported the cupola, and the foundations of the 
crols ailes can be traced. The length of the cathedral 
from E. to W. as marked by the towers, as nearly as can 
be meafured, on very rough and unequal ground, is 350 
feet ; and the breadth of the crois ailes from N. to S. 160 


• To the church of St Andrew's was given ihc fioarchafe; a tra<a of 
land fo called, ezteoding from Pitmillie, nearly 5 miles £. from St A 11 > 
drewX to the new mill of Oairfie, 6 miles W, from the city, and from 1 1<» 
5 miles in breadth. A confiderable village, and adjacent lands in the £. 
end of the parifli, have the general name of Boarhills. The arms of the 
city are a boar leaning on a tree ^likely that tlih part of the couiitry wis 
iofeftcd with boar?. 

i^ SiatiJHeal Aceount 

feet. On the north fide of the towii«. a little weft firom thtf 
cathedral, on the brink of a perpendtcidar rock, ape the min^ 
of the cafile, known bj the name of Cardinal Betlnne's, be- 
caufe therein he refided, and therein' way flaiDyin 1545 9 
by Norman Lefly and his company. 1 Fcom the caftle^ 
weftward, there anciently ram a ftreet, called the Swallow- 
ftreety faid to be the refidence of the merchants. It is now 
a public walk, between the walk of gardens and fieUa* 
The inhaUted Sreets are 3t running neaxiy from W. to £'• 
but not quite parallel, as they all terminate oft the ca- 
thedral, in the £. end: The Sonth-fbset or Sbocgate« 
Market-ftreet, and North«ftreet. Tbefe ftreets are inter- 
feded at right angles, by narrower fireets- called wynds. 
On the Couth fide of the South-ftreet, nearer the weft end, 
is a much admired ruin of a chapel, bdonging to a oonrent 
of Gray friars; the roof is a continuation of the walls 
formed into a Gothic arch. Within the boundaries of this 
convent, is the public grammar-fchool and fchooUhoufe. 
At the weft end of the North-ftreet, was a convent of 
Black friars, of which nothing now remains but a part of 
the garden wall. Immediately adjoining to the weft port 
of the South-ftreet, i^ a fuburb, called- Argyle, Argael, or 
Northgyle ; to which reference is made in ftadng the popular 
tion of this parifii. The reafon of the name is not known *. 


* St Andrew's is a r^ 2d bargb, and fgr ele^ing a member of the Bri« 
tiih Parliament, is clafTed with Cupar, Perth, Forfar, and Dundee. The 
government of the city is veiled in a provoft, dean of guild, and 4 baiUe5» 
who with the town-treafurer, are called the office-bearers in the council, 
and are ele^ed annually at Michaelmas by the whole council. The 
dean of guild here has the precedence of the bailies, and is prefes of the 
council in abfcnce of the provolt No one is eligible into the council, 
who is not a burgcfs and guild brother, aflefltd in a portion of the public 
burdens within the city. The provoft is the only member of the council 
f. ho is n<lt obliged to refide. He has alfo tliis further privilege, that he 


qfSi Andrew's* 19 1 

Tbe great opulence of this citj, in the timefr of Popery, 
57 be conpeived from tbis jiogle circumftanpe, that there was 
jaaamulCur bere« commencing in the beginning of Aprilf . 
1^ hfted Xor &me weeks \ and to which there refortedi 
3901 a to 3 hax%dred v^flels, from all parts of the then commer- 
^vod<L Ak£tet the Reformationi the city graduallj fell 


^ be re-ele£^ed every year as long as he lives, while none of the other 
det-learen can continue above 3 years in immediate fucceifion. Ko coun- * 
oSff, ^itlias at -any time attj«ycd a higher office, can afterward be 
^t&ei «to a l o mc r. Besides the 7 office-beaeers above mentionc^^ tbe • 
I wadl cenfidfka of X4 brethren of the guild, the convener of the trades for 
^ time being, and tlie deacons for ^e time being, of the 7 following 
•T>h^, er incorporatiensy «/2. fmiths, wrights, bakers, tailors, flioemakers, 
*nvns, aad flc!0iers ; amountiag m all, to 19. The council annually un* 
^B^atsa paitial cbaage, which is made in the following manner; on 
tiic Wcdaeiday preceding, the Michaelmas ele^on, the fubflfting coun-^ 
'A of 19, adc^t 3 by a majority of fuffrages : thefe new councillon vote 
^ the old council in the fubfequent eleAion of office-bearers. The 
'^oncil for the year after faid ele^ion, mall confift of thefe 3 new mem- 
^ ^ lew o6ioe*bearr», the office-beasers of the former year, the new 
convener, aad 7 deacons of crafty* with fuph other guild brethren, as the 
B^ifintet pleafe to name, for making upt the number 29. The magi- 
tmes, for time immemorial, have been in ufe of naming the guild cOun- 
^)«s of the former year ; excepting 3, who mad leave their places to 
^ new neabers. When any office-beerer dies, his office muft continue 
vanat until the following Michaelmas ; but his, ftat in tbe council is 
^ op by another guild brother, at the nomination of the magiftrates, 
«b £11 np every vacancy in the council occafioned by death ; but when 
icQQBoUor refigns, his iucceflbr is ele^ed by the remaining a8. This 
i'tW fet aad *^«Mt<iMiJ pradicc of the city. The proper office of the 
^Kiktfx is that of fM&Qit or chamberlain of the town^s revenue ; and 
v&ra he is appointed to difcharge this office, he has a fmall falary. But 
t^ couDcil, having found much inconveniency in the frequent change of 
tbnoScer; and having alfo found, that it was fometimes a very delicate 
tt^ diiBcnlt matter, to call the treafurer to account, when he had a vote 
^^ cleftions, have ot late years eflabliffied a fadlor, vrho is not eligi- 
ble into the council; and they have left the treafurer merely the name 
^^Afitywith the political priYileges annexed to the name. 

l^z Staiifiical Acamnt 

into deeply, from which it is now emerging^ bj the fpirited 
exertions of a few indmduals. There are as yet no ex- 
ports from St Andrew's, grain onlj excepted. Bat from 
this port, chiefly is the eaflein part of Fife, for 9 or lo 
miles, fupplied with wood and iron, which formerly were 
pnrchafed at Dondee on the river Tay, or at Ely on the 
forth ; and the (bore-daes, which 20 years ago did not 
produce to the corporation above L. 10 Sterling a-year, are 
now let in leafe for L. 66. Several veflels* from 40 to 200 
tons, have within thefe 2 years bem built at this port, 
which are employed by the inhabitants in the wood and 
coafiing trades. In the fpring of 1792, Meflrs Robertfons 
of GlafgoWy eftabliibed in this city a hStotj for fowing and 
tambouring muilin. In a few months* they coUeded be- 
tween 3 and 4 fcore apprentices^ girls from 5 to 14 years 
of age, who receive weekly from i s. 3 d. to 2 s. 6 d. 
according to their age and progrei^* The number of ap- 
prentices 18 dill increafing *. 

But the chief »fapport of thu dty istfac Univeriky, and 
the conflux of flrangers, who here find excellent teachers in 
all difTerenc branches, The Univerfity which is the oldefl 
in Scotland, being founded in 1444 f, formerly confided of 
3 colleges, vi%, St Salvator's, founded by James Kennedy, 
Biihop of St Andrew's, in 1458} St Leonard's college, found- 
ed by Prior Hepburn, x5 12 -, and St Mary's, founded by 
Biihop John Hamilton, 15 5 a. In each of thefe colleges were 
leAurers in theology, as well as in philgfophy, languages, &e. 
In the reign of James VI. 1579, under the direftion of George 
Buchanan, the Univerfity was new modelled ; and St Mary's 
college was appropriated totheftudy of theology, and is there- 
fere difiinguilhed by the name of the Divisity-CoHege, or the 


* Number of apprentices, in May 1 795, x t o. 

\ ForduQ mentions an univerfity at Andrew'^ in X410. 

qf St Andrew's. 193 

New College. In I747» od a petition from the mafters of 
the 2 colleges of St Salvator's, and St Leonard's, the Par- 
liament united thefe 2 colleges into one fociety, under the 
defig^ation of the United College. Thefe colleges are in* 
dependent of each other in their revenues and difcipline* 
The Senatos Academicus, or Univerfity meeting, confills of 
the principals and profeflbrs of bpth colleges, which have a 
common intereft in the librarj. The prefes of this meet- 
ing is the Refior or his depute. 7*he higher academical 
degrees are granted by the Univerfit j. The Reftor con* 
£ers the degree of Matter of Arts, on the recommendation of 
the Facnltj of Arts in the United College. The Dean and 
Faculty confer the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The Rec- 
tor is cfaofen^annuallj, on the firft Monday of March, by 
the Comitia of the Univerfity; confifting of the Redor» 
Principals and Profeflbrs of both co&eges, with the ftu- 
dents of divinity, of moral and of natural philofophy ; 
all thefe maften and (Indents are divided, according to the 
place of their birth, into 4 nations, Fifans, Angufians, Lo« 
thians, and Albans, which laft clais comprehends all who 
belong to none of the firft 3. Each nation choofes an In* 
trant, and the 4 Intrants name the Redor. If the votes 
of the Intrants, are equally divided, the laft Redor, who 
is prefies of the Comitia, hu the cafiittg voice* The ooljr 
perfoos eligible into the office of refiorate, are the princi- 
psb and the proEeflbcs ef divinity, who are defigned Viri 
aqorii dignitatis ac nominis, or Viri Redorales, The Rec* 
tor immedialely after his inftalment, (which is perfimrmed 
by bis putting 00 the gown of office*, being a purple fobe 
Vol. Zm. B b with 

' The piiiKipftU tni profeflbn, ia (effion time, wear bhek gowos, like 
Aofe afed by dtt cUfgy IB Scotland Theftudentt in the Unitvd College 
weir gowu of red or fcarlet ftecse, widboat flecvti. Tbc ftodentt of d\Ti. 
81^ hsve at ^iftiaganUsiggaio os dnfib 

194 Stati/Hcal A^cf^unt 

with a large hood, the hood and borders of the rt)be Hnd 
with crimfon fatin ; and bj receiving the oath de fidtU^ 
liamcs deputes, from among the Viri ReAoisalis, and 
afleflbrs from the Senatus Academicus. He i^ a ciyII judge 
in the Univerfitj, befdre whom may be brought com- 
plaints againft mafiers, ftudents, or foppofis of the Univer- 
fity. To his court, there lies alfo ad appeal from the 
judgments of either college, in matters of difcipline. In 
the redoral court, the afleflbrs have a deliberative voice ; 
but the reftor is not bound bjr th^ir opinion or advice, 
having the power of decifion entirely in his own perfon. 
The Court of SeiEon have fhown themfelves very tender 
in receixang appeals^ or advocations from Ibe Redor, in 
matters of difcipline over the ftudents. The revenue of 
each of the colleges is partty in tithes, partly in property- 
lands. The revenue from tithes is always diecreafiog, by 
augmentations of ftipend, granted by the Commiffioners of 
Teihds, to the parochial miniders. In each college, there 
are apartments for lodging the (ludents, rent free ; there 
is alfo a public table -for the burfars on the foondation. In 
the United College, there is a -ftparatt table for idcfa ftu- 
dents as choofe to board tItemfelVes, at> about L. lo &ter« 
ling for the feffion, confifting of 6f months ; at ctith ubk^ 
one of the matters prefides. 

St Andrew's has many advantages as a place of ftudy* 
The Univerfity library is well Aored with books in aU 
the fciences, to which every ftudent has acce&, for a fmaU 
yearly payment* The mafters are eminent in their icv«- 
ral departments. Th^teare ver^ few avocations to the 
youth, who arc not howe^r reftrained from 'inaoceht 
amufements, which are properly rj^gulated by the mafters. 
The perfon, the charader, and action; of eve^y'ft^dent, are 


of Si. Andre^tp „ tg^ 

w^n koovm bj the j^iReji^i fg that anj teodcncj %o riot 
or diffipation k unmediateljr checked \ atteotioni diligf^cfk 
and good hehaviotfTi are obferxedf encourage and b^oui> 
ed ;. and due public es^miiiadOQ .of each dab, in tbe Uoiv 
▼erfitj-hall, at the end of tivs fei&on, ezoitea and qtaintaivs 
a.'fptrit of appticatioa and* emolitioo. Xb^ ficuation of. the 
piaoe is verT^heitthy.;. tthere are dry Walks at all ieaibas^ 
the air Js piive ; Hat ftteeta ane Spacious and open » and ttK> 
water, which in great pknty is' brought- i^o.^he. towA^ 
from adjacent fprings^ by leaden ptpes^ is excellent. rP^^ifUiil 
or mUignant difeafes arcL;fcarcely ever fe^ iP St An«^ 
dtew's. Epidemical difeaCes of any ^kind ar^ veryr^^-e, 
and aUbjnueh milderi^t^a^i^ .od^^r pU^e). of th^ fame %o 
and popolatioD. . * - . • ri : 

Goal b in, great abood^cte within ajfe.w^ miles of the 
cky<; mutb alfo is iiiq>orted from both- fides of the Forth, 
cbiefiy frekp. Dy(art, Alloa» axid Bor^owftounnels, The 
proper weight of a St Andrew's cart^lpafd, or bplt of coals, 
is 75 Aone, or lao? pounds. The average price of thif « 
Gsrt-load, iqclading carriage, has hitherto been fropn the 
adjacent mines, 5 s» Oyfart, 5 s. 4 d^ Alloa, 5 s. 10 d. 
Borrowftounneik, 16 a. 4 d *• The harbpu^i has^ (^ Jate beea 
mueh improved,- and the mole extended farther to wardf 
the fee. A fpirit pf enterprife has ariten among die inba^ 
bitaats, Hew bonfes o|i an improved plan of.Aze, accomm^ 
dation, and elefgaaoe, are yearly rifing, and there is every 
reafen to believe, that SttAndrew'a will cpAliftue to flou* 
ri(b, and will gradually regain its former luilre- ' • 

• ' : 'J ' Extemi 

• Dnring the whiter 179^3, St Ahdrtw's MRM^ \aAti the f^enefil 
cDflipliiAt» of icarce And deac cods; The moor co»Ib wevQ nifed 10 ^ s. 6 d, . 
Djihrt md Alloa, to 8 s. 9 d. Borro^fAoaoscis as high ai 1 1 iy. 

196 Siaii/Ucal Account 

Emimi, Smrfaei, Sail, CUmsi0, t/r.-*The ptftfli of St 
Andrew^B fornu a parallelogram aaarly, the ends of whkb 
pomtisg towanb £• by S. asd W. bj N. broadtil at tho 
waft ettd. The length from £• to W. about xo mi]e» ; city 
of St Andrew's nearly in the middle of the north fide 1 
greateft breadth nearly 4 mSet. Throog^ the whok length 
of the pariih there is an acclivity fiom N. to S« forming, 
with little intermptiooy one large com-Seld, in which are 
Ibnnd all the varietiea of foili day, loam, fimd, 6cc. The 
ftndy foil is chiefly in the neighboarhood of the city, and 
adjoining to the months of Eden and Kenlowie. Thefe 
findy fields feem, at fome remote period, to hare been c<d« 
kfied by the fmall rirerSy and, by gradual aceunMshtion, to 
have diverted or narrowed the conrfe of the waters. All 
thefe fields, however, are ploughed, and, by proper attention, 
produce good crops of com, excepting a fmall ^lot of 
downs or bents, which is oppofisd to the fiea on the eafi fide 
of the harbour, and a larger traft of the iame running firom 
the N. W. comer of the city, which produces (bme pa(hire 
for (heep, and forms die links, well known to golfers. A* 
long the eaft fide of thefe links, in a direftion nearly S. 
and N. is a flat firm (andy beach, about i4 mile long, ter- 
minated on the N. by the mouth tjf Eden. This beach is 
known by the name of the Weft Sands, and is alrooft en- 
tirely covered by the fea at fpring tides. From the fouth- 
cm extremity of this beach, to the eaft end of the pariA, 
with the interruption only of the harbour, and another 
fliort (andy beach, called the Eaft Sands, running along the 
firft mentioned fpot of downs or bents, the (bore outward 
from high watermark is lined with rough and ragged 
Hidving rocks, moftly covered with' lea- weed, and the 
coaft inwards is very rocky and bold, the face of it in fome 
places perpendicular rode to the hei^t of 30 or 40 feet, 
yet the ^ogh conses tQ tbc voiy btinkt havbg a foffieien. 


qf St Andrew^ $. tyj 

cjoffoiL llieboiiiidftfWofiliiapanflitatheW.aiidS.ter- 
aiaate in moorsy covered with ihoit heath and fiirze. Some 
fBts of thefe moon batre of late been limed and ploughed^ 
aid have yielded a £ew profitable erops of com. Thef Ibil 
rkaxtj however, is in general too coU and wet for retaining 
dover in winter. The greater part of thefe moors fisem fit 
mlj for being planted with wood, and the proprietora are 
beginning to attend to diat niefiil improvement of wafte 
land. The air, dtmate, and fidubrity of the whole parifii 
s nearly ^ fame with that of the citj. In common with 
all the eafiem part of the ifland, this pai^iih is well ac* 
^oainted with the oold damp'cafterly winds, or baars of A* 
pril and May. Thele haais feldom £ul to aflfbd thofe who 
have ever had an agne, thoagh in no part of the world are 
^nes Jc(a frequent than here. The air of this corner is> in 
general, too fliarp for phthyfical conftitutions. 

Sfra^Sf Rmrsf Sea Coq/I, Fj^w— -There are ieveral odue 
fpringa on the high groonds in the eaft end of the parifli, 
Cdme of which have been frequented by fcorbotic and 
icrofnloiis patients, but few have boafted of benefit fitmi 
them, more than they woold have derived from the mode**- 
rate eseidie of walking a mile or two in the frelh funny 
mornings of April and May. There are no lakes, canals, 
or rivers, deferviog the name. In Eden and Kenlowie, 
is a coofiderable number of trout ^ in the embouchure of 
Eden is a flat frndy bay, abounding with large flounders ; iu 
this bey, at low water, is gathered a very great quantity 
of cockles and muflels," both of which are prized as an ar« 
tide of £Md for the conunoo people, and of delicacy among 
the betterfbrt. The gatherers, after carrying them twomilea. 
Hell them in St Andrew's at a d. the meafured peck. The 
mnfleb are ufed by the fifliermen as bait for haddocks. In 
(he cooife of Edeu, for about a mile from its month, frL 

X9% StatyHc^ Ai:€hm 

.flrb-aiuj^t,.'biit;iniDor§Rtit;qiiaiiti^.. Th^'fiibia^ im 
<leed| haft sot beed'pib&ctttcd widi sinch %Hrk. In thi 
b^T^W crecdc: of i£udsfa,. tke fea flows fo hxgfay as to admit 
"dltfeliibf 4attr jO'^oqtv^sntty. of- which there unload hax- 
lajT' fiar a difii]lovy,»>coabiaiid lime ibr the iiexgMKniring far- 
mtef^ lilho^lmrebgr i^^^e: a<or j miks ^f land-earriage^ and 
are thus enabfefi in a few dajs to 'convey to their farms as 
idmM^ (jfthefeneodl^y slrtidBSi aarfeeiacrfy oQeujiied their 
fdrvaqt^ifuid hdrfisa for the 'gttatec fsurtof the famioer 9 
itflnebieafiiii is'iiow.ipent in^longhitig aad hoeipg. In the 
eoft ebd o£itbe tjMfiik iifo^ ar^ fooBoe ToisU oreeks anoa^ the 
rdbkt^ tiiNtfe:<vefleli of ihfiniorfixe'dblivef^liaie sod coals. 
-o&Bit Attdrl^vfi. Bdyv Until within the& £eW yeaiB» abouhd* 
€A'\n hadd«bklv' with whseb 5 or 6 boats; 4 men ia^eichy 
fllp^tfd'Sc Aadt-dw'sr Cdpar, and the norili. fide of:Kfeibr 
10 miles. Thefe haddocks were of a jailer fi?h. ihaa 
thofe in the frith of Forth, but of a better flavour in the o- 
pinion'of the peopk of this place ; iibey formed the. chief 
artideof inimal food to the poocer.fortvi jidd were abr^s 
iken at eveay'tabk ; but of late this %)ecite of fifh has al- 
uiift' entirely ^deferted this baj, as.'v^ell as maoj other 
patts of the caft^ra cxM. of Scotland 9 the-eaufe has never 
bocn)4ifcov^ed**. Lammas herrings have, in onrmcmo- 
rj^ been cattght in immenfe quasfitite within this bikj, on 
the obaft^of Kingibarns 'parifli ; but vtrj feMom, during 
thefe laftao years, has thut fiihing. there be^n worth men- 
tioning. I The rockfly from the bottom 'of the haj to the 
eallem extremity of the .pariih, abound with limpets and 
periwinklea of different kinds; alio with l<^tters» and 
feme varieties of crabs,, of. which the partan oolj is ufed 
fisr'food. Xhe&aUow wattr^ over a fandy bottom, afibrds 


^. * Som^ old poople here fay* that abont the beginning of this centurv, 
the haddocks in like manner deferted this bay for a year or two. 

^ St Andreiv^s. I99 

peat plenty of flat fiib, fuch as flounders, foles, flcate, h^li- 
bK, tnrbot. Near the rocl^y Ihorc. xs^nj ftnall cod, both 
sd aod grey; in deepcf water, ling. and J^r^cr 9od.. All 
t^c kinds of Jfli arc fdd by tale or by hand. Some of 
tTfC larger ling, cod, and halibut bj weight, frotn % d, to 3 A. 
oe pound. Since the departure of the hs^do^Ksif the fiih- 
nnen have become poor,, and either unable or i^nwillinj^ 
nprofecute their trade to any extent \ and what adds ta 
6eir poverty, incapacity, and languor iS| that, 00 ma-, 
IT occafioas, an unexpeded blaft of nprth-eaft windi^ 
vfaich raifes tremenduoq^ w^vea in this bay^ has torn ia^ 
pieces all their lines *• 

* The moft metnbrable cafe pf this kind in our days happened on 4th 
Svt. 1765. The morning was quiet ; all the boats went to fea, anddropt 
atir lines. WUle tying on their oan, about 7>o\lock it began to fcofl^V 
.a the N. E. ; the fiihcmicfi (fM reafon to apprd^od a ftorm, and inupa^ , 
iptely began to gftherup their fifliing tackle; but before they cuuid ^c- 
tvoplilh this, the gale ha^ increafed fo as tp raife immenfe curled and 
b*okcn waves. Each boat made for the neareft beach or cove between 
n>cki. Two of them, very near each otheiv had got fo clofc to tbf £^ 
Si?ds, that die people pa the be^h had begun to w«d,e into the TKrttei io 
(vdcr to affift thpir friends ; when the one boat, raifed on the top of a 
prudigiovs wave, was dtiyen right over head of the other. The upper- 
uA boat was inftantiy either buried in the fand, or carried back fay the. 
rdai, fo that no part of it, or of its crew, was ever agaia feet. The 
isdennoft boat was drawn a(hore by the women, all the people alive. 
TW writer of this has feeu and felt the wound made on the head of a boy 
a the ftem of the oodermoft boat, by the keel of the uppermoft. On this 
occaSon, of 5 boats, ^ were totally loft, and the otlier two much daatf^ 
;cd, and moft of the tackle loft. Twelve men were loft, of whom one 
^u anmarricd, the other eleven left widows and 18 children. Many of 
^t men who efcaped with life were feverely broifed. A fiibicriptiMi wm 
iaxediately fet on foot among individuals and iboieties in St Andrew^ 
^blch, with donations from other burghs, and from noblemen and gip. 
t^nun in different parts of the country, produced L. 317 : 7 : pi Sterling. 
This money the fnbfcribers committed to tmftees, who, after givmg an 
loacdiate fopplj to th<; diftrelftd families, fettled a half yearly penOoo on 


200 Statical Accwni 

Sia'Vfiidt.''^Tht fiea-rocks in this parifli sre covered tvi 

the coounoQ weed, which afed fisrmerlj to be cut eve: 

third year, and burnt for kelp. The demand for this a 

tide feems to be diminilhed ; as for feveral years paft, tJ 

corporation of St Andrew's have not been able to get the 

fea-weed let to any undertaker. This weed the ftrme 

never cut for manure \ and the tangle* though its broc 

leaved tops are leen in great quantities on the furfaee < 

.the fea, yet is fo fituated at the fiffther extremity of tl 

rocks, and grows in (b deep water, that they can neith< 

cut nor tear it up. Every gale of wind, however, from x 

ny eaflerly point, and every violent agiution of the (ei 

throws upon the beach and into every creek, all the wa 

from the mouth of Eden to the eaft end of the parilh, i 

great quantity of tangle mixed widi many other weedi 

ijrhich are carefiiUy gathered i and, according to the feafo^ 

of the year, arefpread on the grais, mixed in dunghills, J 

tilled down for barley or potatoes. The Corporation o 

St Andrew^s have hitherto permitted the towns people ii 

common to gather, tax free, whatever fea-weed is throwi 

in between the mouth of Eden and the eaft fimds adjoinin| 

to the harbour $ the remainder of the fliore b private pro 

perty of the fevend heritors, according to the extent o 

their refpeAive lands. 

tlie widows ind on tlw chUdfen« oatil fhej ihould be capable of doing 
for themfclvei. ' And (6 faiUifaUy and pntdently has this fond been inana. 
md» tiiat dtoagb the widows have rcfularly received foch a penfioo as, 
with their own labour, has been fofficient for their foppor^ tiioagh the 
children have been helped forwaidin Ufo, tfiongh difierent foms have been 
applied for repairing the ^fliermens lofles at lea, and though die grand- 
children of fome of the fnfferen have alfo been occafionaUy relieved, yet 
diere remains of the ftock about L. 60 Sterling, and te aunber of pen- 
Jonea is, by deidi sad othecwifo, reduced to four. 1 

of Si Andrew^!. 201 

Ijond-marks^ ^e. — On the lands of Brownhilb and Kin- 
kcll, which form the firft rifing ground eaftward from St An« 
drew*9 harbour, there are a few infulated rocks from ao to 
40 feet high, and of nearlj equal breadth ; one about half 
a mile from the harbour, called the Maiden Stone, wfajch 
ilands alone ; and about half a mile further, the Rock and 
Spindle, adjoining to one another. Thele are clofe upon 
the beach, above ordinary high water mark, and are of very 
little ttfe as land-marks, becaufe the clofely adjacent land b 
much higher than they. About a mile farther eaft, among the 
rocks of Boarhillsv near to a creek where fmall veflels may 
enter and onload, is fuch another infulated rock, called 
Buddo, which is generally marked on fea-charts, becaufe 
it b better feen at fea, the adjacent land being flat. This 
rock is perforated by a kind of gateway, 4 or 5 feet wide. 

The chief land-marks in this parifli are the fteeples of St 
Andrew's, and a fmall obeliflc of ftones, on the higheft part of 
the farm of Bahymont, about a miles S. £. from the town *• 

Mintrals^ Caori.-«-Freeflooe is often dug from the fea 
rocks ; but in general the texture of it is very open and 
porous, or it crumbles and di0blvt9B when expofed to wa* 
ter or humid air, after the external incruftation is broken. 
On Strathkinnels Moor, about 3 miles from town, and on 
Nydie Hill, which is a greater elevation of the fame moor, 
to the weftward, are excellent quarries of freeftone for buil* 
ders, door-cheeks, windows, ftairs, and grave-ftones. Tbelb 
quarries require very little tirring. In fome places the rock 
has no covering of earth. Many marks of very old quar- 
ries. It is fuppofed, that out of fome of thefe were dug the 

Vol. XIII. C c floucs 

• There have occafionally been found on the (hore fonit pctriiied fca^ 
weeds, and a few yean ago, part of thetranlE,-at its divifion into twomaia 
brvMfaes, ofwhat feoMtobeapctriicd tree. It was by the l|Ue Ho. 
MNwablc Cokinel John Naine, made the door-poft of a gcotto in a garden 
uf this city, now belonging t» Mr Eiikine of Cafflbo. 

aoi Statifikaf ^^em 

floQcs wberrviih St R^ulos's tower is fiued all wa^ 
On Denhead moor, in the S. W. comer of this pariih, and 
on the confines between it and that of Cameron, a coal* 
aaine be|ongbg to Mr Martin of Denbrae, has fometimes 
been wrought to a fmall extent. On the fame moor, Mr 
Dorfaam of Largo has a coal. None of thele are now oc- 
copied. Two or three years ago» fome Eogliihmen, ju4g* 
ing from the appearance of the groondy expeded to find 
foal in many difierent parts of the parilh» and entered into 
oontraft with fevend proprietors \ but, after expending a 
good deal of money in boring, &g« they were diiappointed. 
In the &ce of a freeftone rock, overhaogmg the fea -beach 
bet w een the cattle and the harbour, there is an excavation 
ieemingly artificial) it is nearly roiwd; about lo feet dia« 
fnetcr, and the fame height On the eaft fide of it, die 
rock is ihaped into the form of a table or altar, and on the 
^. W. fide b an aperture of the ordinary fize and i)iape of 
a door, by which ypu go into a fmall clofet, fuppofed to 
have been the cell of a hermit i the acceis to it is now ve- 
ry difficult. In the &oe of the rock on which the cafile 
ftands, are the remains of fuch anodier ei^cavation \ from 
the eaft fi4e of tl^is, is a perforation tt^roogh which a man 
may eafily creep, into a fmaller one, which is alfo opentQ 
thefea, over which the rock hangs \ this cave alfo is of very 
(Rfficult i)cce&. About a mile eaft from the harbour, there 
is a natural cave of eafier acceis, Kinkell cave. The 
inouth is to tl^e north ; the direfiion of the cave is fonth* 
wards ; the (belying qf the freeftone roof makes a crob fec-^ 
tion of the cave, triangular } there is a continual dropping 
from the roof. 

Pofittlatiop. — ^Accordmg to Dr Webfter> report, the 
nomber of fouls dies was 4590* I have had^acccis to no data, 
by wldch the ancient ftate of the population of this parifl& 
f an be jjueffed at. A procels now in dependence before 

tkeCoort of Seffioo, finr an alteradoa tad dtvifioB of Iht 
pArilh church, has caofed a reiy minute inquiry iate. the 
pitfent population. The unmben reported on oadk bj the 
the teUeia, ace as follows, W 0. 

Number of fouls in the pariik. 

In the town and royalty, - a399 

In the fuburfas of Axgylei - 119 

In the couatryi • • I4)S 

Children incapable of going to church, 

In St Andrew's, « - 288 

In Argyle, • * •14 

In the coontry. • - - aoa 

Suppo&d neceflarily detained at home. 

In St Andrew's, - • 189 

In Argyle, - - 16 

la the country, ... %yi 

Diflenters of all denominations. 

In St Andrew's, - • • 91 

In Argyle, ... 5 

In the country, * - 22 

o Wlwn tke dine Uft claflci Are Mnccd from the toul, Ihere remein 
§891. who ate or ooght to be attending pnblic woifhip in the £iUbliihe4 
Chvrchy and for that mimber the purfaiag heritoit infifted, that there 
Aoald be accommodation in the ptrifh-chnrch. The defSenders alleged, 
Alt accommodation it needed for ao more than xSoo, bemg abont two* 
tUrdi of the ezmninable perfons. The mimber o^ parochial commnni- 
MBbatthsLoid^Sappcnu^koiareca z;eoa0d i6eo, aadihedimcb, m 
aowfiMd» caqmitfoiitiua above liiatmunWE. The ilRie «f iWa pnceft 
will dctamine what proportion the Loids of Seffion judge that the fiae of 
apariih^ureh flumld bear to the number of inhabitants. By one interior 
filar ^bex have already mdered an architedl to vifit this pariOi-dmccl^. 
aad ftpen whcAar ha caa fed aacommodatm is it tbr 8500. 


Statyiical Account 

Within tlieiie ri months, there were alive in the city of St 
Attdrew% 40 perfons above feorfcore yean of age. There 
18 now alive at Boarhilh one man aged 96«— B7 frequent 
changes of feffipn-clerks* and from other circnmftaaces, the 
parochial records of births, deaths aiid marriages, are im- 
perfeft and defedive. There follows an abfiraft from 
thefe records at diflSerent periods, where any competent 
number of years conld be traced in fnoceffion. The mar^ 
riages are recorded only when the bride was refiding in the 
pariih, and no regifier of the dead was kept in this parifli, 
in the beginning of thb century. 














































































































ao years births. Males, 113a. Females, xo86. Total, aaiS. 
Average, xzo^L,— -Ptoportion of males to fiemales, as 
' IX to 10.553. 

ao years 

of St' Andrew^ s. 


S3 jears marriageft, 530»-— Average, %6\. 
Arerage of births, 1x0.9 X 26 = 28^3.4^ 
Births, greateft number, anno 17x8, = 137 X 26 =:3562. 
The average of marriages in thq above table, differs but 
iktle from that in the fubfeqaent -, but the average of births 
confiderablj exceeds that of more modern times, and there 
b 00 reaficm to believe, that the pariih was more populous 
foorfcore jeafs ago than it is now. The reafon of the dif» 
bence may perhaps be, that the Seceders negieft to have 
ti: birth of thdr .children regiftered in the parochial ro- 
cords: ' 




















. 54 









. 4'l 


















^ 4P 

. 66 








' 34 

















1 751 































































* 47 









' 741 



18 years births. Males, 986. Females, 937. Total, 
t9>3« Average, 166 j.— Proportion of males to fen^ake, 
» II to 10^53. 

16 years deaths. Mkdes, 684. Females, 741. Total, 
M^j. Average, 8911^— «Fropoitioo of males to females, 
^u to 21.9x6. 

<5 years marriagesi 39b. Avera^,,a6. ^; 



Siatijlicai Account 

Average of btrtfasi io6J x -afi = *777f- liitto <i 
deaths, SpTV X 36 =x 3206^. 
BiiithSy greateft number in 17501-^128 x a6 = 3328. 
Deaths, greateft nomber in 1748,— 127 X 36 = 4572. 


Deaths. „ 













































































7« • 


























77 1 







80 1 














79 1 














Mar. , 










18 years births. Males, ioo3. Females, 919. Total, 
192a. Average, io6j^.— Ptoporti(» of males to females, 
as XX to 10.078. 

18 years deaths. Rfales, 6i6. FemiJes, 768. Total, 
X434. Average, 79f . Proportion of males to females, as 
XX to xa.684. 

x8 yean marriages^ 445. Average, 24^]^ 

Average of birtiis, xo6J X 26 5= 2776^. 

Average of deadu, 79f X 36 = 2868. 

2V: B. Tbefe numbetB are hx bekvr the aAiija nam- 
bee of fouls» s: 3950* 

Births, greateft number in X789i~x32 X 26 = 3432. 
Deaths, greateft nnmber in x 777,— xao x 36 = 4320. 


of Si Afidrevo's. aoy 

As the aven^ of births in ihefe two periods is fo eipnlt 
6e average of marriages fo nearly the fame, and the ave* 
age of deaths in the latter period is fo much below that of 
tbe former, the piefiimption iS| that the number of inha- 
biduBts is increafing. And the reafon why the average of 
deaths has of late years decieafed, may be, that the com- 
aoa peopk now nfe more generous food, are better dothed^ 
ffid more s^ttentive to deanlioeft in their perfons, their 
nanners, and their dwellings. By the foregoing uble ic 
appears, that the modem average of births in this parijh is 
to the real number of inhabitants as x to 37 very nearly \ 
iverage of marriages as 1 to 160 nearly ; average of deaths, 
as 1 to 49t nearly.— The number of ; artificers in the pa* 
lifli, mailers and freemen, is nearly as follows : Smiths, in- 
dnding x watchmaker, a tinmen, a workers in brais, and 
3 glovers, incorporated with the fiouths, ax \ wrigfats, car- 
penters, and mafoos, 50 \ bakers, 19 ; fleihets, 19 ; tailors, 
33 ; iboemakers, 34 ; weavers, 5a ; iaddler, i«— Befides 
the profeffor of medicine in the univerfity, there are in St 
Andrew's other a regular phyficians ; all the three praAife 
in midwifery and forgery, as occafion offers ; one apotheca- 
ry, who is alio a pra£titioner in pbyfic. Several (hopkeep- 
ers vend a few of the more common medicines, fiich as eve- 
ry neighbour prefcribes to another ; 5 writers or attomies \ 
2 meffengers at arms. The courts of law here are the Bailie 
court, the Desn of Guild court, Juftice of Peace court, and 
the Gommifiary court for the diocefe of St Andrew'Si whole 
regular place of meeting is the church of St Salvaus's Col* 
kgc.— There are no known inflances of people dying here 
fiv want, nor of murder, nor of fuicide, excepting the cafe 
of one man who hanged himfelf about foorfeore years ago ; 
Us body was differed, and his Ikeleton remains in the nni- 
yeifity library. No emigrations freia this paxiih; and 


2oS Statiftkal Accowt 

thoogh, as in every other towiii a few honfes tizj be occa- 
lioDally unoccupied, yet in general there is a demand, and 
the building of new houfes b found a profitable application 
of monej.— The modem average of ftodcnts at the philo- 
fopby college is loo ; of ditto at the divioitj college is 48. 
No regular authentic lift of ftudents at the phtbliDphj col- 
lege has been kept till of late years ; but by examining the 
matriculation book» and allowing that the number of new 
ftudenta formerly bore the fame proportion to the total that 
it now does^ it fhould feem that the average of fludents at 
the philofophy coUege was, from 173S to 1747* 56 ; from 
1757 to 1766, 79 ; and from 1773 ^^ *78»» 88 : Hence it 
af^ears, that the refort of ftudents to St Andrew's contt^ 
nties to be on the increafe. The greateft ntunber in any 
one year, in recent times, is 137. The number of ftudents 
in divinity alfo increales, as the average from 1773 ^^ 
1782, is only 30. The greateft number in any one year du* 
ruigthat period is 35. Greateft number fince that time, 54. 
The greateft number of ftudents at the uni verfity in any one 
year, i79.**Befides the parochial Eflabltftied minifters, 
there is in St Andrew's an Epifcopal clergyman, who has 
an annual penfion from Queen Anne's bounty, and a mi« 
nifter of the Burgher Seceders} there is but one family o£ 
Aatiborgher Seceders. 

Pr(M/«r^/(Mri.— -There are no eld phntadons of wood in 
diis parifli. Several young plantations are going on, particu- 
larly in the eaftem part of the parifti by Dr John Hill, 
ProfeiTor of Humanity, Edinburgh, on hb lands of Kin- 
glalBe; John Campbell, Efq; writer to the Signet, on 
his lands of Smiddygreen; James Anderibn, Efq; Ad- 
vocate, OQ Newbiggingi Rev. Dr Duncan, Epifcopal 
clergyman in Dundee, on Stonywynd; and Mr Tum- 
buUy jointly with his tenant John Adamfon, on Bum- 


qf St Andrew's. 209 

tie of BoBiliiUi': la ^His USt ctfe, die moor was under 
leaCe «s a part of the hrm ; the tenaotc without any de* 
^nfiioo of rent, was at the expenle of endofing and plant- 
ii^ and continoes to have the burden «f defending ; at the 
aid of 50 jears, the tensuir's heirs get half the value of 
die wood. The ufual Varieties of foreft-trees are among 
thde plantations ; but the Scotch fir is in greateft quantity* 
AB the ufual pot-herbs are in great plenty. Gardening 
becomes yearly an ebjefi id more atteadon. Every bx* 
jner ndfes wheat, barley or heart nats, pea& and beans, 
Hunips, potatoes^ clover* The quantity of land fown with 
wheat increafes every year. Barley is now more cultivated 
Aaa bear; but perhaps more than either, a mixture of the 
^Oy whidi is called ramble. Rutabaga, or Swedilh tur* 
nip, has been tried, but not perfifted jn. Hie 
dry is followed only witth the potatoes and turnip, and % 
ftw beans. The pajjih, including the city, needs an im« 
portation of meal, but it fpares barley. 

TV number of black cattle in this parift, as in afl the 
aeighbourhood, fs yearly diminiihingi as the farmers now 
do all their work with hc^fes alone i two of which are 
yoked in the plough, and gmded by the ploughman* 
Within thefe 30 years, each plough had a horfes and 
4 oxfm, which dways needed a goadman. The culture of 
grafles and of wheat has gradually expelled the (heep from 
this parifh, all the laod that could yield them any tolera* 
Ue paftnre being now fiAjeded to th^ plough. There re- 
mains not a fiore-flock in the whole pariflu A few are 
kept on the LinHs of St Andrew's, chiedy for the iham« 
bks, the prefent tackfioum being a butpher. Some • of the 
farmers alfo gra^e a few fer die butchexa *• 

Vol. XIII. Dd Sii/^ends, 

o About the bcgmains of Maith, (feldon iboncr), the f^rmen hegh^ 
!• tow oats and beuu. The fowiof of btrkj sad Iku tennisiiai in die 


91Q Statt^ajU A^coum 

Stiptnds^ Heritors^ Scboo/t Poor^ He. — ^Tbe pariih is ^ 
collegiate charge, botlf ininUlers officiating in one churchy 
"which appears to have been built in the jear ma. in the 
form^^f a crofs, the north aile of which was taken down 
long ago Tlie King is patron of the lil charge, to which 
belongs the parochial llipend. The magiftrates and town* 
council, of the ad charge ; the (Upend of which is paid oat 
of the Town's patrimony. The ift miniOcr'a (Upend i« 
wholj yidualy con(ilUng of wheat, 14 bolls a pecks \ 
oats, 63 bolls 3 firlots a pecks it lippies*, bear, 63 bolls 
3 firlots. ITic 2d miniftei 's is in money, w«. 1300 merks, . 
L. 7a : 4 : 5tt Sterling. The firft miniller has 9 glebe 
of 4 acres, now let at L. 2, xo s. the acre. NeU 
ther of the miniAers have a manfe; although it ap- 
pears from the pre(bytery-records, that there were inan- 
fes for both 150 years ago. The ad minifter has alfo 
the teind of the fiihes brought into the harbour for fale. 
foi* which the filhcrmen were wont to pay L. a Sterling; of 
late years they have paid nothing. The church got a con* 
fiderab^e repair, yrith a new roof, iq the year 1749. Since 
that time, fome partial repairs. A procels, as formerljr 
mentioned, is now {n dependence for dividing the atesft. and 
eo Urging the auditory of the church. The number of he- 
ritors and portioners in the landward parifh is about 45, of 
whom 10 are refident. The proprietors and portioners of 
burgh and prior acres cannot eafily be reckoned. Every 
year makes alterations among them \ and the number is 
gradually diniinilliing, becaufe the acres that focceflively 

•\^} •/. .. •'- » ^^^ 

eod of NT ay new i^yle, V'bett feed gezieral^ begins about Michaelmas^ 
Wheat harvcit for the moft part begins before the end of Augoft ; and 
biiiey harVeft foon alter. Few feafons now permit the fields to be clear- 
ed before the end of October; though all (he old leafei oblige the tepaots 
to remove at Michactnas. 

hf si Andrenv^s. ail 

tome ntb 'ttiftrket are generally boaght op bj thofe who 
fcavc tltt^Aj fomc property in the vkinity. — ^In the city of 
St Andrew's is a grammar-fchool, in the fratronage of the 
towo^eolmc^l. Thtf reAor enjoys, rent free, a houfe, in 
yA&A maybe, and fometimes have been, accommodated 
15 bmrdeTs. A garden, fuificiently large for the family, 
tod i (atary of L. x6 : 3 : 4 Sterling, paid out of Uie funft 
of the eorporation, ont of which alfo are paid all the repaifs 
of die iehool and fehool boufe. Mr Mouat, the prefent in- 
cumbent, who entered on his office about Candlemas I79i*f 
has already recommended himfelf fo much to the general 
efteeiii, lind to the favour of the patrons, that they have 
fireeiy ^xinferred oh him an yearly addition of L. xoo Scots, 
making hu (ahry L. 15 Sterling. The number of his boar- 
deo is always inereafing. The fchobl-fees have not been 
rai(ed fdr tinie immemorial ; as. 6d. a-^uarter, and a 
gcBtnity at Candlemas, at leaft equal to the quarterly pay- 
ineBt. The fcholars, )n general, pay at leaft 5 s. a-qtxar- - 
ter, and a Candlemas gratuity, according to their rank and 
fortttM, from 5 s. even as filr as 5 guineas, when there is 
a keeii compietition for the Candlemas crown. The king, 
c. e. He who pays moft, reigns for 6 weeks, during which 
period he 19 not only intitkd to demand aiii afternoon's play 
for the fehobrs once a-week, but he has alfo the royal pfi- 
vUefe of teattting all puniflinbents. The nuinber of 
tchohrs is from 50 to 60. llie mafter has no other per- 
quifites but hb houfe, garden, falary, and fchool-fees. The 
torporatiod allow him an extra L, 7, in part payment of an 

Th^fe 18 alfo in ttie patronage of the town-council ano- 
ther iichool for Englift^ writing and arithmetic. The pre. 
ienC fehool was built, chiefly at the expenfe of George 
DempQer, Efq; of Dunichen, late provoft of the city and 
member of Parliament for the diftrid. The mader's fidary 


912 Staiijfkat Accbimt 

Si doo merits, u $. L. it : a : 2-^» Steilmg, pui by^ 
the Exchequer. This lalary, however, belongs to him 
ttore properly as preoentor in the to«ra church, than ss 
lehoolmtfkr. The corpoFStion, out of refped to the abi- 
lities, aiBdnity, ao^fbocelsoe Ab Smith, the pideiift iucoiD- 
bent, have given hun out of their funds an additional L. 5 
Sterling a-7ear« Theloweft £ees at ^thb fchool are 1 s. 6dL 
m-quartep, and a gratnitj at the new year. Mr Smith has, 
at extra^houfs, what is called a private ibhoel, ot leeood 
elafles, at as. 6d. the quarter-. Number of icholars, in 
the public fchool, at an average of 7 yeait, is no ; and 
in the private fchool, 55. Mr Smith teaches book-keeping 
for a guinea. The mafter of this fchool haa no houle, nor 
any other perquifites. Mr Smith indeed is feffion-derk v 
but this office is not neceflanly connefied with the Englifli 

Befidea the& eSabli&cd' Ichools,^ then are iii- St An- 
drew's throe private fchools, where the children of the 
poorer fort are for hwer fees tanght to read. There are in 
town, fchools for needle-work of all kinds,- and tambour- 
ing; the miftreiTes have no falary, but depend- entirely our 
their affiduity and good behaviour. A mufie-maAer, and 
dancmg-mafters, of approved charafier, during die printer 
months. There is no efiablilhed fchool for French. Mp 
Smith, theEnglUh mailer, reads that langjoage at a private 


^ Uh worthy of record, tint ti fixm at* Mr Join Rtlkst* wlio for 
maay ytun had, witii great honour, held the office of reAor ta the gnni« 
mar-fcho^, firft of eopar, and latteily of St Andrew's, began to (boW 
^mptoms of dedliie, his fuomJam papUs, hf tolmttry fabfcription, pur- 
cbafcdferhimaTeiyhaBdfome annuity, on whkk he now lives in 8e 
Andrew's with much comfort, and enjoying uairerial lefped. The cor- 
pontioDof St Aadicw'thMPC sUbcoatintted with him half hitforaior 
Alary for life. 


^ St Andr^^- ^H 

ioo^withriichaschoofctoeiii'»oy»»«» At Boarhills, in 
the call end of the parift and in a cfentrical fpot for 
the weft end of the pariP> ^^ fchools for Enj;lifli, writings 
and arithmetic Thc''^^^* ^^^ ^^ lately rebuilt or 
xcpaired by fubfcrii-^ons from the neighbouring proprietoca 
and tenants wir^ ^ ^^^ ?^^ ^^^ ^ kirk*feifion. The 
ikkiies L. 9 ^^^9 ^^ P^f^ chiefly by the feilion. A pa- 
tziotic d*^ of fiurmers, in Boarhills and the neighbourhood, 
hay«>g formed a flock purfe, by a fmall monthly contribu^ 
fiODy fines of abfenteeSy Sec. purcha£ed an acre of land, a mort- 
doth, and a hearfe i the profits of thefe are given for the 
encoaragement of their fchoolmafler, 

The eflabliihed roll of thole poor, who receive a week- 
ly penfion, and are fuppofed to need that penfion during 
£&, is 47* Bat befides this roll, there are many indigent 
finnilies, ficc. who get dccafional fupply ; and the amonat 
cf this fnpply is in fome years not much below that of the 
weekly penfipns. The annual average of the funds under 
die adminiftrattoQ of the feffion, is, x. Produce of all do- 
nations, mortifications, legacies, Sec. vefled in one com- 
mon fiibjeA of land, about L. 33. a. Weekly c<dleAions 
at die cfaurdi-doofs, about L. 76. 3. Rent of {eats in die 
church, marriage-dttes, Sec. about L. 14. Out of this re- 
venue, amounting to L.za3, hefides the fupply of the 
poor, diere fiaill to be paid land-tax, communion-elements, 
ialaries toclerks and village ichoolmafler8,bnrials of the poor» 
repairs of feats, See. Over and above thefe fimds already 
mentioned, the late Principal Murifon of the New Col* 
lege, who died 30th July 1779, bequeathed L. 100 Ster- 
ling to the feifion as tmftees ; the intereft thereof to be dif- 
ttifanted en ^ 30th July annually to decayed houfehol* 


* Km, tt in tnxj other ptrt of the cooatxy, the price of provifioiis 
Ion bras coofidenblj idnnced of Ute years. ATerage prices now aie» 

«t4 • StifijUcai JccduHt 

Mt/cellaneoui OB/ervatiofu JXhu pariQi fccms to laboiir 
linder no pardculsir oifadvanl^es. It enjoys tcverial ad- 
vantages, fome of which will appy to very few other pa- 
rlfliies in the kingdom, t/f'ss. fuch a^^re derived from t>ie 
tJniverfity. In common with many o-h^rs,' it has all tlic 
advanUgies thatrefult from good fchools, li^ both l>ojrs and 
glrU, from a faluhrious fitoation, from a well ««pplied max- 
ket, and from the neighbourhood of the lea. I^w^rictors 
in this parifli have a particular advantage, that thcjj tire 
not burdened with a minlftcr^s iharifc, nor .fchoolmailcr'i» 
falary ; and hitherto' they have been taxed with no more 
than one third of the expenfe of the ,|rarL{h-thtirch, the 


beef, a-ponna, 4 J. ; » November, ^ d. ; veal and nntt4% Uq^ aj.^ 

*to 5 d. accordin|{ to the feafon ; lamb, from t s. 6 d. to 5 s. a quarter ; 

poric s d. axid 4 d. the pound ; pigs, Craih 2 s. *Cd: to 5 ». ; geefe; j a. 

Mid B «*. ^ d ; dttcb. from (d. tot i» ; dnickcfis, Sd. a-psr ; pigeons, 

^ d» apair ; rsbbitv ^ d« and 7d. a*^air ; bmtt^j fiom 7 d. to 9 d. .'«- 

poand ; cheefe,. a j. d. and 3 d. a-pound s eggs, } d. aad 4d. a^^oxea ; 

hens, is: each; oatmeal, t s. a peck; ploughmen's wages have, with- 

In tkcfe 30 yean, been raifed from L. 3 Sterling a-year, to L. 5, L.6, 

JL«8, L. 9 ; comami labourets, from. id. adi^ 10 1 s. ; tttaft>A», froin 

1 s. a-daj, to X s. 8 d. x s. 10 d. 2 s. according to the demand ; others, 

in proportion. When laix>urers are fober and. frOgaU when their wives 

are indtiftrious and attentive, and the family enjoy a competent meafum 

'Of health, they Teem to'tive very comfortably opon their earnings. The 

advance on wages is aoch greater thin that on proviiionf. When 

the labourer received 3 s. a-week| and. pat^ fyt tmf peeks of taikl 

at 8 d. he had a furplus of i s. 8 d. Whes-h^ now receives Su awqik, 

and pays 2 s. for his meal, his furplus is 4 s. The Cuel ufed in thi; pa- 

riih is coal ; the price of which hus J>eeii formerly dated. There we 

IboM modes in the neighbourhood ;' and many ftumties lay in a fbw pestts, 

which are ufed chiefly ibr kindling th« Cm. The OBKOigeift adding to' 

the moors ufe tuf* for covering or gathering their fires; they liKnvife^t 

furze for fuel. The wages of female-fervarilts mn generally from L.s, los. 

to L. 4. or L. 5 a^year, according to the rank and fortnne of (heiir fltt* 

Arrs ? footmen, firom £«. 10, to L. 15, or L. t9. 

[bg, as fiicceeding to the archbiibop, an^ the corporajjon 
d the dtjr, bearing* the othe^ tyio thirds. This expenie 
'fthe church, and alio that of thei llipend,.ia)l8, light on a 
valued rent, which exceeds L/ 24,000 Scotch.' The difad^^ 
Tintage of the harboux; is, that it lies i|i a jockjr ihore, at'^ 
'iic S. W. corner of a deep bay, vety much expofed to all 
^inds from £. and N. The accefs to ,the port, therefore, 
:5 often very dif&cult, and the departure precarious.— The^ 
kagoage of this parifh is the common dialed of the Scotch 
Loalands. The Fifans are faid, by ftrangers, to u{e a 
i*iwling pronunciation, but they have very few provincial 
Tords. Very many of the names of places in the parilh^ 
vt evidently modern and vernacular, Denhead, Edenfide, 
N'<ffthbauk, Bylone, Smiddygreen, Stonywind, Boarhills,' 
Brownhills, &c. Several places retain the ancient Gaelic 
lames, Balrymont, Kin^affie, Kingaik, Kincaple, Strath* 
Lmaefs, Balmongo, &c. Kincaple, about 3 miles W. from 
Sc Andrew's, near the road to Dundee, Strathkinnels ai 
ihort mi]e S. from Kincaple, on the old road to Cupar, and 
BoarhiUs, between 3 and 4 miles £. from St Andrew's, 
may be reckoned villagea: in thefe, befides iarmers and 
cartagcrs,you find alehoufes, blackfmiths, Wrights, weavers, 
tailors, ihoemakcrs.-*On 8th February 179a, in digging a 
gtfden belonging to X)avid Roger, ftaymaker, in the flreet 
fading to Cardinal Bethime^s caftle, called the Caftle-wynd, 
iGnallpot was turned np, which feemedtobe full of earth, 
\nx helng immediately dafhed in pieces, there dropped out 
8 gold coins, and about 150 filver ones. The gold waa 
ckao, though the colonr pale. Thie filver pieced were co- 
vered with thick ruft, and many of them perfcftly friable •. 


* Oae thin gold piece, about the fize of a itipeoce, has a lion raia. 
fvtt, or coacfaaot, lACOJB^S Dei GRATIA RCX SCOTORVQD ; 09 

jiiS StdH/lical Aceouni 

The otXj ^molns recoUeCked in thjb porifliwis about x^ 
mile weftward from St Andrew*!, on the fiouth rotd to 
CvptTj called ^toatie Law. In fbrmiiig the hi^wftj, 
about 30 year^ ago, it was thoogl^t neceflar^ to remove 
diis tamulus. Nothing was found bat fiones and earth. 
—The general fize of the people is from 5 fret 8 inches to 
5 feet xo inches. In one fiunilj, there axe 2 or 3 7000^^ 
men, who meafore 6 feet 3 inches ; one of them« 6 feet 
j bches. The people qf this pariih are ibber, temperate, 
and indnftrioos % more addided to the arts of tranquil life 


dbt leverfe, m man in anaovr oi) Ko^ebick. Jtmes |« wta crowned 
X406. Aootfaer. new the tie of a half-crown, hat in the niiidk. s Uoi| 
Atting like a cat, with a wide raootfa, and ftretdied oat tongne. between 
two piUart, FHS^ (fi^poAd nulinmO, CMBI GRATIA D^X BVRO : 
fterede, a Oiield, quacteredt ift aod 4th. 3 $Kan de lys; ad and 3d, % 
lion erea, and a fmaU fliieid in the middle. SIT KOP^ DOQIN| 
BeNeOICTVCD MHW, A thiHl. aboat the file of a Oiilling ; in the 
middle, a fan. with 4 flaming croffei. exVRGAT 1 6V) £T DISSI. 
FeNT INIQDICI eiVS : Rererfe, nmcom holding a ihieid, lACOBVS 
D6I GRATIA RGX. A fbtirth, a litUe Urgec: Ihield, with 3 flenrs 
de lys, overtopM with a crown. CAROLVS D6I GRATI4 FR^CO- 
RYOD ReX: Reverfe, KOFGRAT VlNCrr R£GNAT. T^ filver 
pieces are very thin : moft of them about the fize of a (hilling, iome of 
dkem fmaller. On removing the mft, there appeari on one fide a fall 
lace ander a crown ; on the reverie, a crofi^ araitnd which are two cir* 
eolar infcriptions ; outer ciicle» POSVI D£VO) AOIYTOREOO QDEVa) 1 
inner circle, VILLA CALISIE; crowned head, il£NRICVS DEI 
COBVS, Ac. One has the addition of a fteptre to the crown'd hend» 
circle, VILLA EDINBVRGH; outer dfcie, DNS FTEGTOR MS LI. 
BERATOR MS. {p%mimu fr$tifhr mumj, merator mtmr) Robert 
%rnce was crowned xjod. Many of thefe coins have been ibid ; the i^. 
ver, at 1 1. each, and die gold, at ti s. and upwards, according to their 

^ A Andrew" i^ 117 

than tb mUitiry fervice ; kind und hofpitaUs Co*flnftiger8 1 
beaeTttllBiit aad friendljr to oile another ; ^rttj rfeadj t6 all 
tha aAaea and duties t>F fbcietjr ; not verj ferVkrard in laa- 
king new difko^iente, bat willing to improve bjr the es« 
peiiments cifewhere made \ peaeeable in theif deiiaeaadir \ 
caadid aodr fibferal in theit* judgments ; re(pe£lful to their 
fapefiorst without ferrilit/ ) compaffionate to the diftrefled, 
and diaritablt to Ihe poor ; contented and thsfiaktul in their 
fituation ; attached to their religion^ ^without bigotrj or en« 
thafiafin ( regular in their attendance on Chriitiea inftitu* 
tioiiSy and pioUs without oftentation ( lojal to the King) 
obedient td the k^ 1 enemies to {edition^ fadiooi or tu- 
mttlt, and deeply fenfibte of the UefGngs thej eajoy as 
Brmfli fitbjcAB, la no comer of the kingdom^ is it mota 
comfortabk to live^ as neighbours, magiftratesi of mini^ 

The blghwajs thn>ugh this parUh are fuch xAAf as du 
verge from St Andnsw's as a centrt, «»Si to Gaf rail or Crail 
S. £. ; to Anftrttth^, S. ; to Ely, S. W. ; t^ Cupar, W. ; 
and to Dundee^ ^f . and W. All theft roads are made aitd 
repaired bj the flatuteJabdur c^ the coofaty, Which is fbt 
the moft pare commuted into mdhtj* lliat to Ct-ail is 
always in the heft condition, becaufe it is neareft to good 
Ihateriais. Aorofs a fmall t\r€t or burn, called Kinhefs, 
or Netherbom, which t\ins along the fonth fide of St An- 
drew's eailward, are two bridges, of one arch each ; the 
one at the eaft end of the town, on the road to Crail and 
Anftruther -, the other at the weft end, on the foad to Ely. 
Acrob the fmall ftream of Swilian, which runs through 
the GolfJinks, is another bridge of one arch, on the road 
to Dundee. Thefe are the only bridges withih the parifh. 
In die eafletn extremity of the pariQi, on the Crail road,, 
over Kenlowie, dividing St Atidrew's firoih Kinglbarns, is 
a fourth bridge, of ttvo arches j all thcfc are kept in good 
Vol. XIIL £ e repaU 

2 1 8 Staiifiicdl Account 

vepatr by the county. In the wefiern pert of the pariilr, 
on the road to Dundee, over Eden, which divides St An- 
drew's from Leuchars, is a fifth, caUed Gair, or Guactttfidge^ 
built at the private expenfe of a BKfaop Wardlaw (he 
died in 1444)* vho eftabliflied a family of the name of 
Wan as herediury keepers of the bridge, for which diey 
have a perpetual fee of about 10 acres of land adjmning to 
it. This bridge has fix arches, is no wider dnn neceflkry 
for one carriage, and is covered with caufeway-fiones and 
fome flags-. Aerols the bridge was wont to be firetched an 
iron chain, whieh was opened only for chaifes; casts. Sec. 
were obliged to pals under the bridge *, and as the £ea 
flows bx above this part of Eden^ thefe eanriages were 
obliged to wait the reflux of the tide, which canfedfo great 
interruption to the bufinels of the country, that many years 
ago t)ie chain was removed. This bridge is maintained by 
the county. By the recent aft the turnpike road from St 
Andrew's to Cupar, as well as to Dundee, is by thb bridge^ 
the bar is on the Leuchars fide, at the weft end of the 
bridge, where thefe two roads feparate \ there is no bar oa 
this line of road farther eaft than this bridge. — la the neigl^- 
boiurbood of. St Andrew's, land is rented as high as L. 3 
the acre, or four bolls of bear, which fometimes exceeds 
L. 3. No &rms in the country have as yet exceeded L. ft, 
IDS. the acre. L. x, or L. i, 5 s. may perhaps be the pre* 
lent average of farm-land. Rents, however, are advancing 
very faft;. even to fix times the fum at which the lands 
we^e let 3& years ago. Among about 60 farms, we have 
them of all fizes, from 20 acres to 300. The number of 
tenants is on the decreafe ^ the number of enclofures on the 
increafcr though in general the pariih is unenclofed.— The 
people of this parifh are by no means noted for frequenting 
taverns or alehoufes : Drunkenneis is no part of their cha- 
rafteriftic : The number of drinking clubs decreales every 
3 year 

of St Andrenxi^s. 1219 

jear. Number of alehoafes, inns, &c. in the town, 42 ; 
Mid in the county, 6 ; which is rather helow the average 
for the lafk fix years.— The number of cottages in this pa- 
Tiih has varied very little for the& many years paft, very 
few of the £umers chcofing to diminifh or to increafe their 
nnmber \ the progre& of mannfafiures may, in aH likeli- 
hood, render cottagers more and more neceflary for fup- 
plying a fnffidency of retqwrs in harveft, more particularly 
as at that bufy time the dreffing of their wheat lands occu- 
pies many of their ordinary fervants.— 1793, May. A £ul- 
clodi mana&dore is now beginning in St Andrew's. 

Whatever has been find above in general, concerning the 
town and parifli of St Andrew's, muft be coniidered alfo as 
indnding the pari(h of St Leonard's, which is intermixed 
with the other* 

St LEONARDOS parish, 

Bj^ tbi Rev. Joseph M'Cormick, D.D. Mintjler of Si 

Leoftard'Sf and Principal of the United College. 

THE parifii of St Leonard's confifts of a few diftri£b in 
dilerent quarters of the town and fuburbs of St Andrew's, 
together with a farms in the country, abotit 3 miles diftaot 
£rom the town, all originally belonging to the Priory, af- 
terward to the College of St Leonard's, and now to the 
United College of St Salvator and St Leonard's. It is pro- 
bable that the eredion of the pariih is of the fame date 
with the foundation of the College whofe name it bears. 
Although the principal of St Leonard's did not always of- 
ficiate as minifter of tfie parifli, and in the inftance of Mr 
George Buchanan, was not even a clergyman, it is certain, 
that for fome time before the Revolution, the two offices 
were held by the fame perfon -, and ever fince that period 
the principal of the College ha^ been a clergyman and mi- 
aiiler of the pariih. 


Aoeordiiig to my btcft rurvej. tkf mimUir ^ fimU ii| 
tbo whole pariih amoo^M to 3^5 \ of tb^b, lher« ^re ij» 
the town^ a«Q ; io the fiiburh* cty^cd Affyk. 1x5 ( m4 ia 
the cooniry, 50. As the inl^lHtfuils (kf th^ fevfinl 4ife%ft» 
in the eily aad fubiirb^, hetongiBg to thie pwAi of $e Leo* 
iMrd*$, are int^perfed wi^ thole of ihe town puifiu tiio 
^jmual average of bir^ immegee aad dteUbs 19 wj gsvea 
penod, 09 aUb the Bumber of make and fepiakl who are^ 
born and die in that period, muft be in prepovtion to the 
numbers of each parilb. and need not be repeated.-p-rThe 
number of poor upon the feifion-roU of $4 Iffooaid's id 
from 6 to 9, befidts the occafioiial poor s and the faads for 
their fupport are from X#* )J to X#« ay Sterling aryear^^f- 
The flipend of St Leonard'* confiftaof 5 ckaUkn of ▼iAwl^ 
one half of which is oaft, and about L. 3 Sterliag of mo« 
ney» the rent of an apre and an half of land morti$e4 abopt 
a century ago to the minifter of St Lopiiard'a. 




Bf the Rnu Mr Andrew Spkvce. 

THIS paiifli» formerly called Colbrandfpatb^ is fituated 
upon the fea-coaS^ in the ibire of Berwick, and coa« 
tifuoos to Eaft Lothian. It wa* hnt a iinall pariih till the 
9Qnezatioa of Auldcambus \ bnt at what time this happened 
IS uncertain. The pariih confifis of two parts ; one high 
and meantainous, the other comparatively low and even. 
The upper divifion nukes part of the gteat ridge of Lam* 
mermuir, which, at the weftem extremity of the pariih, 
approaches to within about three miles of the ihore, and 
which runs into the fea in the rocky promontory of Faft- 
caftle, a little beyond its eailern limit. The iame diviiioi^ 
is nearly followed by the minerals* the upper part coniiil* 
ing of fehiiltts rock, the lower, of ilrata of fandftone, coal, 
&c.-,, their line of jonftion paflies through the middle of 


222 Statyiical Acamni 

the parifli, nearly in a diredion from N. £• to S. W. Their 
afiual meeting may be feen at the bottom of feme of the 
glens, but ftiU better in a rock waflied by the fea at a place 
called Sickar Pointy where the ftrata of (andftone lie hori- 
zontally on the broken edges of the fchiftos, whofe beds 
are at that particular fpot nearly in a vertical pofiti<Mi % a 
fcene highly interefting to thofe who attend to the minera- 
logical hiftory of the globe. Several thick beds of gravel 
lie upon the fandftone of the lower divifion, eompofed of 
rounded pieces of fchiAus* whinfione, porphyry, granite, and 
fometimes limeftone ; all of which it is probable have been 
carried into their prefent pofition by fome great revolntion 
of the globe, fince none of them, except the fchiftus, occur 
in this parifli, in their native place. On the upper fide, 
towards the hills, thefe beds confift of fmall ftones inter- 
mixed with {and, and are loofe and detached ; upon the fhore 
the ftones are large, and bedded in clay. It is probaUjr 
owing to this circuroftance that the foil near the fea is a 
firong clay, and that farther up is light, and fometimes 
gravelly .-*The (here is high, confifting of a fet of clifl& 
about 100 feet above the level of the fea ; they are formed 
either of fandftone, or of the beds of clay, mixed with large 
ftones mentioned above \ they are in fome places rocky 
and perpendicular, in others floping rapidly, but covered 
with grals, affording fweet pafture for flieep. Behind the 
cliSs the country rifes gently cowards the hills in a waving 
iform, and is interfefled by many deep ravines, whofe fides 
are fometimes flbping and covered with grafs, but are in 
general rocky, and finely wooded ; in each a little brook 
flows. This mixture of rocks, woods, pafture, and cultiva- 
tion, produces much piSurefque fcenery, both lively and 
romantic. Owing, however, to the want of hedge-rows, or' 
old enclofures, and to the low fituation of the woods, the 


of Cochburn^atb. * 223 

cnmtrT', as feen by a traveller merely pafling along the 
great poftFToady has fomewhat of a bare appearance. 

^gricubmre.^^ln this pariih we meet with every variety 
both of fcul and of climate, and a general fpirit of indoftry 
and ennilation prevaik among the tenants, which leads 
them to make the mdBt of every fituation. The foil of the 
knrer divifion is partly ftrong and partly light, each good 
of its kind ; bat they aafwer heft when combined together 
in one fiirm, as by this means a farmer can employ his 
ftrength at all feafons, and in all weathers. The rotation 
for the ftrong land, which lies chiefly along the fhore, is 
fidlow , \dieat or barley, with broad clover and rje grafs ; 
after the clover, oats ; then peafe or beans ; and again bar- 
ky or wheat. The heft fiirmers frequently fow barley 
a&er fallow, inftead of wheat ; for it is difBcok upon ftrong 
fand, except after fidlow, to hit the proper feafon for bar- 
ley, and then the ground is in fine preparation for grafs- 
feeds ; whereas wheat upon fallow is often too flrong, and 
confequently falfe, and the grais-feeds fown with it fre- 
quently fiul ; on the other hand, wheat after beans or peafe, 
if the ground is clean, feldom fails to yield a good increafe. 
The rotation upon the light land of the lower divifion of 
the parifli, which lies principally upon its upper fide, is 
turnip, barley, clover, oats. The upper divifion of the pa- 
rifh, making part of Lammermuir, partakes fomewhat of 
its foil and climate ; but by the induftry of the farmers 
and proprietors, in the cultivation of turnip and grafs, and 
the proper uie of lime, the face of the country has been 
greatly changed for the better. 

Great traAs of land, which formerly were covered with 
heath, or over-run with furze, being brought to a fet 
of excellent breeding farms, great part of which is kept in 
pafiure* In thefe farms the iheep have been much im- 

a24 Siaiiftkal Accoum 

proved bj the iotfodvAioii^ to m certeiii adeqwte degrees^ 
of the Northumbcrluid brewl. The fhll Nertbiiitiberlanci 
breed has been, lately tried with great fncceis by a pro^ 
prktor oa (bme of the rich lead of the parifh^ * The far— 
mers of the lower divifioa in general keep no ftoek, biaft 
eat off their tamipe with iheep and cattle konght in for tlie 
pnrpofe, and fold when fit for the biiicher* Sotaietimea dm 
tumipa are eaten upon the fpot by iheep, fometimte thejt 
are led off to grafa-fieUs for ihe^ and cattle \ in the laft 
cafe the good fanner thinks it neceffary to by fome mm^^* 
nore npon the fpoti which, even with thia help, is fovkicl 
rather to fidl ihort of the land upon which the tnrai^ bw* 
been eaten as it grew c by this management the ground is 
kept in fach heart, that an excellent crop of tnmips is foin«^ 
times raided after the oats, without dang being laid opoft 
that crop. The upland farmers feldom feed for the biitcher. 
Wit give 9X1 their turnips to the keeping fbck ; they like. 
wife frequently buy turnips from the lower farmers, and 
bring down their ftock to cat them. In the lower divifioti 
of this pariih the harveft is in general very favooraUe, 
and the farmers Ihow great aAiTity on that oocafion ; fo 
that when a bad feafon does occur, they fufier left than in 
many other plaees ; they employ great nnmbers of High« 
landers at that time, who come into the country for the 
purpofe, and no wages are fpared when thi^ feafon requires 
a ftre& of hands. In the upper diviiion the harveft is often 
late, and of courfe fubjeded to more feverc weather.— No 
limeftone has been found in this parifli \ but Ume is got 
from the ktlb at Thomton-loch, at the diftance of three or 
four miles along the great poft-road. ^Ilie lands of the 
lower divifion of the parifli are very much benefited by the 
ufe of featvare as a manure. It confifts chiefly of the kind 
known by the name of tangle (^fucus palmatui)^ having a 
very long flalk, and a broad fpreading leaf ^ it feems to 


pFow' i^6iPZIl'flse rocks which are never left barfe bj the 

ode» ^nd< t^hoie depth; bfldi^ the fttrface'df low-water, doeft 

not cftcced^ tweotjr fiatBoms *; it di^us 6bctlpte» a fpace along 

the ftove/of abcrat httf a mile in breadth/ in^«irhich it grbWir 

Hke a Aifeft, ri&ig ^ight'orten'feet^iii the b^ttdm ; the- 

Sat MadeHtf &€ plaht being Tifibl^'^Nften the fea fe itt its 

lamA ebb. Thiil belt of ^ai^ware nfajr be ^^Amgoifted in - 

a boat by the colour of-ehe^vatery-anc^is weU^knowttvodie 

filhenneny from whoUe report the above account is chiefly 

taiiini. ' InMolent flrifriik, the fea tears ttepl aut -ffa m die 

focksy flnd drives it od ihor^ ; it is then ^ageflj catfied'off 

by die iaxixiersy who Ijiread it direAly tipon tbegrdtind^ 

where it is to be iifed, atid plo&gh it in as faft as> p6flible«. 

It Is 'Ae t>pini6ii at m&ny gObd fahners, that aitart-load'of 

good ^fHiXt is at any feafon of the year equtvsAeftt'ta'iu&' 

equal load d dung ; but at the time of (owing barlej, it 

i^ oooAdei'ediii dt l^ft of double-, value ; ^>art]y owing to 

its being, as they'&y,' ripe at ^hat feafodi having the 

ft r oit geft - manuring quality," ahd* partly to its effitfacyiA 

prododsg.fine iirops'' of' bailey, Both in quantity aluFqua* 

fity. When thl^ ^gi^^dnd^iii'Very dxjr» the Iware is often 

fpread upon ihegiinind^tftenthie ttox^ is fown,*oif evet» 

fpnmg; iitid wheti appfied'fn'thb manner, it is fup[Mied to 

produce tfie beft and the'ftre{i'eit&'.' '^VTiite-barley is 

much efte^med By the brewers, and^ is in great tequeft fdir 

leed; particularly b^tffe upland faimen, as it is faid to 

ripen at leafl a wetk dirlih- than ahy othO: i io that it fells 

for m ihilling ^ bbil'hIgWr'thaU the current price.*-The 

pariih ccrntAinii betweetv ^^ooo and 8000 acres: There art 

bearly aoo actes in-^vheat* fown yearly in the parMh, and 

about 400 in 6imip.«^T(ie ¥ent ibr the (broug land upon 

the coaft is L. ^' die Wi% Stots ; frona los. to L^ x, xo s^ 

for the light land of the lower divifion : The upland fsirma 

arc ftot c^fldered ab M by the acre.-^Tbere are 57 ploughs^ 

12$ horfcs, about 500 cattle, and between 4000 and 5000 

Vol. XIII. Ff Ihcep. 

3a6 Siaij/Ucal Accdunt 

iheep* Th« &ra» are from L.60 to L. 450 joadtf iMt^ 
Of late yean maay finall firaa have beettthrowa isio s 
few large oaei, and fcveral fiew fcgm^igofca, trith com- 
plete oflke ho«(e0, hove bceo boik; 00 die ether hao4t oe 
bj this diftribotioii fewer haada are employed than.fer- 
HMr\y, many boofea of an mferier fort have gooe to rosoa. 
A threfluog-auU haa boea etefiad aboot thfoo yoaia eg o bf 
o teoanl a( hb own eipenle, aod aofwem welL 

Ctfo/Ki^Aboot the dole off the laft ceotofj» eoal waa work- 
odmthiapafifliby afegpdarietof coUien^ andfek-wiodEO 
were carried on ; fioce that time the wocka basvo 
^▼en op, dioogh the late Sir Joho Hall of Dmi^ala 
auoy attempta at coal, bot withoot faecela. No fice-es* 
giae baa over beea tiled* 

Pij^/flliiWi. Arfordmg to Dr Webfter^s lepertt llie fo- 
pttktioo in &755 was 919. The fteppage of the eollieriea» 
aodthelo&of the iariovsadvaiitagracosaeAadwith theM» 
leema taaeoouat for flrikim dtmimitioo of popnhaiflw 
whicb took place eaily io Aia ceatoryt aa qipeara by the 
tegjftcia both of thia paiifli, aaid that of Oldhamftockj. 
Of late years, the mimber of inbaUmati baa aadoffooe a 
fecoad diminlieii, by the eke r atiooa wbadi have beea 
made fa Ibe ^ftribstioa of lead iato largo ferma inftcad of 
imallooei, om coatataing now what wm feroerly three 
or foar-^The poA-oflket which was formeriy at Auld* 
eambns in thb pariib, is now removed to the Preis, in the 
pariih (tf Coldia|^iami aboat 40 years ago^ there were five 
breweia fa GockbarafpetlH and for aaaay years there baa 
aot beeo one fa the porifli till Whitfimday 1791.— >Tbe 
prefeot naaiber of foals, by an exaft aCcoaat taken fa 
Ap>^ ^993> *^ 8S3} of thefo 406 aia males sad 477 fe- 
maka. At aa average, the biitbs fiar ao yean, &01A i)ai 


^^kdkbttrn/paOf.^ %xy 

M i?Str<wmtttt4 t9 is JPwrlfi final 1781 101791 
^^Bf aieMljr M* Thfen «• M pntcfxt 197 boafrlioldenb 
Xhr MrisWflfAiMwd'pMaMiiaS;. There arc 5 iri^ 

•». ' . ' 

Malct, Fepttks, TotaL 

•nier J ftftfli of age* 41 39 fto 

i|tifa». > « $1 69 180 

ksotozor « « -9^ »Q4 196 

[Mit0 3(H ^' * j* J> . 97 

i.j6«»40^ . .• . • 48 J5 X03 

40ta3o» « - 34 jo 84 

Ftioai50,to6oi « • ift 5a 54 

Fran &> 10709 •• ^ a6 36 6% 

Fnw70to8o» • • 13 7 10 

FrMi 8a to 9e» . • • t 6 7 

Tbcif ore. i^.&mor^ tSUhfViaco, i^woaven, .1^ 
^•hkoatofllt 4) uUon, 7 wrig)it9» ^ &iikht» 5 froccn, 
iiu iriAqg 8MtiMat»ft3 aMioofli 9 cooper^ t whcrlwiight, 
ft boMt t ki«iicr» % ivdfMT^aad ft Ai^uiiaker *• 

Mmiionk Mmif Sii^taJi S^ook Pcorr^TUa» are 6 hctv 
!•» of Am parifli. b«iMM iteida ia it. The valued rent 
iklml^tx %'t M&aia aMMj» The real rent is bctv^eea 

* i>{l^4/b'— TlKit gf«. no dircftfiea peculiar to t&if ptri/h | agues or 
m tc n pi tt i m fevers were formerly frequent, but are (carcelj now foun4 
M occar, anleA the perlbn i fcArd hat brought th« dilcafe from aaotlher 
^■Mltr. Tiiil «ay ia foaie metftuo be owiag to tbt gremcr aticMioa 
iteaaMW9IM4to4itt9fti|«a44€ief»liiiea.aQdtbeRiorege»eral uTecf 
uiauX food. laocnXatioD, though ftequeittly praAifed, and aUayi with 
fiiecciH liaa sot yet bec^ome g epewk The prejodloii of ipaay ha? • 
.Wea ta iboflg. as not to yield either to the ^parent certainty of fucceftp 
aertoibeofer of Itttiog tin actsateceaf a iargeoo» cippleytdby ^a 

^2& StBtifKcakjk^mn^ 

very imoomfor^k^.tet ii 9iK>oiid';be j|f[|>fli(faHio-:3%ii» 
4M Secedem both qf ,tlie Biiighrtiiml il llihaf (||w ^er* 
foaiions. The living, which is iiLgjft ofet^ GMi^Q^mi^ 
fids of 2 bolls of wheat, 38 of barley, 50 of onto \ wilh 
iJ: 46 : 16 : 8 'Staling, including L. 40 Scots for cooainu* 
niAi elem^u, aniU glebe ,p^alpqtii»yeeavitf ■■l^tiiM 
Tlfa manljp^Jnras repaired iiv 17919 and has,»|[W%inoi^* 

giilAs. — "^iMre istf^ efiabliihed fil Iiinflii infitM^hmt^ 

p^, his lUary is jL. 100 Scots. He has 9: ^wdln^feHifey 
ft^hool-hoi^C, and^rden.* Perquifites as ijei^^oM'dpkvaMjr 
lie: aboutoL. I, |.£s. Sterling. From 4g:x<ufit»i>aH8ii 
generally j^tend tfke fcheol. The w a g cM h cjyfgtBafti8e» 
£Dr reading^^£nglifli» is. 6d.; writiag, aSt;?Li2thidelK^iC8. 
6d. ; and^Latin, 5B. There has 4Jways beca« ichooliVo 
at Auldcaikibus, for the benefit of that paft.o£jtb^ pafift ; 
but as there is no fettled falary, and there is a vacancy at 
^fefem, it is not {ft'obofcte it^-l^iU M^^lua filM-up;— The 
poor at j^reftm &k Scroll, aT« tf, iffl females * ta w rr w w; fnH 
(everal ot^rsf rtc«ivt^a fupply • ocoftfitmaHyvT I^^VkM am 
no poors rlt«0. < ^Tbe^ ftuids Amiv^ibb thtyi^rt ftp^ed; 
are, the interefi of 50c merks, the colleftions at the church- 
door, and diwfrbm- privktaiMpliiittv^Hid ifrtguIlvMnu- 
ges. Their allowance is dMfcteob^btodfniali^ ^^\ iiMvt 
ever, beg ; and as they are g^nendiy ii«ifci<<m,:tfa^yWke 
« tolerable fliift. The lady of a gentleman, who refides in 
a neighbouring pariib, and is principal heritor of this, aC 
flfts and relieves many; and when ^th'ejr are •itf diftrefe, 
(uPBU^s ^\^P^ l"^i^ ^ii^^» ^^^^ an^l ptl>er r^mi^e^. . Wece 
k not for her attention and liberality, the want of refidii)g 
^ritor?, and of poors rates* woald be iieverely fek/ • "* 

Tijhing. — There are 16 fifiiermen in the parifh, who are 
einploye4 ia cs^tphing in 4^e^ proper icafpUi co4» )inj^ 

yigtf$ifi\im^iipii^f(M^ hMH kay^ )|M» csj^ 

lmVik% i«»tc4}l^ •^Q^4JRlj:^|»j(lroyiiSi:(}l«,Work, ispd it 

pa& under ff^pn^ ,^kput 69 y^r^f* , QcUafsu^vcMrc.flfp fn% 
oot of the folid rock, and would have been very ufefal and 

'♦ ri -jic rioH.v iw u.:..i .l Ml -#Ii'r. f ,/ . ' v fr onJ: 

w|«fiflftf4/ ^y B*%/ >M»i. wJ^p)» ^^^ e»ly:.aa4 cq»y^- 
iii«^2«pQijpaiii|)icai49g9: to *HUfiwt^r9<i. Tbcgrcat ea^em 
iD||^ ^c^ . £^V9fit ^P London by . Berwickf ^ Bafiffr 
liuWgl».t)iedMM^9%^tlog it M»|-l7/ro«i:S. E^to N, W. ; 
di0 road fwPpCNi>Wr to Dnnfe cats it fr5>oi nonh to 
fimtb I 9Mla p$^ road is lately liegMf but no^ y^t q)en- 
ed, by which it iatpropo&d tp form an ea(j and ikort 
cooimunjc^tian betifreen Eail Loi;|hian and Berwick fliir^- 
^loog a valley, vbi^- F^l neair JiUatonf.49 the parUk of 


fttf ^W^^Knt ^fmufif 

Mt akNig tlM Ao«i^ Wdti^ b wkf !• {vmbm 
MMTf, wkWi ii Mmi k ai « «ftmi|]»bM«i«te 
flm« of dM pvHb* Hid piA^oad crolb ttfie «ff IN 
MirlMi ilrt^f mflwiiari, m inti^MMhg tkh pirilit M^ 
tht I>ii4gk6 InM> «r Its «tfffyott ttw ^vvuft fidi^ i»v«r M 
€M bffMgti wydb ii ^eiy liM»iiFe«iiiii i aest, «t tfM 
Ttfwer) ind kilj a^^cf lliie Vm. k dndfiBs llie M» Ml 
bj bridges, boik in tM Jtm i^M, Ivben the raid mm ■!• 
tered, In order to <»tfd dto iwy di agtrtus pi6 ^iMAii 
croUd OoiT Hm feo* Too Pcfls* ofMgdli Y13 *iit voiti 
die bottote of tbo Ihtap oftto bom to tbe top of tie tiSL ; 
It is 500 &et long, w^ tte'paitpet mdb, 15 fKt wile, 
end 6 feet ftom tbo level of die mM to the top of the 
tfuk ; IB paiBiig by dte n» bridge, thfrroed is lengHMied 
between ^ audi of sfliiloi bat a greet btiog is obta&iod 
In point of kvoli as die level of Oe freftlit bri^ b Ma 
feet in perpendtcakc beigfat, abo^i^ tbe tjfoit it wA60k9km 
old foed erorcd die Vess bam, nesip wo lea 1 Slid wO oU 
road npon Ae esft fide rofe thnrngb a parpeaiiifBlar tieiglpf 
of t jo feet, at a dedivtcj of near!/ one in tte, ' 

Wcoiif i/^.— About DnngUis, there b a j 
fine wood and valuable tfoes, feme of which am b this 
^rtii; a bisll partof diefe woods b Bstaial, or liaa 
i^rung as ftock moots noRi naiusi wood onl over, bat br 
fer the greateH part wat pbhted abool the beginaittg of 
dds oentitry; There are aboat 100 acres of natnral oaks, 
called PenmUhisl wood, about half ^ whfeh have been 
cot finee die year i^jo. Nona have bees eat for the left 
zo yean, the rciaabdor are about ib oM ks the centory. 
There b aUb a good deal of wood oa the fides of many af 
the deep ravines, with wlueb the pariOi b bterfeAed. 
Fbdbfearoeaadespeilfivek Sstto peat and tsrf are ofed, 


hot ift fflMttl coili* Thcjr vt wioKfy wnofft nwi Sni* 
taff ivlMSi tbejcoft 6wi jt-to zts^dieboUy whidiji 
u4<wn> inth tii> riJWiw^ ctn^ They this winter 
coft fBOMtHWi 14s. the boUt and were o^ not to be had 
it ay tmt* Wafee aaa awdi the fiune hcie aa in the 
nd^^ooiittg parUheii and aie ftated in their 1 

9^— Ftet of ^ the chmch flill ranains at Anld* 
called St Hdenli Kiri^. From the nature of the 
biildinfb and other greo mii i n oagi it iafi|ppoMloh»v« 
been oreAed fane time in the lavanth oentoxy* Aboat a 
quarter of a mik from the Peas bridge, the remains of an 
andent oAk are fiill ftanding, called the Old Tower. It 
appeaca to have bean a place of ceofidembie ftrangtl^ but 
nodiii^ certain is known oooceming it. Tlus parifli, ly* 
lag near the bcnndary of the kingdcmia, and containing 
nianj very Srong nuEtary pafles, has been frequently the 
Jbene of war ; and this appears, bj the camps of various 
kinds fliU vifihk oa many of the zifing grounds, and by 
tte traces of aailitary entrenchments in the glens. 


15^ Stat^^ffol AMidi. 

<\ i.-r • :• . '' T 

. I Of « *o 

■j I. 

-' ' ■ 'NUMV-EH tint?' ' ''">'*» 

(GimiT AKs StiiOD or DuuntfES, fnwrtzn iff ' 

: £f ri# JZnr. iUr AMDiutSw YoAtfTwiT. 

Sitoatidn, Name^ (/r. 

TH £ pariQi of Clofebiim Is diflant from the town of 
Dumfries I2 miles. The original name of the pa- 
riih was Kiloflsurn, or, as it is fpelled iii a ver^ old deed, 
Kelolbern, from Cella OJburm. It was at firfi but of finall 
extent, and the church feems to have been intended chiefly 
for the accommodation of the family of Clofebum, and its 
dependents. To that very ancient and refpeftable £unily 
the whole parifh belonged, and in their poireffion it re* 
mained for feveral centuries. The prefent repf efentative^ 
of the family has a charter of confirmation, which wtfs 
granted to one of his predeoeflbrs in the beginning of the 
X3th century. To fatisfy the demands of importunate ere* 
ditors, the eftate of Clofebum was expofed to fale in the 
yeair X783» a&d was bought by the Reverend James Stuart 


f^Chfihunu 233 

MoDteatb, R«Qor of Banrowby in lincobflure. Clofe* 
burn is quite furroimded by the parifli of Dalgarno, which 
was annexed to it in the year 1697 ; and the extent of the 
two united, is about 9 or 10 miles in kngth, and as much 
in breadthy meafuring from the extremities. Near where 
die church of Dalgarno fiood, there was a Tillage, which, 
though there are now no remains of it, was in former 
times a place of confiderable note, being a burgh of rega« 
Etj, to whofe jurifdidion a very confiderable extent of 
country was fubjed. 

Stipend^ Hc-^Thz patronage of the united pariihes ha« 
Ting been fold along with the efiate of Clofebum, now be- 
longs to Mr Stewart Monteath. The ftipend was aug- 
mented in the year 1786, and is now L. 70 in money, 
2 chalders of meal, and i of bear, with L. 5 for commu- 
nion-elements. The f^hc is very finally, no ground ha-' 
ving ever yet been £et off for pafiurage, either in Clbfe« 
bum or Dalgarno. The glebe of Dalgarno, confiding of 
4 acres and nearly one half, was exchanged in the year 
1731 for 3 acres and one rood, lying contiguous to the 
glebe of Clofebum, which, in confequence of this addition, 
meafiires about 6 acres. The church was built about 50,- 
and the manfe about 30 years ago; confiderable repara- 
tions were made upon both about 15 years ago \ and they 
are now much better than, is common in country pariihes. 

Pofuhtton^ W^.— Accofdbg to Dr Webfter's report, the 
population in 1755, was 999. The number of inhabitants 
in the year 1778, was between 1000 and iioo. Lafi year, 
(1791), they amounted to 1490. This great increafe has 
been occafioned by extenfive lime- works in the pariih, the 
divifion of farms, making of roads, and other improve- 

Vot. XIII. Gg ments. 

134 StatiJHcal Account 

meiits. From the fame canfes, population ftill coBtmoes t^ 

Number of males, 719 



— — — females, 761 



Proprietors of land, of 



whom 3 refide in the 

Weavers, - ■ 


pariOiy - 6 



Tenants, - 83 



Subtenants, - 30 



Marriages in the jear, from 9 to ta. 

Births from 35 to 40. 

Burials from 27 to 32. 

From the increafe of population, it mmj be fuppofed 
dun there is a great number of hottfea lately built in the 
parifli. Some of thefe indeed, being built hy fubMnnta at 
their own topefife, are but indiflferent ; and it is a little 
unfortunate, that thefe poorefl hou&s are built along the 
great road which pafles through the parifli. Travellers, 
from the mean appearance of thefe houfes, are apt to^ form 
an un&vourable opinion of the country. But the princi- 
pal farmers are generally lodged pretty comfortably. The 
new proprietor of Clofeborn has built a very excellent 
hoofe for faimfiilf, large, fubAantial, and commodious *• 

? Schools^ Po/9r,^-The parifli of Clofeburn is remarkably 
well fupplied with fchook,, though there is no legal falary 


. * Tkc fitttatioB of the pariih it in graeral hetlUiy. Bat there are ao 
very extraordinary inftancet of longevity in it. The oldeft man at prefent 
in it is aged 92 ur 93 ; he is now become fnil and infimi. but not fa 
much fo as might be ezpe^edin fuch an advanced age. His employ- 
ment has always been thai of a ibcep faimerk There i» another old man, 


if Chfebum. ^ 235 

inu ^ i flc d for a fchoolmafler. In room of a le^ Ulwrjr 
the proprietor oF Clofeburn has, for t, great many years; 
been in nfe to give a fmall fom of monejr yearly^ to a perv 
ton named by himfelf to teach Englifli, writing and arith*^ 
tnetiCy in any part of the parilh he himfelf thought proper. 
Bot the principal fchool of the parilh is that which, in ho-» 
noorof its founder, is called the (choolof Wallacehall: 
John Wallace, merchant in Glafgow, a native of Glofe* 
bum, in the year 1723, mortified L. 1600, for the purpdfti 
of erefting this fchool *. Tlie reputation of the fchool of 
WallacehaU was raifed very high by thie late reddr Mr 
Alexander Mundell^ and there is every reafon to exped^ 
that Under hi^ (on and fucceflbr, it will preferve that repu« 
ration it has very jufUy acquired. The fituation of thi^ 


whofe age, from his own iccdnnt, is 89. He was long gardener to tbe 
baaaXj of Clofeburn ; but for fomc years his onlj employment has beea 
going errands. He is yet a healthy and vigorous man, and walks fome- 
tioes 7 or S miles in a forenoon, without being fatigued. In the church-' 
3rari dfDalgamo there is a tombftone, under which are buried a lather 
and mother, with their ion and his wife» whofe ages, all added together^ 
araotant to 550 years. 

* The preibytery of Penpont were appointed truilees for the manage- 
ment of the fund, judging of the qualifications of the teachers, and 
watching orcr the intereds of the fchool. In the management of the 
fund, the Laird of Clofeburn was to be confulted. Five patrons were 
appointed to nominate the re^or of the fchool, viz. John Wallace of 
Elderilie, Thomas Wallace of Caimhill. and Michael Wallace, merchant 
in Glafgow, three brothers, the miniitcr of Clofeburn, and town-clerk 
%ti Glafgoiv', for the time being. In the ele^ion of a re^or, it is re- 
commended to tlie patrons to give a preference to one of the name of 
Wallace, if equally qualified. Of the money mortified by Mr Wallace, 
U ICO was laid out in building a fcbooUhoufe and dwelUng-houfe for 
the refior, and in pnrchafing 5 acres of ground contiguous to the fchool, 
for the re^or's oi'e ; L. 1145 was laid out in purchafing lands at fome 
diflance ; and the remainder was at firft put out to intcrcll, but has fince 
been applied, towards encloiing the land, and enlarging the reAor*f 


236 Statyiical Account 

ibhool is heatdiy. There is at pre&nt good accommoda- 

4oa for boarders, and will be (HU better very foon, the 

redor being aboot to build a large and commodioos new 

houfe i and every attenticm is paid both to the morals aa4 

education of thole under his care. This fchool is indeed 

not only blefling to the parilh, but a public gpod to the 

country.-— The only prqviiion for the poor of the parifli 

is a fund of h* 100, lent to a Banking Conipany at 4 per 

cent, the weekly colleftions amounting to about L. 3 a or 

L. 33 a-year, and fome fmall fines, together with money 

received for the ufe of a mort*cloth, amounting to L. 2 or 

£4. 3 a-year. The number of poor is from ao to 25. Of 

thefe, a few depend wholly upon what they receive out of 

the pariih ; and others are capable of doing a little work, 

>7hich, with a fmall aid from the weekly coUeftions, ferves 

for their fupport* 

Meaftirementf Soil^ Rental^ Stoci^ l^r. — ^The Ia|ids in 
this pariih have aimoft all been meafured. The amount of 
the whole is about a8,ooo acres ;. 1900 of which are an* 
nuaily in crop, llie foil is various. Along the river 


houfe. The land is at prefenf rented ^t L. 90, tncludtng public burdens, 
which amount to L. I4 : 17: zi. ^ut the leafe expires next Whitfun- 
day, (/. e, Whitfundaj 1793.) *^ ^ "^^ l^^ ^^ ''^^^ 6^^^ ^ ^^ 
yearly rent of L. 175. The branches of education which the deed of 
mortification requires to b^ taught at tHis fchool, are, reading Engliih, 
writing, ari(hnietic, book-keeping^ Latin and Greek. But befides^eie, 
French, geography, and fometimes mathematics, tr^ aUb taught. The 
£ngli(h, writing, arithmetic, and book-keeping daflesr are taught by an 
u(hcr, named by the re^lor, and approved of ^y the prefbytery. His &- 
lary is paid by the redlor, and is by the deed of mortification appointed 
to be L. 10 a-year and his board, or L. 18 without his board. The 
redlor is Ukewife obliged to pay L. 5 a-year to a perfon named by the 
minifter, to teach Englifh in a remote part of the pari(h, which, on aq- 
count of the dilbmce, cannot reap any benefit from the other fchools. 
All thefe fchools are fiee to the chil<fren of the paiiih. 

ITidi, which forms the weftem baandarj of the pariih, is 
to be £biii|d a fine rich, loamy foil. To the eaftward, the. 
gnmnd rifies a little, and the foil becomes light; drj, and 
limdy. Farther on, in the fame diredion, the ground rifes 
M more, and there the foil is ftrong and deep, with a mix-, 
toie of day ; to the eafiward of this again are extenfive 
moors, unfit for tillage^ bnt affording very good pallure for 
ibeep. The rental of the parifh is about L. 3500. The 
&nnex3 are rather unwilling to publiih the ftock and crop 
opcm their farms ; but according to the neareft calculation, 
the amount of the whole may be about 11,000 iheep, 120Q 
black cattle, and 250 hories, all ages included. 

^liep^'^Thz (beep generally kept are the Ihort black* 
fitted kind, and the farmers ieem to have no inclioatibn to 
change the breed, but are at pains to improve it. It is 
coiBpated that every fcore of fuch Iheep will yield ful- 
ly 3 ftones of wool ; of courfe, there ought to be 1650 
ftooes produced in the parifli annually \ but, owing to a num- 
ber of flieep <3i one and two years old being fold off before 
the time of iheep-fliearing, the quantity a£hially produced 
does not much exceed 1400 ftones. The wool is generally 
(old at 6s. or 7 s. the ftone ; but it has lately become a prac- 
tice with fevcral of t)»e fiarmers in this and the neighbour- . 
ing pariflies to wafh their (heep before they are clipped. 
This no doubt leffens the weight of their wool, but it brings 
them a price for it fo much higher, as more than to com- 
peoiate for the lofs of weight, and for the trouble of waibt 
ing ; wool, which otherwife would not have brought more 
than 6 s. the ftone, being waihed in this manner will bring 



* There is to aceonnt iliU in pre^itioa qf the iheep and wool opoii 
1^ binmjr of QafebDia at tlK beg^ning of |hii ceotiuy^ written in the 


%$% StaHfHcal Aee^uni 

IhiJhamiryn'^Thft mode of hnlbandrj is not tmiform 
throughoat the parifli ; bpt that which prevails moft is, 
after liming the ground to take a, fometimes 3 crops of 
oats, after theft a green crop of potatoes, tamips, and 
p^re, and then to laj it oat with barley, or bear and grafs. 
The quantity of ground occupied by each of thefe kinds of 
crop is not ezadly afcertained, but is conjednred to be 
about 1500 acres in oats; from 20 to 30 in wheat; 230 
in barley; 70 in bear; 120 in potatoes ; 30 or 40 in tur* 
nips; 40 or 50 in peafe; and about lee in clover and rye- 
gra(s. The potatoes and turnips are all horfe-hoed, and 
in no country are better crops of thefe nufed than in this. 
Potatoes are fuppofed to be half the food of the labouring 
people through all this country ; and when there are more 
than can be ufed by the people, they are found to be of 
great advantage in feeding horfes, cows, and fwine ; hence 
the raifing good potatoe crops is an obje& of importance, 
and if the farmers of this country have approached perfec* 
tion in any thing, it is in this branch of hufbandry. The 
nature of the foil is well adapted to this l^ind of crop, and 


proprietor*! own hand ; from which it ippean, that there were then upon 
that barony ^740 fheep, yieldiBjt 537 ftones of wool. The nuaiber kept 
•t prefeot upon the ftme Iwdt is oAly Jp^o* which« allowing 3 ftoaet of 
wool to the fcort of flieep, will yield 594 ftones ; fo that though the 
number of flieep be left by almoit two-fifths, yet the quantity of wool if 
greater. The reafon of this remarkable difference in the nuinber of (heep 
is, thit at the beginning of this century the flieep were much final ler, con- 
feqnently the landi could keep more of then ; befidesi the farmeia then 
overftocked their (arms; and a third reafon is, that a great deal of land, 
which was then fit only for common (heep-pafture, has finer been im- 
proved, and tt now good corn-land. Farms, upon which at that time ' 
confiderable 'flocks wcrx kept, have not now a fingle flieep upon them. 
The dit proportion with refped to the quantity of wool maybe accounted 
for from the larger fiir of ths flitep» from their being in better condi- 
tion, and from their- being hnatkr fintnred tium they formedy were« * •' 


• rf Ghfiburn. 139 

thelyeneficiid dftds of Ume difcover tbemfelVa femarkkbly; 
both bj improvmg tte qoality tod inereafing the quantitj^f 
potatoes *. — There is oothing remarkaUt ia the ii&pleinefit& 
of fauibandrj commonly ufed. The plough in mod general 
life is the Scots plough, which, the land bebg fomewhac 
ftoQ J, is found <6 anfwer better than any other. It is made 
fight, and is for mot pait drawn by two horfes. One-horfe 
tarts are mnch in tlfe ^ and it is found, that more work can 
be done, and with more eafe both to man and horfe, by 
thefe carts, than can be done by the fame number of men 
and horfes with two-horfe carts. There is fcarcely a fir- 
mer in the parilfa who has not two, fome have diree,'fome 
four carts. 

Markets. — ^The only market for black cattle is Dumfries. 
From this parifli there are fold annually about too come 
to age, whofe price for three or four years has been about 
Lm 5 the head ; 60 of 24 years old, at L. 4 ; and 250 of li 
years old, at L. 2, lo s. The markets for flieep are Apple* 
by and Statgihaw, in England ; Lockerby, Langhoka, and 
Ltnton, in Scotland, llie number MA aonudly is about 
3730 lambs, whofe price for fome years has been from jf 
fo 5 guineas the fcore, that is, for 11, one being always 
given in to the fcore ; 780 hogs or fheep, of a year old paft, 
from L.8 to L. it the fcore; and dsnmonts, or fheep of 
two years, at from L. 10 to L. 13 the fcore. Hardly any 
are fold beyond that age. Wool is generally bofight up^t 
the farmers houfes, and carried into England to be manu- 
bfinred there. It is an obferration in every body's mouth, 


• PcopU begin to fow, if the feafon permit, tboat the middle of March, 
aftd it is gcneimUy oetr the middle of Afay before all it finifhed. Har- 
veft commences for the moft part aboot the aoth of Auguft, tod ia tole- 
iibLe Icafons aU is got in bj the cod of September. 

t^ Statical Account 

th«c tiodibg k iPTAMang but the eOabUfluiitat of 
tores to put thb oountrj in(o a moA prosperous and floo^ 
riihing flat». Wbat every body wUbes will fiurely be at* 
tempted ibme time or other ; aad if any perfian or company 
ihonld ered aa wooUea manufadure any where in this 
oeighbourhood» they would probably find it torn out to 
their own advanuge» as well as to the good of the public* 
The markets for com aod meal are^ Dumfries, diftant, as 
has been already. mentioned, x% miles; Waalockhead, dif- 
tant i8 miles ^ and LeadhiUsy diftant 19 miles. The <jiiaxi« 
tity ufually fold from this parilh has not bees alcertained^ 
for a reafon already given, that the farmers are not gene- 
rally inclined to publifli the whole produce of their farms*. 

XiVar*worii.*— >The lime-works of Qlolebum deferve par- 
ticular notice* By improving the land, and exciting a 
%Mrit of induftry in the people, they have proved a public 
blefling to the country, as well as a fource of weakh to the 
prc^rietor* The lime-rock was difcoveied many years 
ago, but was in a great meafure neglefted till Sir James 
Earkpatrick, the late proprietor of Clofebum, took ic into 
his own management. Ic is juft about ao years fince he 
began to carry on that work, and from that period the 
country has been improving with afioniihing rapidity. It 
has been obferved, that the foil of Clofebum is various; but 
that which prevsdls moft in the arable part, is the light, 
dry, iandy foil ; and the people imagined that in place of 
being improved, it would be quite burnt up, and rendered 
ufelels by lime. To conquer vulgar prejudices 1% always a 
difficult matter. Indeed, nothing but long experience can 


• The price:cf meal fluADatec ffom x $46 d. to 2 s . the ftone, being (eldont 
oboTe the one, or below the ether. Barley is from a s. 6d. to 31. th« 
luOiel ; but it fometimet n fo hi|rh as 3 s. 6 d. and erea 4 a. 

of Chfeburn. ^41 

cntirelj fabdue them. Hence the ufe of premiums. Men ~ 
mod fometimes be bribed to purfue their own interefi. 
Thej cannot, without fome powerful inducements, be pre- 
vailed upon to give up their old cuiloms, and to adopt 
thofe improvements which, after a fair trial, fufficiently re* 
commend themfelves. In the prefent cafe, the proprietor 
of Clofebum found it neceflary to oblige his tenants in their 
leafes to lime a certain quantity of their land yearlj, he 
fiimiihing the lime, and even paying for the carriage of it; 
and they, on their parts, being bound to pay 5 s. additional 
rent for every 80 meafures, which were confidered as fuffi* 
cient for an acre« To men of a fmall capital, who could 
not aSbrd to be at the expenfe of liming their ground 
themfelves, this fcheme was evidently beneficiaL In place 
of advancing the money out of their own pockets, they had 
to pay little more than the interefl of it -, at the iame time, 
the prpprietor improving his eftate, and receiving good in* 
tereft for his money, was, upon the whole, no lofer, though 
greatly in advance* But even in this way, fo favourable 
to the tenant, the greatefi quantity any of them would 
agree to lime was two acres in the yeaur -, fome of them 
would lime no more than half an acre; and others could 
hardly be prevailed upon at all to make the experiment* 
Such was the averfion of the people in thb country to the 
life of lime as a manure for land, when the lime-works of 
Clofebum were firft begun in the years 1772, 1773, and 
1774 ; but experience has conquered their prejudices, and 
neither compulfion nor arguments are any longer necefltry. 
The lime cofts 9 d. the meafure at the lime- works, each 
meafnre containing two Dumfries pecks heaped, or about 
3| Winchefter buihels. The reafon of this high price ia, 
the deep cover, and the diftance from coal. The coal is all 
brought from Sanquhar, which is 14 miles from Clofebum. 
It is fold at 7 d. the o^eafurc when laid down at the lime- 
Vo«..XIIL Hh I work^. 

^i Staiiftical Accwn^t 

yrorlu. The meafare is the fame with that by which tfap 
lime is fold ; and one meafure of coals is hardly fufficient 
to burn three of lime. The quantity of lime commonly 
laid upon an acre is from 60 to 80 meafures, and there are 
from 60,000 to 70,000 meafures fold annually at the lime- 
works. There is another lime- work in the neighbourhood, 
which was begun about feven years ago by Sir James 
Kirkpatrick, and at which a very confiderable quantity of 
lime is fold \ but, notwithilanding this, the demand at 
Clofeburn has not in the leaft decreafed ; a ftrong proof of 
the progreffive improvement of the country. Indeed, 
within the fpace of 20 years, the country has been made to 
put on quite a new face ; for dirty croft, and poor outfield 
crops of gray oats, and fmall bear, or big, rich crops of ex* 
cellent oats, barley, wheat and peafe, potatoes, turnips, 
and fown grafTes, are almoft every where to be feen. 
Ground, which formerly paid not more than a s. or a s. 
6 d. the acre, now pays 15 s. and fome of it is even fubfet 
at a guinea. The rents of the farms in general are more ' 
than doubled, yet the tenants live incomparably better than 
when they paid not thehalf of the prefent rents. Clofeburn, 
fron^ being in a great meafur^ a bleak' and barren, has be*, 
come a pleafant and fertile fpot in itfelf, and affords ample 
means of improvement to all the neighbouring country. 
All this has been brought about by the enterprifing fpirit 
of one man, whofe name will long be revered in this 
country *. 


• Price ofLnhur.'^Tht price of labour his increafcd with the improve- 
nient of tlie country. Twenty yean ago, L. 4 a-year were thought good 
wages for a labouring man kept in the )ioule»^ and half as much for a wo- 
man. A labourer's wages, without his vidluals, were in the long day 
half a merk, or 6 d. S-zaths, and in the ihort day 5 d.; but now the 
wages of a labouring man in the faodfe are from 6 to 8 guineas in the 
year, and of a woman from ai to 4 gaineas. A labourer^ wages with- 


of Clofehurn. 243 

TFutl^ Woods. — ^Therc is plenty of peat in the parifli; 
but yet fuel can not eafilj be procured in fufficient quan- 
tities* bj poor peopl^y who have not the command of hor- 
fes. "Coal, though brought 14 miles, is found to be a 
cheaper fire than peat got at the diftance of 2 or 3 miles ; 
yet the ' poor people place their chief dependence upon 
peat. The woods in this pari(h arc pretty extehfive. There 
are about 200 acres of natural wood, and about 300 acres of 
thriving plantations. 

HilU and Game. — ^The principal hills are Queenfterry, 

Garrick Heights, and Auchinleck. From the firft of thefe, 

the Doke of Queenfberry takes his title, though only one 

half of it is his property. Upon the top of this hill, grows 

a linall berry, commonly called the Nub Berry. It bears 

fome refemblance to the bramble berry, and is pleafant e- 

nough to the tafte. It is not improbable, that the hill 

might derive its name from this berry, which perhaps 

might be called the Queen of Berrys, or Queeniberry, as 

being thought the mod delicious of wild berries. This, 

however, is but mere conjefture. The hill of Queenf- 

^rry rifes about aooo feet above the level of the fea, 

£rom which it is diftant about ao miles. The moors in 

this pariih uled to abound with black-fowl and groufe, and 

the low-grounds with partridges : But of late, all kinds of 

game have become fcarce *• 


oat his vitals, where he gets conftant employment, are 14 d. in the 
long day, and xo d. in the (hort day. When employed only occaflonally 
bis wages are ftill higher. 

* The icafon commonly aiBgned for its fcarcity, is the too eager defire 
to preferve it. By the feverity of the game-Uws, the country people, ef- 
peciaUy the fliepherds, are deprived of a favourite amufemeot ; and to 


144 Statiflical Account 

Rivers^ Cricbup Xmw. — ^The river Nith forms the nattiral 
boundary between the psurifhes of Clo&bum and Keir, 
Clofebum Jying upon the eaft, and Keir upon the ^eft of 
that river. But probably, on account of the river's having 
changed its courfe, there are two pretty large farms be* 
lon^g to the parifh of Clofebum^ which now lie upon 
the weftem fide. This beautiful river having been already 
taken notice of, in the Statiflical Accounts of fome other 
pariflies, it is unneceflary to fay much about it here. It 
runs 5 or 6 miles along the weftem fide of this parilh, 
through eztenfive holms, now highly culcivated. Thefe 
holms, on each fide, terminate in floping banks, covered 
partly with natural wood, and partly with thriving planta'* 
tions. Several genteel houfes have lately been built at fmaH 
diftances, and within view of one another. The whole to- 
gether affords a profpefl as rich and beautiful as is to be feen 
almoft in any country. The fiOi in the river Nith are, (al* 
mon, gilfes, fea-trouts, hirlings, and bum-trouts. Befides 
the Nith, there are feveral fmaller waters or bums, as diey 
are called, in the pariih, in all of which there is a good 
deal of bum-trout. The only one of thefe, which deferves 
particular notice, is, that which is called Crichup, remark^ 
able for its fingukr courfe. It takes its rife froflti a mols, 


iivenge themlclves for the oppreilion they think they fuffer in this rc4>eA» 
they are faid in the fpring, and beginning of fummer, whilil thej tend 
their flocks, to Ivok out for the neftt, and delht>y the eggt of the gmne. 
In this way» they are faid to do more hurt to the game than ever they 
could do with their guns. There are, however, other reates for the 
fcarcity of game. A great deal more heath if burnt now than formeify ; 
confcquently, the moor-game are more expofed to the birds of prey* 
which are their greateft deftroyers. The fown-grafs affords an learly 
flielter to the partridges. They, therefore, Teiy commonly make 
their neits in it; but before they bring out dieir young, the graft 
is generally cut, and their eggs of courfe defttoycd. AU thefe caiifa 
probably contiibate to render the game more icarce thtn in .ibnner 

1^ Clofehurn. 245 

near the northern extremity of the pariOi. Not far from 
its fource, it forms a very beautiful cafcade, by falling over 
a t»re€ipice of about 80 or 90 feet in heighth, and almoft 
perpendicular. About half a mile below this, the water 
hasy in the courfe of ages, hollowed out to itfelf a ftrait pafTage 
thioagh a hill of red free done, forming what in Scotland is 
calleda linn, peculiarly romantic. This linn, from top to bot- 
tom, b upwards of ico feet ; and though 20 deep, it is yet fa 
ftrait at the top, that one might eafily leap acro& it, were 
k Pot for the tremendous profped below, 'and the noi& 
of the water running its dark courfe, and by its deep mur- 
muring, aflErighting the imagination *. 

AmtiquUiese'^Tihttt are hardly any antiquities in this 
parifli worth being mentioned, except an old cafile, be- 
longing to the family of Cloiebum, which bears no infcrip- 


• Inacccflible in a great mcarnrc to real beings, this linn was confi- 
ildci as the habitation of imaginary ones; and at the entrance into it; 
there was a cnrious cell or cave, called the Elf *s Kith, where, acccfrding 
to the foperftition of the times, the imaginary inhabitants of the linn 
were fappofed to hold their meetings. This cave proving a good free- 
ftone-quarry, has lately been dcmoliihed, for the purpofe of ballding 
kovfes, and from being the abode of elves^ has been converted into habi- 
tations for men. In the times of perfecution, the religious flying from 
their peHecotors, found an ekceUeot hiding place in Crichup Linn ; and 
there it a ftat, in form of a chair, cut out by nature in the rock, which 
having been the retreat of a ftioemaker in thofe times, has ever iince 
bom the name of the Sutor's Seat Nothing can be more (Iriking than 
the appearance of this linn from its bottom. The darknefs of the place. 
vpon which the fun never (hincs ; the fagged recks, rifiog .over one'a 
head, and fteming to meet at the top, with here and there a blafted tree^ 
horfting from the crevices i the rambling of the water falling from rock 
to rock, and forming deep pools ; together with ibme degree of danger 
to the fpe^lator, whilil he furveys the ftriking objoAs that prefent them* 
ielves to his view ; all naturally tend to woriL npon the iroaginauon. 
Heoee many fabnlons ftories are told, and perhaps were once believed, 
tfOQccnuDg this coiiois linn. 

246 Statijlical Account 

tioiiy date, coats of arms, ornaments or figures, that can Iea<i 
to any probable conjedure, as to the time of its being 
built. But from the (Ijle of building, it is fuppofed to be 
about 800 years old. A particular defcription and draw* 
ing of thb caftle, together with an account of the ancient 
and prefent families pofleding it, may be feen in Mr Grofe*s 
Antiquities of Scotland. Upon the farm of Kirkpatriclc 
in this parifli, there are the remains of an old chapel and 
burying ground *, and upon the farm of Auchencaim^ 
there are the remains of an old vaulted building. But no 
traditionary account with refped to either of thefe, has 
been tranfmitted down to the prefent age. There are 
like wife, in different parts of the parifh,feveral large cairns 
of ftones heaped together. But neither is there any tradi- 
tion with refped to them. 

Locb and Mineral Wells. — ^The caflle of Clofebum was 
furrounded by a fofle, which was connefted with a loch of 
nearly a quarter of a mile in length. In this loch, there 
was a remarkable agitation in the year 1756, of which an 
atcount is given in the Philofophical Tranfadions of that 
year. At a fmall diftance from the caftle of Clofebura^ 
there is a mineral well, which was once of confiderable re- 
pute. Its water is fulphureous, and has often been of fet- 
vice in fcrofulous cafes. There is another of the fame 
kind in the Duke of Queenfberry's lands of Lockerben j 
and there is another mineral well -gf a different kind, 
known by the name of the Town Clcugh Well. It is 
pretty ftrongly impregnated with iron, and its name points 
out its fituation. The Cleugh, where it is, is called the 
Town Gleugh, from its vicinity to a fmall village called 
Clofeburn Town, of which the only remains now are a 
part of the Crois, which is not yet totally deftroyed. 


ofClofeburn, 247 

Roads itftd Bridges. — Gonfiderable improvements have 
been made upon the roads in this pariih. The great turn- 
pike road in particular, from Dumfries, to Glafgow and 
AjT, which goes through this pariih, does much credit to 
the judgment of the gentlemen who marked out the direc- 
tion of it. Upon this road, there is a comfortable inn at 
Brownhill, in this pariih, which divides the waj pretty, 
equally between Dumfries and Sanquhar, and at which 
travelers maj expeA to be treated with every civility. 
The pariih is alfo well fupplied with bridges over every 
little brook \ where a bridge s at ^U needed, an arch is 
thrown, and the communication of one part of the pariih 
with another, by this means, rendered eafy at all times. 

Ciara£ier of the People. — ^In to populous a pariih, it is 
ifflpoffible but that there muil now and then be a few dif- 
orderly perfons. But it would be very unfair to judge of 
the general charader of the people from the conduA of « 
few individuals, or from a few irregularities committed in 
the intemperate ufe of whilky. Within the memory of 
man, no inhabitant of this pariih has ever been guilty of 
faicide \ none has ever fuSered death by the hand of the 
executioner ; none has ever been baniihed from his coun- 
try ; none has ever been fo much as tried for murder, 
theft, or any capital crime. They are upon the whole a 
quiet, fober, boneil*, and induilrious people. The farmers 
in particular are a very decent fet of men, attentive to 
their buiinefe, juil in their dealings, civil and obliging in 
their manners. 


.jt4JK Siaifftkal jicctnM 



^ tie Riv. Mr Alexander Monilaws *• 

Ei^iiU^ Namt^ Smrfaa^ PUmiatum^ iic. 

THE parifii of Kirkpatiick-Fleeoiingy ooinprehending 
in its prtfcot ftate the united pariihesof Kirkconnell, 
Inring, and Kirkpatnck-Fleeming, (anneved fbme time be- 
fore the Reformation), extends in length from the north* 
ern to its fonthem extremity, about 6 miles ; but the dis- 
tance between the E. and W. boundaries, in different parts 


• The Statiftical Account of this pahfli is made up, partly from the 
papers tranfmitted hj the Rev. Mr Monilaws, aAd partly from addi* 
txonal information fupplied by another gentleman, whofe name was not 
commnnicated; but whofe aceuracy, it has been aflnicd, 2roii|.refpedablc 
authority, may be relied upon. 

of Kirkpatrick^FIttming. 249 

%f the parifliy varying ezceedlnglyy the mean breadth will 
not exceed 3 miles, containing in all aboift 9000 Scots 
acres. Its form is nearlj an oblong fquare, bat very irre- 
gular, particularly towards the W. and S. comers, where 
it is bounded by Domock and Gretna. The origin of the 
name Kirkpatrick is obvious; being a ceU or church, 
dedicated to St Patrick, who, though a native of Scotland, 
became'the tutelary faint of Ireland, and whofe memory, 
the piety and reverence of his countrymen, feem to have 
honoured with the confecration of feveral churches *• 

The appearance of the country in this difirift, which 
gently rifes from die S. towards the N. by a gradual fuo* 
ceffion of waving fwells, prefents at the fame time no un« 
pleafing variety, and a moft ftriking contrail. In feveral 
parts, the lands are in a high ftate of cultivation, eoclofed 
and iheltered with natural woods and plantations ; while 
here and there large trafis of uncultivated ground, ftill re- 
taining its original heath, meet the eye. Excepting the 
mofies, however, of which there are feveral trafts of very 
oonfiderable extent in the parilb, few parts are fo exceed- 
ingly coarfe and wild, as in the courfe of the prefent in- . 
creaiing fpirit of improvement, not to afford the pleafing 
hopes of graduaUy difappearing tp a certain degree.*-Of 
woods and plantations, there may be, at an average, 290 
or 300 acres. One natural wood, belongmg to Mr Irving 

Vol. XIII. I i of 

* KirkcomwU, in like mtnner, feems to have taken its name from 
Connetl, a Scou faint, who flottriihe4 in the beginning of the 7th cen- 
taiy, to when douStlefs the church was originally dedicated; or by 
whom, there is fooie reafon to think, it might have been fettled and con- 
Iccrated. The origin of Fleeming and Irving is likewife evident ; thefe 
being the names of two very ancient and refpeAable families, who in 
former times enjoyed large and oonfiderable pofleflSons in this part of the 
coimtry, and whofe confcquence feems, for the fake of diftindion^ tp 
)uive given name e ach to its refpe^ive parilh. 

350 StatiflkalM€Quni 

f of Cove, upon the bfinkB of Kirtle» of about 40 or 45 
acrest and confiding in general of oak, has been twice cut 
within the fpace of 53 years *, and befidea many occafinnal 
advantages arifing from weedings of finall woodi at dafir- 
ent times, left the proprietor near L. 600. Upon the elbte of 
Springkelly lying within this pariib, there are many thri- 
ving ftrips, clumps, &c. confifting of Scots, fpruee, filver, 
and balm of Gilead firs, Isriz, oak, aib, bircb» and va- 
rious other barren timber : Not le(s than 150 acres of theiie 
have been planted by the pre&nt Sir William Maxwell fince 
1 76 1. Upon the eftates of Mdaknow, AUerbeck and 
Langihaw, are upwards of 50 acres of thriving clomps, 
ftrips, &LC. which do honour to the judgment and tafie 
of the feveral proprietors, and have rendered a place of the 
country, formerly bare and bleak, one of the mod pleafimt 
fpots in Annandale. 

SoiL — ^The foil varies exceedingly ; and foils which ap- 
pear in other refpeds much the fame, become more or le& 
valuable from the bottoms upon which they lie. In many 
parts, it confifts of a ftrong red earth, with a large mixture 
of fand, to a confiderable depth ; which, when lying upon 
a gravelly bottom, as is generally the cafe along the fide 
of the river, is defer vedly efleemed land of the firft quali- 
ty *, and when under proper culture, and good management, 
produces the mod luxuriant crops of every kind. A foil 
nearly the fame, but more ihallow, is frequently tp be met 
with, upon a bottom inclining to clay and grairel, which, 
though land of an inferior quality, is perhaps to the far- 
rier equally valuable as the former ; though lefs capable 
of producing crops of wheat, it is eafier cultivated and 
managed, and generally yidds crops of every other kind, 
in equal abundance. The fame kind of earth, with a very 
|inall mixture of fand, frequently makes its appearance 


of Kirkpaifick'Fleemin^. 25 x 

apoa tt ftros^ Mek cky bottom, exceedingly cold, And tl« 
iiMit impetmraUe by water. Wh^re this is the cafe, the 
(oil is wectift, requires a ftrooger culture, and balwaya 
kUr, a»d ^lore dependent upon the feafo;]s. The crops 
kaft Uable to dUappoint the expedations of the hufband- 
man upon this fcil, tre o^ti and grais. A feoond kind of 
kilf oonittogof a wbitiHi clay, from ti to so inches 
deep, ia ferae parts rich and loamy, and fometimes mixed 
wfdi A little tffofi, formi a great part of the pari(h. This 
(oil beiffg ahiioft eonftantlj upon the clayey bottom, is 
wettifll afid uncertain. When, however, excited by lime 
and odief flimutating matinres, it generally prodnceis oats 
and gfa& in abixndaiiee. Mod of the lands lately broken 
Bp, and thcfe ftiH remaining in a natural Bate, will^ in the 
conrfe of impro^menty become of this complexion. The 
prefelit furfbce, which, to the deepneis of 10 or 12 inches, 
indkiss to nio&, and which feems* to hare bten formed, 
6tmi the ptitrefaAion of eoarfo vegetables, which have 
Ifoni time ^0^ time fprung on its fbrface, experience 
proves^ will difappear in the cotrrfe of 15 yeari -, or even 
in a period much Ihortcr than this, by repeatedly fallow- 
ing. The value of moor for paiiure may, at an average, 
be caOed 3 s. a acre -, th^ of arable land, from 5 s. to L. i, 
10 s. 

.^^iVtf/rtrrr.— The wretched mode of cnkivatioii, which 
formerly prevailed all over this country, begins now gra- 
dmdly to £(appeat, and a more exteiifive and liberal fyftem 
of agncdtnre has been adopted. The intelligent farmer is 
nowfisUy convinced, that a well chofen rotation of crops, and 
reguht ceflation from tillage, by laying his fields out un- 
der grals, are of the utmoft importance in hulbandry. 
Witfr a view to render this more general, the chief he- 
ritors in this pariQi have prefcribed in leafe a particular 


152 Stati/iical Account 

mode of rotationi which certainly hath not been withoist 
eSsft* The following rotation of crops is moft geoeralljr 
purfued. The fumnver, previous to breaktng up the 
ground, or if convenient, an jear earlier, 15, or if die 
bottom is c6ld and clayej, 30 Gariifle bdbelsof (heU-ltme 
are laid upon each acre. After this preparation, the xft 
crop is oats, which never fail to be ekceedinglj lux- 
uriant ; and a 2d, equally ftrong, might be ezpefied ; bat, 
in this cafe, the ground would be much impoveriflied, and 
require its ftrength to be recruited for a barley crop in the' 
3d year, with a ftrong manure of dung, which every good 
farmer will ftudy to manage with the greateil cscooomy. 
After a flight preparation with a litde dung, barley is fown 
the ad year ; the following crop is oats ; and the 4th year 
it is in potatoes, turnips, and fallow. The 5th year is 
barley, with whidi it is fown down in grals-ieeds, A dif- 
ferent mode of rotation, fometimes is to defer linung until 
after a crops of oats. The 3d year it lies in &Uoim^ or 
yields a potato crop, and receives the fame quantity of 
lime as before mentioned. The 4th crop is wheat, and 
the following barley, with which it is fown down with 
grais feeds. It lies in grals at leaft three years; and du- 
ring the a firft years, the ill crop each year is generally 
cut. To cut it a 3d year, or even twice in x year, is 
deemed extremely prejudicial to the land. By the latter, 
the farmer is certainly more reftri£ted, on account of his 
wheat crop, which requires the liming immediately to 
precede it. In this refpeft, the former has the advantagCp 
as he not only reaps the benefit of the lime during the whole 
time his land is in crop, but enjoys this fiirther advan- 
tage, that be can lime 2 or 3 years previous to the break- 
ing up of his ground, which greatly increa£es the quan- 
tity of grais produced, and is by experience found ta 
be in no degree detrimental to the following cropsi - 


of Kirkpatrick-Flefming. 25 3 

There being no marl in this dKlrid, the manures chiefly 
mde ufe of for meliorating the foil, and raifing crops, are 
]i]iie» and the dung coUefted upon the different farms. Lit- 
tle attention has hitherto been paid to the melioration and 
improvement of pafiure-grounds by manures, and it is 
odIj till within thefe few years that any attempts to raife 
crops of ^grais this way have been made ; from the fuccefs 
with which thefe attempts have already been rewarded, it 
is to be hoped, that they will in future be frequently re« 
peated. The manures u&d for this purpofe, are, aflies, 
fime, and a compofition of earth and lime \ which laft,> 
when properly mixed and compounded, fornxs a very rich 
manure; and being fpread plentifully upon the furface, 
never Csdls to be followed fucceilively with a, and fome- 
times 3 very rich and luxuriant crops of grafs. 

The crops to which moft attention is paid in this pa< 
lifli, and which indeed moft liberally reward ^ the toils of 
the hnibandman, are oats, barley, and fiotatoes. Of thefe, 
oats are the moft general, and perhaps, upon the whole, 
the moft valuable crop ; a very confiderable part of peo* 
pies food depending on this grain. Yet notwithftanding 
what is exhaufted this way, and in feeding horfes, a large 
quantity is annually fumiihed for the market. The great 
difference between the average produce, and that of the 
beft, is owing to the large quantity of land, not only 
coarfe, but in bad heart, which is annually fown with thb 
grain. Barley may be confidered, in a great meafure, an 
article for the market, though no inconiiderable quantity of 
it too, b fometimes manu£ai6hired into a flour, of which a 
bread is made abundantly pleafant, and efteemed exceed- 
ingly healthful. The potato crop, though in a lefs feu- 
fible manner, with equal certainty, repays the labours of 
the huibandman. As an article of food, potatoes are of 
infinite value in his family, and for feeding horfes and 


254 Stat^al AcctmtU 

C0WS9 and rearing young catde, diej are perhaps fnrpaffed 
hj nothing. A great number of fwioc, which haTc fi^r mm^ 
ny years in thb phoe been deemed a rery faicrativa braocda 
of rural attention, is annually fed in this parilh. Whesrt: 
and peafe are not mach fonvn, though the former geaerattjr 
anfwers well, bebg never fown hue when the had is im 
high cultiTation. The latter is rather an nneertata emp, 
and depends much on thefeafbn. Turnip are here a yerj* 
precarious crop, and feldom oompeniate the troofalei ets* 
penie, and labour of raifing. The real produce and flato of 
cultivation, will be beft communicated to the Public in the 
form of the fdlowing Table, next page. 


0/ Kirkpatrick-Fleeming 



Draught Hoi 
Young Horfi 

Inferior Catt 
Sheep, • 


Natural Gra 
Sown Gra& 

Pafturage o 

Turnips, - 

Oats, - . 

Wheat, . 
Peafc, . . 


. r.» t 






41^ 000\M la 1 §- 

>> i 



Id CM 


o\ o o\ ^ 


Oi Kn 

Ui . 

k> UCa) ^ 


OMk» >*%^%^ 1 r 

00 O 00 *^ 

-|S^ ' 

^^ o 


0\ »» 4^ Wf« 

^ ? 



O O M k>Oa ^ 

ka M $ 

1 ONO ^ 1 




1*3 1 

M M M D 

1 o o • 1 

l)> fc>Cn O 


O O O O O 

M, M ^ 





1 o o • vo 


1*8 1 

M M M 
^ O O O 

O O M o ^ 

k» O O (^ 









e\o o o o 



O w 5 4^ 



M k>CA> ^ 


o o\ • vo 
o o •> 




»» O O O 





O O H M M 

o o o ? o 


o o 


o o o o 


^ ••^ «^ 





O o O o H 



>o o\>o o\ 

f ^ 

o o o O O 1 

o ON-r^ «*> 


o o 

ono o o 



O 4J» u O 



CO orjikCO 






O Ui O H 


o o 

o\o o o 




o o 

o\o o o 





1 M Wn .^ M ^ 


00<k1 o 

M 0\ 

M O M 


O M Jk IX ^ 

^ U> Oa 


OOvjVi to» 

0\^^ O OS 


O 0\ o 

kJ w» 

o\gnco Wt 




O 4^ 4^ ViCn 

DO ^ 


vo o o o 

O O O O O 

o o o 

o o 

o o o o 



*• k> 





^ ov 


30 4 


^ S 


>* M 


a 4 


3 ^ 

^ C7\ 






C ( 








256 Statijiical Account 

The above table, though containing a pretty accurate 
ftatement of the extent of the prefent cultivation and pro. 
duce of the parilh, muft by no means be regarded as a ftan« 
dard for future years, as annually large fields of land are 
taking in, and that which hath already been in tillage, is 
continually rifing into higher degrees of cultivation. 

Stock, — ^The number of ftock kept in this diftrift» is on- 
ly fmall in proportion to its extent, owing to the large 
quantity of mofs, and the little attention which hath hi- 
therto been paid to the improvement of paftnre-grounds. 
I There is reafon, hoi^ever, to hope, that more atten- 
tion will, in future,' be turned to this objeft, which 
doubtlefs would be an eflential benefit to the public, 
and could not fail liberally to repay both the proprietor 
end tenant. The black cattle, excepting the cows kept 
by one of the principal heritors, and a &w others, are 
moftly of the Galloway breed. They are efteemed more 
hardy and firm, agree better with the pafhire, and in ge- 
neral find a more ready market. There is a confiderable 
number of work-horfes kept in this parilh, many of which 


Note for Page 25;. 

* The only meafure now ufed in the pariih of Kirkpatrick-Fleming^, 
and over the greateft part of Annandale, is the Caflifle peck, 4 of which 
make a Carlifle bufliel. A quart, adjufted by the ftandard meafure. kept 
at Carlifle, being a cylinder of 36 inches diameter, and 6 inches deep, 
contains 64.151 cubie inches ; therefore the gallon contains 25^.608 ; 
and 6 of thefe gallons being the Caflitle peck, it contains 1539.648 inch- 
es, which is a (inali fradlion more than 14 Scots pints 3I mutchkins, or 
is decimally I4.8'77 Scots pints ; and 4 of thofe Carlifle pecks being a 
Carlifle bufliel, one third of the faid bufliel is lefs than a Wiocheiler bufliel 
by 9*7.56 inches, or nearly 3 mutchkins, 3 gills Scots. The Scots pint here 
leferred to, contains 10.34'a. 

In grain of all kinds, fleek or even meafure it ufed ; but in lime mea« 
fure, the peck is heaped ; and in potato meafure, generally S pecks, 
of fleek or cyen meafure are allowed to the bufliel| and this meafurr is 
ineant in the foregoing Table. 

of Kirkpt^rkk'Fleeming. 


Are large and valuable ; while, on the other band, a very 
oonfiderable part is fmall and of low ralue. Befides 
work-horficSy a great nnmber bf young are likewife kept^ 
and about 90 foak are annually bred in the parilh. Of 
kte, cooiiderabie attention has been paid both to the breed 
of horCes and black cattle, formerly too much neglefted. 
There ai^ only a few flieep ' kept in this pariih, and thefe 
are chiefly of the Eikdale breed. 


Valued at eacl 










Draoglit horfes, 



L. 7 

L. 13 

L.33»5 <^ 


rmge ditto. 



25 c 



Toong 4itto, 






Cow5, - - 




4 15 

2949 15 to 

lafcrior Cattle, 


5 5 

1 c 


171 «; 

Sheep, . - 


« i$ 




Sw«e. . * 




2 l^ 

838 15 


Total nine of Stock, L. 

11,864 '^ ^ 

Exports and /rn^orfj.— Though far diflant from the iit- 
moft extent of improvement at which it is capable of ar- 
rivfiig, this parifli^ befldeft maintaining its own inhabitants, 
makes very confiderable exports ; confifting of the follow- 
ing aitidesy and to the following amount^ as nearly as can 
be aicertained. The articles imported into the periib, are, 
iron, coals, earthen and ftone ware, liquors; and all other 
goods retailed by the fhopkeepers, of which neither tb« 
valoe nor quantity can be precifely determined. 

Vol. Xni. 




Statifiical Accouia 


Ariieies ex. 

Pumnthy i» 





fer Bujb9l. 


Bwley, - - 


L. 9 9 

L. 540 


Oiti, • -' - 




Wheat, - - 



'L. 980 9 m 

Ptife, . -, 





L>. 980 C 



of each. 


L. 325 

Dnnght horfes, 


L x3 


Young borfei, 




Cowl, - 


4 15 ^ 

33* «o ^ 

Inferior cowt, 
Inferior cittle» 



.^ c 
3 3 <^ 

589 I c 

>-I.sS«* r m 

Sheep, . - 


I c 

687 10 

Swine, • - 


a 15 c 


L »5l6 I 


L. 225 

Batter, . • 


L. 1 10 

JL. 307 

Cheefe. . - 

Cwts. 30 

I 8 


1 L. 3813 I Tot. 





J value of cseoru. 

MiUs and MifAirr^i.— There are % milk, ooe in each pa- 
rifli. The tenants upon each eflate were formerly zeftiiA- 
cd to their refpedive mills, at a rtrj high multnr^ a* 
amounting in fome cafes to nearlj a tenth part of all the- 
grain carried to the mill \ and what is fomewhat eztraor-- 
dbarjr, the tenant was obliged to pay a very eonfidexahle 
tax for all the grain he carried ta market, without even 
the exception of wheat, which neither of the mills were 
capable of grinding. The proprietor, about 8 years ago, 
by letting the mill of Kirkconnell to that part of his te- 
nantry under aftriftion thereto, gelieved diem of this grie- 


of Kirkpatrick'Fleeming. 259 

The proprietor of Kirkpatrick mill likewiie, at 
Wfattfondaj next, liberates his tenants from ^all allriftioas 
of this kind. The cither proprietors of this pariih are un- 
der no grievances of thb kind» excepting 2 farms, which 
aflri&ed to the mill of Kirkpatrick. 

jfir and Climate. — The air is rather moifty yet the in- 
habitants are in general robuft and healthy, and the open- 
nelfl of the country around, and efpecially to the £. and 
S. may contribute to this very confiderably. Few epi- 
demical difiempers have, been known in this parifli > the 
&iail-poXy which was wont to carry off many, is now be- 
come more favourable, by inoculation, which, is every 
year becoming more general. No malignant fevers have 
been known for many years paft \ at times, the (low nervoua 
£ever makes its appearance, but few or none die of it, who 
otherwife enjoy a found conftitution^^ The rheumatifin 
is the moft coounon complaint ; it is pretty general among 
the lower clafs of people, efpecially when advanced in 
life, and is not unfrequent even among thofe of bett^ 
circumftances. The country being open and plam, and 
feldom infefted with fogs, the air, upon the* whole, is 
pure and healthful \ fituated at an inconfiderablediflance from 
the Solway Frith, it enjoys, with refpe£b to falubrity 
all.the advantages, without experiencing, in a high de« 
grce, the thin and nipping chillneis of a coaft fituation ; 
and though expofed to frequent and ftrong gufts of wind^ 
and heavy rains from the W. and S. yet thefe do not ieem 
to be attended with any pernicious effeds to the health of 
the inhabitants, many of whom live to an extended age. 
There is one who is 90, and another generally reputed 
at 100. But the moft extraordinary initance of longevity 
that this pariih can boaft of, was a Thomas Wiihart^ 
who lived upon the eftate of Mr Irving of Wyelbie ; he 

'26o StatifUcal Account 

was born In the parifli of Finglaffie, upon the 26th of Sep- 
tember 1635, and died upon the 19th of December 17599 
and confequentlj lived fometbing more than 114 years i 
be retained the ufe of his faculties to the laft ; had loft none 
of hb teeth \ and had the ufe of his fight in fuch perfedioo, 
that be could thread a needle with eafe. Not a days be- 
fore his death, be travelled fix miles upon very uneven 
^ound ; none ever heard him complain of his infirmit jp 
but he frequently exprefled much regret at funerals ; en- 
vying the deceafed, he was wont to fay, •* every body can 
''die but me." There lives a woman at prefent in this pa- 
rilh, aged 96, who enjoys a confiderable degree of health, 
is able to walk about, and at times to work a little. 

Population, — ^According to Dr Webfter's report, the 
number of fouls then was 1147. The population of this 
diftrifl at any fornier period cannot be precifely afcer* 
twined, there being no parochial regifter, the accuracy of 
which can be depended upon. It muft, however, upon 
fhe whole, have confiderably increafed, though by no 
means in fo bigh a {proportion,, as the prefent ftate of po- 
pulation and health of the people might have led one to 
expeft. This is owing to the greater number of emigrants, 
than the influx of ftrangers, and chiefly to the dd:ay of % 
fmall villages, which about ao years ago contained each 
upward of zoo inhabitants, and which at prefent do not 
contain both above 45. As no manufadure is carried OU' 
in this parifh, the increafe of population muft be chiefly 
owing to the increafing fpirit of agriculture. Many of 
the farms being formerly large, have, by the refpeftive 
proprietors, been divided into 2, 3, and fome even into 
more -, and fome farms have alfo been taken in from 
moors and commons, which were latdy divided. The 


of Kirkpatrick-Tlecming. a6i 

following is the prefent ftate of population, as taken in 
September laft, with every degree of accuracy. 

Souk in 1792, - 1542 
Males, - - 720 

Females, - - 822 *. 
Under 10 years of age, 369 
Under 20, - 748 

Under 50, - 1256 

Under 70, - - 1495 
Under 80, - 1536 

Under 90, - - 154 1 
Under 100, - 1542 

Members of Eftabliihed 
Church, - - 1480 

Seceders, . 


Males born out of the 
parifh, - - ^ 

Fem^es ditto, 

Perfons born abroad, 

■ in Eng- 







Families, - 319 

Married perfons, 436 
Twins bom within 10 

years," - - 14 

Bachelors, - - 16 
Unmarried women, a* 

bove 45, - - 48 

Widowers, - - x8 

Widows, - -• 71 
h nnual average of births 

for 7 years, • 40 
— — of deaths, ditto, 21 
; of marriage?, . 

ditto, - 15 
■ of iettlers for 

10 years, - 13 
— — of emigrants, 

ditto, - 17 
Average of children from 

each marriage, 7 


* Tbc differcwce between the males and the females in this parilh muft 
ftrike the moft inattentive obferver. This difTerence muft be accounted 
for chiefly from the longevity of the female, who on account of her do- 
mcftic fitnation and manner of life, being lefs expofed to irregularity and 
accidents* may be faid to enjoy a greater certainty of life than the male. 
This opioioo is confirmed by the (biking difference between the widowers 
and widows. A greater number of the males likewifc emigrate. In the 
aoaiul average of births for the laft 7 yean, the males are to the females 
in the proportion of %^ to \^\.^ 


^6z Statiftkal Account 







Bakm, ... 






Farmers, above L. 50, 


Male farm-fervaatSy 


Ditto, under L* 50, 


Female ditto, 




Male domeftic fervants. 




Female ditto. 




'Pertoaa ferving in the 



navy laft war. 




Ditto in the armj, 




Cloggcrs •, 





tt defenfes likewife to be renurkdk, that in tfcertMning ^ aven|re 
nuniKifcr^f' Children' from eaclT 'marriage, the number was found to be 

' greater in Kirkcoanell than in Kirkpatrick by 1^; the former being 8. 
and the liitKef ^. Without entering into the phyflcaj caufe, this tends 
to fliow that the increafe of population is in proportion to the (late of 
population ia a country, and that it will always be tefs as countries be- 
come nioie and' mote populous. RirkcofaaeU is ilill coiifiderably behind 

' Rirkpatrick in population. 

f A Clogger Is n perfoo whofe employment confiits in making clogs. 
As clogs are an article not generally ufed, and defcrvc to be' better 
iLtfown a particular defcription of then may not be improper. Xhcy 
appear, many years ago, to have been introduced from Cumberland, 
and are now very generally ufed over all this part of the country, 
in place of coarfe and ftrong fliocs. All the upper part of the 
clog, comprehending what is called the npper leather and heel-qnar. 
terSy is of leather, and made after the fame manner as thofe parts 
of the ihoe which go by the fame nane. The fole is of w6od. It is firft 
neatly dre^ed into a proper form ; then, with a knife made for the pur- 
pofe, the iniide is drefled oflT, and hotlowed fo as eaiily to receive the foot. 
Neat, with a different kind of ihftrument, a hollow or guttin is mn rofod 
the outfide of the upper part of the f6le, fof the reception of the tipper 
lather, which is then nailed with fmall tacks to the fole, and the clo^ 
n completed. After this, thej aie generally fliod or plated with iron by 

of Kirkpatrick^FUeming. aiSj 

hms^ Mwabf and CbaraSer. — ^Tbere are 5 puUtc inns 
or ale-honfes in the pariih ; and, it is reported, ftill a 
greater nnmber of tippling-houfes. The multiplication of ^ 
pnblic-houfesy and fo genera) ufe of fpiritous liquors, ar^ 
juftly thought to have a pernicious effisfi upon the morals 
and charafier of the people. It ought, however, in juftice 
to be mentioned, that there are, in this pariih, compara- 
tiyelj fpeaking, few inftances of that devotion to the bot- 
tle, of which numerous examples are not wanting around 
ns. The people in this diftrrA are, upon the whole, virtu- 
oDs, intelligent, feber, adive, induftrions, regular in their at- 
tendance upon public worihip, and defervedly marked for 
their moderation and liberalitj of fentiment in religious 
matters. Comparativelj few inftances of fraud and diflio- 
neftj occur to require the interpofition of the civil judge. 
Thej are kind and hofpitable to ftrangers; benevolent 
without oftentation ; and, when occafion requires^ readj to 
relieve the wretched. Enjoying all of them the neceflaries^ 
and manj of them, in a confiderable degree, the conve- 
nienciesof life, though ambitious of improving, they feem 
in general contented and happy in their preiient fito* 


a bltckintth. Tke |irice of a piir of man^s clogs it abottt 3 s. including 
pliting, Kod with the fize, the price diminiflies in proportion. A pair 
of dogi, thai pUtedf will lienre a labouring man one year ; or, if good 
me IS taken of them, an year and a half; and at the end of that periodr 
hy nnewing the ible and plating, they may be repaired fo as to ferve an 
year longer. Whedier cooiidered with refpe^k to the price or utility^ 
they ire certainly piefeiable to flioes. They keep the feet remarkablf 
warn and oomfintable, and entirely exckide all damp, and thence ai^ 
AoDgfac to contribute highly to the healthineft of the labmiring pan of 

264 Statt/lical Account 

RoadSf Rivsrs^'^The road from C^lifle to Glafgow, and 
Edinburgh, by Mofiat, runs through the fouthem part of 
the parilh ; and, in the weflern comer, crofles the road 
•from Annan to Edinburgh, by Langholm and Hawick« 
Both thefe roads are of infinite advantage to this parifli, 
and have contributed highly to its improvement ; and the 
former, by opening up a connexion between Carlifle and 
Glafgow, hath in an eminent degree promoted the exten- 
fion of commerce and manu&fiure. Both roads were ori- 
giiially made, and are fiill kept in repair by the profits a^ 
rifing from a toll, levied in confequence of an ad of Par- 
liament obtained for that purpofe. The interior roads ia 
the pariih are made and kept in repair with the fums ari- 
fing from the Commuution of the ftatute-labour. But (o 
fenfible are the tenants upon the eftate of Springkell, ly- 
ing in this and the neighbouring pariihes, of the advanta- 
gea arifing from good roads, that independent of the fla- 
tute-labour, which is commuted, they have voluntarily 
fubfcribed 2iper cent, upon their rents, to be annually laid 
out in making and repairing roads within that eftate ; a 
circumflance which does them infinite honour. The pro- 
prietor himfelf gives li per cent, on his rental for the fame 
purpofes.-~Kirtle is the only river in this pariih f • 


t It takei iu rife in the parifh of Middlebie ; and falling upon the 
north corner of Kirkpatrick, divides the two pariihes, for a fpace of 
more than 4 miles, and then crofles the pariih in a S. E. diredlion. It is 
only a (mail ftream, but pure and tnuifparent. In it, there are trouts, 
eels, pike, perch, and fome flounder; but not in fiich quantities, as to be 
an objedt worthy of attention. Its banks are in many )>arts well covered 
with natural woods and plantations, and in its courfe are exhibited mucii 
beautiful and romantic fcenery. The burying ground of Kirkcoonell is re- 
markably fo. It is fituated 10 a crook of the riTer, upon a rich holm of 
confiderable extent. On the oppofite fide of the river, the banks, which 
tre bold and fimple, rife to a confiderable height, and are all cotertd 


of Kirkpatrick'Fleeming. 365 

Stipend^ School^ Rental^ i^c. — The Earl of Hopetoun^ 
and Sir William Maxwell of dpringkelU are vice* patrons 
of the pariih. The living has been augmented within 
thefe 6 months ; and exclufive of L. 5 for communion>ele- 
ments, coniiAs of L. 60 in money, and 5 chalders of 
vidua], the one half oat-meal, the other burlej, a glebe of 
JT acres, and 14 acres of moor, which the prefent mcum- 
bent has enclofed and improved at a very confiderable ex- 
penfe. The church was partly rebuilt about 15 years ago, 
and is at prefent in a ftate of complete repair. The manfe 
was repaired in 1785, but is IHll very infufficient both in 
the walls and roof. The offices are in pretty good con- 
dition. — ^The parochial fcliool-houfc was built within this 
18 years, and hath been kept in very good repair. Two 
circumdances have concurred to render this fchool le(s be- 
neficial to the inhabitants than could have been w^fhed, 
wz. its iituation, and the frequent c!iange of fchoolmaflers. 
Being fituated at one end of die pari(h, it can be of no fer- 
vice at all to the inhabitants of the other ; and the want 
of a dwelling*houfey and of a competent falary, have 
doubtlefs had an influence upon the frequent change of our 
teachers. The falary is only 100 merks Scots; the late 
Dr Graham of Moisknow, confidei ing the difficulty which 
fome poor parents labour under, in obtaming education 
for their children, and the pitiful falary of the fchoolmafter, 
in great humanity mortified L. 5 a-year to the fchoot 
mailer, for which he is to educate 8 poor children* The 
ichoolmafler is alfo feflion clerk, and hath fome advanta- 
ges from marriages, baptifms, and the writing of certificates. 
Vol. XIIL L 1 The 

with thriving woodi and planutions. The river Black Sark, thoagh 
here diftinguUhed b^ another name, has its foiircc in the rid pariih of 
Kirkconrcll. A confiderable arm of White Sark may likewife be ikid to 
like its rife in this pariih. 

a66 Statijlical Account 

The average number of fcholars for fonse years paft ba^ 
been about 45. There are other fcbook in the payifb, but 
none of them have any fixed fidary. 

The valuation, rental, and general fituation of the pa- 
rifli in other refpe^ts, are 4s follows : 

Valued rent in Scots Number of Cans, ^ ao9 

money, * L.ayoo > — Ploogba, 104 

Houfes in- 

Sterling, habited, - ^- 3x5 

Real rent in the year ■ ' 4 Ditto un- 

177a, - L. 1731 inhabited, - aa 

-in the year ■ ■ ■ New hou- 

^793, - 1870 fes built in 10 years, 3 a 

Rents fpent in the Old pul- 

,panlh, - 1947 led down, •* 25 

Number of carriages, 3 

P6or.--*-The number of poor in this parilh is confide* 
irible, and h^th for fome years paft been increafing. Thie 
IS owing to the advanced age of the day-labourers, the 
produce of whofe hbours are diminifhed, while their exi- 
jjrc^cies remain the fame, or rather rncreafe wxtn the de- 
cay tX nature. But the greater number confiib of the wi- 
(foxes '6i labouring men, who, with their children, are fre- 
qu^tly trpon the death of their hulbands, left deftitute of 
cVery ftipport and proviilon. The number at prefent upon 
the tiA\ is nearly 30. Of thefc, a part receive regular 
filpply, and others occafionally, as their exigencies feem to 
require. There being no funds for their maintenance, 
they are fupported chiefly by the wecldy colledions made 
in the church, which, with the money llevied for the ufe of 


of KUrkpatrick'FUemifig. TjRy 

die mort-clotb, and fome other perquifitcs, xskzy amount 
tQ L. 30 aaaually *• • 

Fijfits and FueJ.'^Theet is upon one of the proprietor'a 
cftatt, a very confiderable body of timefione of the firft 
tfuiky. The tenant, who farms the qoarries, is bound 
hy Gompaft to fupply the tenants npon the eflace, at 7 d. 
the bu(hel ; and for ev^ry buQiel fold firom the eftate> X d* 
is paid to the proprietor, the only rent ezafted. There 


* There is every reaibii, however, to expeA, thtt the number of poar 
is this parifli will^ in fotart^ gn^daaliy decreafe, with the more cxtea* 
fi^e operations cf a fociety of .a benevolent complexion, which about 7 
yeari ago, was formed here, under the appellation of the Brotherly So- 
ciety of KirkpatrickFIeeming. By diis inftitntion, it it intended, in the 
day* of health and profpevity, to make provtfion for old age, fickneis, and 
kfirmitj. Societies «f this kind ranft have confiderable influence i\pun the 
profperity and faappinefs of a country, and coniequently n^rit every 
anention and fupport. By combining the interefts of individuals they 
have a tendency to ftrengthen the focial principle, and enlarge the oipcle 
ef ifiendibip ; while, by the provifion which is thus made for indigence 
aid poverty, man is prevented fiom becoming burdenfome to man. 
His wants are fupplied without hurting the delicacy of nature, or check-* 
ing that decent pride and independence of mind, which animate mankind 
to bear with fortitode the hardihips of the moft difficult and try- 
Ibi toetionSr and with patience to ftruggle againft the turbulence and 
iapetuofi^ of thoie evils, with which human life, in .every iituation, a- 
boands. With pleafure the humble labourer, and ulefuJ artifan, may 
reflet that while he is thus making provifion /or himfelf againit the evil 
day, which may foon overtake him, the well-earned fruits of his prefeitt 
lahows^ now contribute to feothe the calamities, and foften the miferiea 
€d thoie ifOimd him- Tb« plan upon which tiie Society proceeds, is 
this :' Every member, upon adouflion, pays as. 6 d. and while he coo* 
tioues a member, is. 6 d. quarterly, which are added to the ftock. The 
money thus coUe^ed is, according to certain Hated and fixed regnlatioAs, 
dtftrftuted by the ilewaids to Inch members as are found proper obje^ 
of reiiel^ The ikewards are clefUd yearly, and re^nfibie for their mv 
tMyement dttfxng their coDtinoaace in office. 

268 Statijlical Accfmnt 

has alfo marble been found upon the fame eftate, wliidtt 
though only polilhed 2n {^krt, had a very beautiM and 
variegated appearance. There b fome appearance of coal 
in this parifii, and though hitherto without iucce&y repeat- 
edly attempts have been made to difcover it. But whe* 
ther really no coal doth here exift, or the efforts hither- 
to made, have been too feeble to be fucceisful, remains 
for fome more eiFedual attempts to difcover. 

The parifli abounds with freeilone, very diffi*rent both 
in quality and colour ; in that part of the pariib called 
Kirkconnell, the freeftone is of a grey colour, porous, 
but hard and durable ; in Kirkpatrick, and efpecially up- 
on the banks of Kirtle, the freeftone is of a dark red co- 
lour, and in many places fo hard and fine in the grain, as 
to/plit into boards 3 quarters of an inch in thicknefs, which 
are ufed as a flate for covering houfes. But the principal 
freeftone here is found upon the eftate of Cove ; it is 
nearly of a white colour, admits of a fine polifb, and is 
very durable. It is applied in all the neighbouring pa- 
riihes, for flagging houfes, for ftairs, pillars, tomb-ftones, 
lie. for many years paft ; at an average, not lefs than 
1^5 tons of it drefled into flags, have been ihipped for 
Ireland, and 60 tons have been confumed in the country 
annually. Blocks of ftone have been raifed in this quarry, 
which meafured 34 cubic feet, and confiderably above two 
tons in weight. The quarry was rented at L. 1 1 a-year, 
but is now out of leafe. — The fuel chiefly ufed by the he- 
ritors who refide in this parifli is coal, which is generally 
carricd from the Duke of Buccleugh's collieries, in the 
pariih of Cannobie. Owing to the fcarcity there at times, 
oh account of the increafing demand of late years, and 
miferable management which for fome years thefe collie- 
ries have been under, many are obliged to carry their coal 
from Tindall Fell in Cumberlandi though an inferior coal, 


of KirkpatrickSleeming. 269 

and nearly twice the diftance. From the fpirited efforts, 
however, which are now making for the better manage- 
ment of thefe ^orks, there is everj rqafon to ezpeft, that, 
in future, the country will be better ftipplie'd. Peats, with 
which this pariih is remarkably well fupplied, form the 
chief fiiel of thofe of inferior rank. They will, however, 
be leis ufed, and their value confequently decline, as coal 
becomes more plentiful, and is more eafily obtained ; this 
bitter being efteemed not only a preferable, but upon the 
whole, a cheaper fuel. 

Springs. — This pariih is not only remarkably well wa- 
tered by bums and rivulets, but alfo by a number of pure 
fprings <^ the fined qualities. In particular, there is a 
very remarkable one, about a quarter of a mile from the 
manfion-houfe of Springkell, which Mr Pennant in 1772 
faid was the largeft fpring he had ever feen, excepting the 
&mous fpring at Holywell in Flintihire. Of itfelf, with- 
out any additional fupply, it moves the mill of Kirkcon- 
Dell. There are four mineral fprings in this pariih, of 
which three are nearly of the fame nature and qualities, 
differing only in power *• 


* AUhoaKh not hitherto geneitlly known, they have» from time im- 
memorial, been frequented by the nrighbourfaood, and juftly celebrated 
fer their medicinal virtues. The firft is in the purifli of Kirkconnell, and 
diftingalflied by the name of the Branteth Well. It is a ftrong fulphureous 
water, and which is moft remarkable, is (ituated in a mofs of very confi- 
derable extent, and which as the well is many yards deep, which can- 
not fiail much to diminiOi the ftrength of its fulphureous quality, parti- 
cviariy in wet feafons. Notwithftanding the difadvantage of Situation, 
it is foood in a dry feafon, or in a very hard froft, to be ftronger than 
MoflFat welL A cbymical analyfls was fome years ago made of it by a 
medical gentUnan ; the refult of whofe eiperifflents tended to confirm, 


a7o Statical Account 

BtriiorSf fJc.-^Th»rt are 14 berkot% 7 m( whom r«- 
fide. The manfian-hoafe ef SprbgkeU flaadt in the pa* 
rifli of KirkcoDiieU, and is ficuacad about aoo or 300 jards 
to the eaftward of the place where the old manfioa-howfe 
and town <tf Kirkconnell ftood* It waa traded in 17349 
and b a' genteel and well esKcnted boiJduig. There are in 
the neighbourhood of Springkell, woods and plantations 
of coiifiderable extent, aU in a very thriving condidoa, 


that it poifefles s larger quantity of fulphur than the fulpfaureoai fprlng at 
jVloffat. Some of the ingredients, contained in the Moffat water, were 
indeed found to exift in fmaller quantities in this ; bat thefe he coofider- 
ed rather injurious to the health of tht patiant. Its fmeU is highly fislpSu- 
rtous, and is by the people in the neigbboorheod compared to that of rotten 
eggs, or the wa(htngi of albul gun. It is ufed with great fuccefs in fcro- 
fulous and t'corbutic cafes ; and frequently, as a wvi*h, in healing ulcerous 
and (^itaneuus eruptions. It is tight and diuretic, and fo remarlrably vo- 
latile, that ir ean ictrccly be preferved in perfeAion over one night, it i> 
drunk in the higheft perfeAion at the fououin, about fun*rifing, or in the 
duik of the evening. The other three mineral brings arc all of the cha- 
lybeate kind, and differ not confiderably frum each other, with refpe^ to 
the qualities of their waters. Of thefe, one known by the name of the 
Highmoor-well. doubtlefs poflefling lefs of the chalybeate quality, aiid 
which Hkcwife appears to be impregnated with a (iibftmAce which the 
others do not pofliefs, hath been fuccefsfuUy ufed for creating appetite, 
and promoting digeftion, for bilious and other complaints of the fto- 
math. It is fituated in the vicinity of a large body of limeflone ; but 
whether it is affe<^ed in any degree by that foflSl, remaini yet to be aT* 
ceruined. The fecond of this kind, diiliogulffked by the Mme of Ch«t^ 
ley's well, upon the farm of Gonkhail ; and the third, by thtt of Wyibic 
well, are purely of the fame nature and qualities, and faid to pofle& all 
the power and medicinal virtues of the celebrated Hartwell Spaw at 
Moffat. Of tliefe, the two fir(t are in tt^c parifh of Kirkoonnell ; the lat- 
ter is in Klrkpatnck, upon the eftate of Wyftiie. The ftones about dse 
edges of the Wylbie well are completely coated with an ochre or 
iron ore. Reconrfe is had to it in ftomachic complaiati asd debi. 
lilies. A few years ago, in the time of a great drought, a lamer, whofe 
cattle were feized with the red water, drove them to this wt\\ by the 
ufc of which they were all cured. 

of Kirkpatrkk-Fleeming. 2y t 

wkkh have been moftly planted £ac^ the year K762, by 
tke pireient proprietor, who hath alio made feveml other 
oonfiderable improvemeacs. The mfinfion-boufes of nioft. 
of the other refiding hexitors hare been built within thele 
33 years, are well executed, and in evory refped propor- 
tioned to their refpeftive eilates and fortunes. There are 
6 gardens in this parifli, which, according to their ftyle 
ind cultivatioo^ yield i^pples, pears, cherries, plumbs, and 
tbe {aialler garden<fruits in abundance. A hot*houfe was 
fome years %go ereded, which hath fucceeded remarkably 
well. Of the money fpent in the pari(h, the idea is taken 
&om the rental of refiding heritors. 

The prices of bbour and provifions are nearly the fiime 
as in the neighbouring pariihes of Domock and Grretna. 

jijtiiquUM.'-^As may be expe£ied from its fitaatien, 
thb parifli flill exhibits marks of having, in former times, 
frequently been the fcene of a£lion. Of this kind, an ac- 
tion happened in this parifli, in the family of the Fleem- 
ings. which on account of the bravery and courage dif* 
played by this determined and refoiute band, may juftly 
be compared with tlie mod illuftrious aftions of antiquity. 
Tbe family of the Fleemings, who feem to have been more 
diftinguiflied for their gallant defe^nce of their native con* 
fine, and nobly repelling a foreign foe, than that depreda- 
tory manner of life, which in thefe times was ftyled the 
fpirtt and joy of the borders, in the 13th and beginning of 
the X4th centuries, poiTeflTed certain lands in tliis parifli, 
hy ^e tenure of defending them at all times againft the 
Engliib. Their chief feat and cattle was at Redhall. This 
tower, towards the conclufion of Baliol's reign, ip one of £d« 
ward's incurfions into Scotland, was attacked by an Eag'^ 
iifli anny» againft wh^ch it held out three days, thoagh oc« 


t&7 2 Statijlkal Account 

copied only bj 30 of thefe brave FleemingSf who defend^ 
ed it to the laft extremity, and who rather than furvive 
its defiinj, or live to fee their habitation in the hands of 
the Englifh, chofe all to expire in the flames *. 


• No vetli^c of thi5 tower now remains, only the place where it for- 
merly ftood is pointed out. It was entirely demoliihed in the beginning 
o£ the prefcnt ceptury. Two other towers. «t a moderate dilUnce, and 
both within view, are iaid mcewife to have belonged to thr Fleemings. 
Of thefe, the one at Holmhead, in this parifli^ was only dem6Ufbcd a* 
bout 30 years ago. llie other at Stonchoufe, Earl Mansfield's property, 
is partly flanding ; and though at prefeot comprehended within fhe li* 
miti of Gretna pariih ; yet, from its ftanding dire^ly upon the border, 
there is the greateft reafon to think, that it like wife, in ancient tiiue%» 
formed a part of the pariih of Kirkpatrick-Fleeming Upon an eminence, 
about the didance of three quarten of a mile eaftward of Redhall, tJiere 
a the veftigc of an old camp or fortification. Some are of opinion, that 
this was formerly a Roman camp ; but this opinion is contradi^ed, bodi 
by the form of the camp and manner ofit^foitific<ition. Indeed, it uied 
by the Romans at all. it muft have been only as their liiiiplc caftra, and 
arefting place for refreihing the troops, upon their march between the 
ftations of. Nctherbie and Vliddlebic. It is moft probable, that thi^ was 
the camp occupied by the Engliih army, which attacked ' tlie tuwer of 
Redhall. Upon an eminence to the weilward, and nearly at the fame Jif- 
tance from Holrahead, there is the veftige of another cauip, dou!itlefs of 
the fame kind as the former. There are feveral tumuli in tliis parifli, a« 
kng the fouth bank of the river, which there is every reafoo to believe are 
Britilh. and which appear to be of the fepulchral kind. The name, indeed, 
of one, feems to favour a conjedlure of iis having been, in ancient times, 
•confecrated to the purpofcs of religion. This, which is alfo diftineiuLhcd 
above moft of the others, on account of its fue, is called Beltomnont. 
which name it appears to have deri\ed, from iu having been the mount 
or altar upon which the Druids woribipped, and offered their facrifices 
at this fcafon of the year. Several years ago, a conliderable part ot this 
cairn or mount was removed ; and in its bottom, within a large fquare 
ftone cheft, formed of 6 fla^Sj.werc found foine Druidical beads. It 
doobtleft has been the fepulchre of a Druid of rank, wliich, on account 
of his refpc<\ability, was afterward confecratcd to a religious purpofe- 
3 ^ A 

i^f KirkpatrickrTleming. 273 

Abovitjo 79Vsi^o» ivhen » perfgh was cafling pe^ 
' in a n»9l^ bdoi^g tQ Mr Irving of Coves, he found a 


A little to tke (Mi» itoe are tw««^ tqamli of coniadenbU iite, and 
inoft protiably of the toie nature. About a mile |o the N. W. there are 
fieveral. 2 of which were opened only about 2 jears igo. In the one, with- 
in a cheft of the (ame kind as that mentioned above, was found an urn 
of elegast workmanlhip. This urn was ftUed with aihes, ftandiog witk 
tibe mooth up, and corered with a ftonc. At a fmall dii|ance from the 
urn, and Vithin the cheil, were lik^wife difcovered feveral iron-rings, 
eich about the file of a half crown, but fo far destroyed by ruft, that on 
being t^nched, tibey fell into pieces. About three quirters of a mile 
to the wedward of this, there is the appearance of a Druidical temple ; 
and vpon the farm of Branteth. in the pariih of Kirkconnell» tliere is 
Ukewife the vefti^e of another Pruidical temple, or place of facri- 

There is upon, the eftate of Cove, an artificial cave or hou(c, wrought 
into a rock. Thb rock overhangs the river, above the bed of which it 
is ekvated nearly 30 feet, and is at prefent inacceffible. Its interior 
form is oval, the greater diameter of which is about 16 feet ; the lefler, 
9. From its floor to the roof^ is nearly 7 feet. The ancient fi ritini are 
£ftid to have ufed places of this kind as granaries or ftorehoufes. In later 
times, however, they were ufed as places of ftrength tuA fecurity. 

The old tower of Woodhoufe, though not inhabited for many years 
paft, is ftill Handing. This is reported to have been the firft houfc in 
Scotland to which Robert Brace came, when flying from ^ward Long- 
Ihanks. From thenqe, he carried one of the fons of this family, whom 
he ifterward made his fecretary ; -and who having attended him in all his 
troubles and prol^erity, to his death, was created a knight ; ind as a re** 
ward of his fidelity and fervices, was presented with the lands of the fo* 
reft of Drum. I1ie family, then in poflcffion of this tower, were Irvings{ 
and in a branch of the fame family, it £lill remains. 

A little to the northwA>d of this tower, itands the crofs of MerkUnd, 
It is an o^gon of folid ftone, elegantly drefled and cut. Its elevation 
above the focket upon which it ftands,' is ^ feet ; that of the focket, % 
feet 4 inches. Its form is conoidical ; the circumference, at the bafe, 
being 3 feet i inches, and at the neck i feet 2 inches. The head con* 
flfts of 4 flear-de4ls, tut out of the foUd ftone, fo u to form t fquare, 


Vol. XUt. M lo 

274 Statifiical dccduftC 

piece of goldj about i8 inches onder ground. It^ 
vetj foft and pliable, and about L. ii in value ; on one enA 
of it« was plain! J feen the word Helenns, in raifed Roman 
capitals, evidently cffefted by a ftamp ; and on the other 
end, in pricked* or dotedcharadersy'die letters M. B. Sooie 
have pronounced it an ornament for the wrift, others a 
fibula for faftening a garment, k was given to the late 
Mr Irving of Bonihaw *» 

etch fidt of which is 2 feet llie time mnd occtfibn of its eiedioa 
is uncertain. The following is the mod probable. 

In 1483, the Duke of Albany, and Earl of Douglas, who for fome 
time had been exiles in England, wiihtng to learn the difpofitions of 
their countrymen towards thetai, made an incurfion into their native 
country. Went to Lochmaben, and' plundered' the market there. In the 
mean time, a Mailer of Maxwell, fon of Baton Maxwell of Caerlarerot:', 
upon whom the wardenihip of the borden had' devolved, in contequence 
of his father's imprifonment in England, receiving intelligence of this 
affair, aflembled his friends ai)d*^dcpendents xx^ repet and chaftiie tfie in- 
folence of thefe rebels. He came up with them at Bumiwork, wheri^ the 
motion commenced, and was Ibnght to Kirkoonnell^ when Donglas waa 
taken priibnei^ and^the DuJre of Albany made his efcape. Having now 
recovered the booty, and obtained a complete viAory, he wu purfuiog- 
the broken remains of the hoftile army ; and being wearied'wtth the fa- 
tigues of the engagement, and the wounds which he is faid to have re«- 
eeived in battle, was fupportthg himfelf with his fpear, lifting by its 
handle upon the crutch of his iaddle, when one Gals, from the parilh 
of Commectrees, who had fought under him in the engagement, cominr 
up, thruft him through, on account of a fentence, which he, as mafter 
warden of the marches, had palTed upon a coafin of Gals. This crofs is 
fftid to have been ere^ed upon the fpot where Maxwell fell, and the cx». 
ecrable deed was committixl, to perpetuate the remembrance thereof t» 

* In thebttrial-gioottd of KirkconneU, are. ftiU. to be feen the tomb- 
Hones oi Fair Helen, and her favourite lover Adam Fleeming. She was 
a daughter of the family of Rirkconnell, and fell a viaim to the jealoufj 
•f* lover. Being courted by two young gentlemen at the fame time. 

iff Kirkpatrick-Fleeming. 275 

4Im oot of wbom thmkiBg himfelf flighted, Towed to facrifice the other 
to his fdcntment when he agun difcovertd hioi in her company. An op- 
l^ortunitj ibon prefented itfelf, when tb*e faithful pair, fvalking along the 
romantic banks of the Kirtle, were difcovered from the oppofite banks by 
the allalfin. Helen perceiving him lurking among the bulhes, and dreading 
■^ fitfal nfohition, rnihed to her Rover's bofoqi* to refcae him irom the 
danger; and thos receiving the wouqd intended for anothei;, funk and 
expired in her favourite's arms. He immediiaelj revenged her death, 
and flew die murderer. The inconfolable Adam Fleeming, now finking 
«ndcr die preflare of grief, went abroad and ferved under the banners of 
Spain, againft the infidels. The imprelBon, however^ was too ftrong to 
he obliteratod« The image of woe attended bim Ihithcr ; Md the piec- 
ing remembnuice of the tender fcenes that wtie paft, with the m^lan- 
^oly reflexion, that they could never return, harafied his foul, and de- 
prived hit mind of repofe. He foon returned, ind ftretching himfelf on 
her grave, expiicd, and wu buried by her fide. Upon the tomb-ftone are 
engraven a fword and cxofi, with '* Hie jacet Adam Fleeming.*' The 
memory of thii is only prefervedln an old Scots ballad, which relates the 
tngicaJ event, and which is faid to haVe been written by Adam Fleeming, 
when in Spain. As die piece is little known, and tfiTords a pretty good fpe- 
caatax of the vulgar dialed fpoken at prefent in this country, which muft 
Jiave undergone little variation for upwards of 2oo years, it is Cent for 

A ^rqgical Old Scots Sang. 

My fwseteft fweet. and ftircft hu, « 

Of birth an woitfa beyond compan;. 
Thou art the caufer of my cair. 
Since firft I loved thee c 

Tet God hath given to me a mind, 
The which to thee fhall prove as kinit 
4b any one that thou wilt find^ 
Of high Of low de|Tee. 


2^6 StatjflicaJ Accout^ 

yet neverthelefi I am content. 
And ne*er a wKit my love recent ; 
But think niy time it wu well fpent. 
Though I ^iftlalned be. 

The ftiallVft vftttx oitkes mtift din, 
The deepeft p6o! the detdell lin, 
JTbe fichift man leift tt^th withii), 
thdugh he disdained be. 

Q Helen faif » wttlioQt conipafCi 
rn wear a giriand cf tht hair, 
$hall cover tte for evtr ttiatr, 
Until t)ft dxf I die. 

P Helen Avfet, and maift cooaplete. 
My captive (pint's at thy feet* 
Tlunk*il thou ftill fit thus for to treat, 
ITjy prif *ner with croelty. 

6 Helen brave ! thii flill I crave. 
On thy poor (lave fome pity have, 
And do h*m fave, that's near his grave. 
And dies for love of the«. 

Curft be the hand that fliot the Oot, 
iLikewife the gun that gave the erackt 
Into my arms bird Helen lap. 
And died for love of me. 

Q think na* ye my heart was fair, 
My love fank down, and fpak na mair, 
There did (he fw^on wi* meikle cair, 
On fair KirkconncU lee. ' 

I lighted down, my fword did draw, 
I ctttted him in pieces fma% 
J cutted him in pieces fina*. 
On fair Kirkconnell lee. 

O Helen chafte ! thou wert raodek. 
Were | with thee I would be bleft^ 
Where thon ly'ft low, and tak*ft thy reft 
Oo fair Kirkconnell lee. 

of Kirkpdtfich^flMm^. ^77 

f wifli I were where I baVe bceny 
£fflbrsctDg of my lov^ Helen, 
At VenDs!s games wf Ve be<yi right kaf^ 
On lair KirkconneU lee. 

I wifh my grave were growing green, 
A wndiag QMet p»t q'at my een. 
And I in Helen's 'arms lying. 
On fiur Rirkconnelfi^i' 

I wifli I were where Helen lies, 
IfHicre night and day (he on me cries ^ 
t tnfb I were wtere Hckh Ufei, 
On fair KirkconneU lee. 


^ Stfi^/HcalAceawa 



(CouKTT or Orkxtet^ Prebbttut or Shetlaho.) 
fy th4 Rev. Mr James Gordok* 

' ' " ■ — V t --^ 

S^MUUioUf Namit Extent ^ Soilt Ifc. 

THE parifli of Tell and Fetlar is one of the mod nor^ 
therlj in Shetland. It lies in latitude 6i^ so', and 
ys bounded on the N. E. by the ifland of Unft, which is 
a leagues afunder from Fetlar ; on the S. hj the ifland of 
Whelfay, and the Main Land, which is about 6 leagues 
diflant from it ; on the E. of Fetlar is the Northern Ocean, 
and about two diflant on the W. of Fetlar is the other part 
of the minifter of Fetlar's charge, called North Yell parifli, 
which was ereded into one charge, oommonlj called the 
parifli of North Yell and Fetlar, in the year 1709. As to 
the name of Fetlar, it appears to be changed from that 
which it had when it belonge4 to the Danes ; for then, as 


6/ Nmb Tell and Fetiar. iyp 

the oldeft records in Norway (how, it was called Fmdar Oi, 
Oie meaning of whidi in the Daniih language fignifies, the 
* Green Ifland ;" and from another word or name of a 
place on the eafimoft angle of the ifland, called Fmm%it, 
which fignifies the place firft found out i fb that, Fadar oi 
Fmmzut fignifies the place firft diicovered in the country *. 


^ Jtlas been • matter ofdifpnte who were the firil inhabitants of this 
coaotry. It is the general opinion that it was firft inhabited by the Nor- 
wegians; the writer is of a different fentiment, and believes that the 
fftds were the firft inhabitants. His reafons for diflenting from the gene- 
ral opinion are as follow :— -ift, We have no account in ancient hiftoiy, 
that the Danes were in pofleifion of this country prior to the year 850. 
In fittd year, Kenneth II. gave the Pidts fuch a total defeat, that they 
never by themielvts adventured to engage with the Scots in battle ther»- 
after ; bat were compelled to fly to the northward, as is recorded by Bede 
and Booetins, and ancient hifterians. ad. The frith that feparates Caith* 
Bcfi ftom Orkney, it called the Finland Frith, from a number of the Fids 
beifig drowned in their pafiiige over to Orkney, in order that they might 
efcipe from the fury of the Caledonians, who had expelled them out of 
die fertile plains of Caithneis and Sutherland, at the fame time that Ken- 
neth had totarlly overthrown them to the fouthward. As the number of the 
PSAs that landed upon Orkney could not be accommodated in that cous- 
try, (for it b plain from Tacitus that it had been inhabited by the Saions, 
from whom the Pi6b originally derived their origin at leail 1000 years 
before)* they fet (ail 4/r movo for the next fpot of land which was m 
tbeir view» which could be no other but the ifland of Fula ; but upoo 
their near approach to Fula, they were in the greateft pain in natuse 
what Goorfe to take. Some of them obferved the appearance of a great 
tkickneis or mift, lying diredly to the N. £, of Fula, and accordingly 
fleered their conife to the fpot where the thickeft of the £Bg appeared^ 
and then, to their very great joy, they efpicd the top of Fitfield Head, 
upon which die one that firft efpied it. cried with great raptures, Zetland^ 
i. $. there is yet land, fo we fliall all of us be iafe. Hence the name of 
Shetland took iu origin, it being very ordinary with the Saxons to u(e Z 
hiftead of Y in their language. And here it may be necefiQuy finally to 
fctttle a qucflion that has long been matter of difpute among the learned 
aoent the fituation of Thule. It is plain from Tacitus, that the Komaa 
fleet con^oexed Oilioey, and made their king, Belus, pay them tribute, in 
the iiae manner as the ceft of their provinces did : This happened in the 


28o SiaH/iical JccomA 

The ptrifh of l^etlar is 4 mila long, tad 3^ in hretdth; 
North Tell is 8 miks ia length, and 6 in hmdtlu The 
fml IB ▼arioiis ; in the pariih of North Yell the groond is a 
deep bhek morals, full of fermgbdus ^bgs. The iflnnd 


iift ccntorj; but the Romaiis would not attempt fahher, hf reafon of 
the botfteroos Teas and rapid tidet ; another rcafon was according to Ta- 
cttua. in Vita AgricoU^ beoade, defpttia tft tt l^U^ pmm bMOemmT nix 
et biems Siebal : Mare qu9qme pigrmm et grave ftrntgaatibui, ferhi. 
bent. The place feen by the Romaiis cosld be no odnr dnn (he iilMid 
Fttla, which probably then waa called Thnlc, thoagh it aoar hat got the 
iMune of Fola ; for it is a certain h£tt that throoghmst the whole of Slict« 
land, the faow frequently covers the top of the hills, when there h aooe 
to be met with on the plains; and the fpace was too fiir for them to dif. 
ccm the tops either of Fttfield Head, or Saunbuigh Head. The FsAs, 
upon their landing in Shetland, let to wofkt *nd ereAed a naaiher of 
fmall caltles, called afoerwaxds Brought, upon which they placed large 
fires, to give warning of an approaching enemy, and fo anfoUy were thufe 
iighuhoufes contrived, being every one placed in the Tiew of another, Co 
that the whole Lordihip of Shetland oould have been appriied of their 
danger in lets than an hour's waning. But thi»ftratagem ibmetimes vras 
the caufe of their deftruAion, as Torfeus in his Hillory of Norway ac- 
quaints us. The Pi^ having fecnred themfiilves in the beft manner 
they could, in the iflands of Shetland, which then were uninhabited, they 
lent over fome of the principal men to the Court of Norway, to folicit 
aid againft the Caledonians, that they might fegain the deUcious fields of 
Caithnefs and Sutherland, from which they had been fo Utely expelled ; 
«nd their fequeft was readily complied with by the warlike Harold, who 
vkrarjily efpoufed the caufe of the exiles; and accordingly, a powerful 
Heet was put to fee without delay, and they landed at a place in this ifland 
called Fiinxie, as above ohferved; but as Harold could ntyt procure ancho- 
rage for his ileet, he failed a little to die N E. to a bay on the neighbouring 
lilind of Unft, which fttll retains his name to this day, being called Ha- 
rold*s Week ; and it is handed down by tradition from one genenttion to 
another, that this was the wty that it acquired its name. Harold con- 
tinued at anchor with his flf et till be had college d all the PiAs in Shet- 
land, capable of bearing arms, and then he fet fail for the coaib of Caith. 
'fiefs and Satherland. Of both thcfe coantles he made a very eafy con* 
qued, and they became tributary to the' Kings of Norway until the end cit 


of North Ten oHd Fitlar. 281 

of Fetlar is of a better quality, and coafifis moftly of a rich 
black loam, and {bme fand \ which produces barlej, oat% 
and kitchen roots. On this ifland, Poliib, Blindilej, and 
early barl^, have been tried, and they grow fully as luxa* 
riant as in their native fail| and equally as large in the 
gram, but ihey rarely ripen to perfedion, and unleis cut 
down the moment when they acquire any kind of ripene&f 
are liable to be ihaken by the equino£tial ftormsi and 
when we do fave them, the hulks are fo thick, that we find 
onr own oats produce more meal than any foreign grata 
whatibever ; and they ripen fully as early. Our turnip^ 
cabbage, radiih, and crefles feeds, grow better than any we 
import. The quantity of arable ground is but fmall, in 
comparifon of the ground ufed for paflure, and is divided 
into what is here called merks. In the ifland of Fetlar 
there are nigh 800 merk-lands ; and in North Yell there are 
636 merks ; there is no determinate quantity of ground 
aiiigned each merk-Iand. In the ifland of Fetlar there 
may be one half acre to each merk-'land ; but in North 
Yell parifh there is not above one-fourth of an acre, com- 
puted to each merk-land in faid pariih, every merk ia 
rented at 7 s. 6 d. the merk \ but in the ifland of Fetlar 
only at 5 s. the merk, all chai^ included. 


tbe Tith oentary, it which petiod Willisdi King of Scuts overthrew the 
Earl of Caithnefs in a great battle, and tbe countries were aanezed to 
the crown of Scotland for ever ifter. This was the firft time that we 
rea^l of any Danes or Norwrgtaos being in Shetland. The poor Pidls, 
being fniftrited in their ctpeAation of their gaining their beloved country, 
were reduced to the difagreeable neceffity of returning to Orkney and 
Shetland again ; and along with them a number of Danifli adventurera 
took up their abode with the PidVs, and made intermarriages with them ; 
after which the inhabitants of Orkney and Shetland were called Danes 
down to the days of James the VI. who married the maid of Norway for 
her dowry, and both countries were finally confirmed to the kingdom of 
Scotland in perpetuum, 

Vot. XIII. N n 

2 82 Statiftical Account 

Climati.r-^Tht climate of this country in general is very- 
damp; we have no great fnows in winter, but a raft qnan^ 
tity of rain, and what is here called fleet, i. e, wet fnow. 
Neither are our frofts fo fevere as in England. In the 
year 17449 the Thames freezed to 1 7-} inches duck, and 
iee here at that time did not exceed 9 inches. Before traf- 
fick and commerce were introduced, this remote comer was 
the moft healthy fpot in the kingdom. There was one 
man that reached his 140th j^ear ; he married in his loodth, 
and in the year that he died, pulled afliore alone in hb 
fmallikiffin very fevere weather; and within thefe 20 
years thtre died a man in North Tell parifli, aged 120 ; 
at prefcnt there is one man in Fetlar, aged 93, suid fome 
few more above 90. But thefe are rara aves, Traffick. 
produces riches, and riches luxury, and luxury difeafes ; 
and maladies of every kind prevail here perhaps with 
more violence than any where upon the Continent. But 
within thefe 20 years by-paft, tlie great Giver of every 
good and perfe£l gift to mankind, has been pleafed to vouch- 
fafe this poor land one of the moft merciful difcoveries ever 
beftowed upon finful mortals, (the fending of a Saviour ez« 
eepted), I mean inoculation, which is here pradifed with 
very great fuccefs. Befides the fmallpox, fevers of divers 
kinds prevail amongft us, particularly intermittents, which, 
though long kept under by the ufe of the bark, rarely fail 
to land either in dropfies or confumptions. The leprofy 
rarely makes its appearance in this miniftry ; for thefe 200 
years by pad, there has been only one fet apart *• 


• The difcafed pcrfon w»s firft totally removed at %ht expcnfe of the 
parifli ; but afterward returning to his former mode of living, and not 
fxv^Xj adhering to the regimen prcfcribed him by his pbyficiao, his dif- 


of North Tell and Fetlar. 283 

RivirSf Minerals^ JVoods^ Animals^ l^c. — -Wc have no 
rivers here, nor is it poffible in nature that there can be 
any upon this ifland, nor indeed in the country ; tve have 
fome burns in the head of our many bays, into which the 
ialmon trout enter about the 29th of September, in their 
going up to our loughs, where they depoiit their fperma 
during the winter ; fome of them are exceedingly l^rge, 
and weigh no lefs than I5 lb. a-piece ; if they are caught 
in the month of July, are nothing inferior to the richeft 
Ialmon caught in the kingdom. We have oiany mineral 
fprings, which, from their appearance at the top of the fur« 
&ce of the water; difplay certain vefiiged of a great quantity 
of iron ore depofited at the bottom. A little below tht 
manfe of Fetlar there i^ a pretty large loch, where there is 
a kind of black fand thrown up by the N. W. wind on the 
oppofite Ihore. How fand of fuch a quality comes there 
(there bein^ no iron-ftone in its vicinity) was for a long 
time a myftery to the writer, till of late he, by accident, 
found upon the declivity of a rifidg ground, about 3-4ths 
of a mile difiant from the loch, a confiderable quantity of 
what is called bog-iron, richer and more ponderous thaii 
any he has feen at Carron, or in any other part of the 
kingdom ; he fuppofed that the winter heavy rains walh 


cafe i tLuft e A upon him, tnd we were redaced to the difagreeable necef- 
fity of retting him ipart» where he very foon died. The rheumatifm 
preraiU here to a confiderable degree, as might be ezpedted from the 
humidity of the climate, but not to fo fcvere a pitch as mij^ht be looked 
for. The dropfy alfo is Very prevalent hete, but it is fixquently relieved 
by ufing fconry-grafs both externally and internally, (urhlch th^* Atthor 
of Nature hu liberally beftowed upon us), as alfo by frequent cupping in 
the legs. The free ufe of bnttrr-miik it a very powerful remedy ; the 
writer is in no ftrait to prove, that he was fo fortunate as to put a ftop to 
an anararra (that was far advanced before he was applied to) for four 
years^olely by the afc of this prefcriptioo* 

284 Statijlkal Account 

down fmall particles of iron into the locht and tb«l the 
N. W. wind lands them upon the .oppofite S. £. ihore ; 
out of one pound we can extraft bj the magnet i of black- 
iron particles, nothing inferior to that which is imported to 
us from Hungary. Woods we have none in this country^ 
and it is the opinion of the writer, that there never were 
any. He has been at confiderable pains to invefligate the 
mode in which the feveral trees found here made their ap- 
pearance, but could never find one root in an horizontal 
dire£Hon, as the roots of trees are placed in other parts of 
the kingdom where wood has grown ; all were depofited 
in the earth, lying fideways in fwamps, and sfpear to 
have been conveyed thither (however diftant the period) by 
water. He is more confirmed in this opinion, when he 
confiders that no wood will thrive here above the gardea 
walls. To this may be added, that hazzle, monntain^aih, 
and elder (hrubs, are found in the mouotams, ibme miles 
from all fea, but they never grow above 8 or 9 inches bight 
and not a inches thick; which can be attributed to no other 
caufe, but that the air from one fide of the country to thfe 
other, is fo impregnated with faltifh particles^ as to fiop 
vegetation in a great meafure, unlels (as laid above) where 
there is a Ihelter. There are alfo found in the ifland fome 
veins of copper-ore, and we have great reafon to believe, 
that there is black lead, but our fmall finances prevent us 
from working them. There is alfo found here the ia^i§ 
ajbefiiuut of the fiJamencous kind, and fome few garnets* 
and a huge quantity of fullers earth, and pieces of rock* 
cryftal, alfo fome limeflone very poor in quality, one fmall 
vein excepted ♦. 


* We hare no utlficUl cav«s here. We hava feveral migratory birds ^ 
tLe fwans come licrc oq their paflkgc to a very northerly dioMrte 'm the 


©/• North TeU and Fetlar. 285 

fcpvkUion^ 6*^.-^ According to Dr Webfter's report, the 
number of fouls in 1755 was 1098. The population here 
cootinued from the jear 1709 till 1769 without increafe 
or decreafe; but £nce inoculation took place, we have 
increafed confiderablj, vi%* from 900 to 1300 and upwards, 
as the ftatement below will ihow. The births are about 
30, the deaths (fince 1769) are 15 a-ycar at an average, 
and the marriages 6. ImNorth Yell and Fetlar there were 
aliye January i. 17939 1346; of whom there were in 

Men unmarried^ - - • 45 

Women unmarried, - - - So 

Widowers, - - - - 17 

Widows, - - - - 26 

Souls in non-age, children, Mc, and married 
perfotts, - - -> • 618 


k of March, and return igsin in September ; the lipwing, black- 
bird, and cuckoo, are freqi««utly feen here, and a very large kind of hawk 
oeiUe) here every fummer; a young one was kept only for three months, 
jet flDeaiixred 43 inches from the tip of one wing to the tip of the other ; 
the biid has kept the fame precipice for perhaps this century bypaft. We 
hare no horfeshere in this miniftry, but we have plenty of ponies, which 
we keep at no charge, and ihey anfwer our purpofe in every point atich 
better thaa thoCe of a larger breed. The iheep here are greatly upon the 
decline ; we have no fiae wool in this ifland, but on the other part of the 
mir.ifter's charge, there wouM be (beep |in great abundance, did not theft 
prevail there, and in a g«eat many places of the country, to fuch a degree, 
Ihu it beggan defcription. Neither will this be woodsred at, if it \t 
taken into ceafidcjation, that there has not been one capital pimtflinient 
inflkled in this Lordihip (which cenfifts at lead of 24,000) for a century 
bypal^, fur any crime whatever; the punilhroents in ftid^ed fur this crime 
cf theft, ID particular, are fo extremely mild, that they rather excite to 
the coimniffion of the crime thin deter from it The price of wool is 
every daj increefing, which bean extremely bard upon the poor ; and 
aboTC a-5ds of onr peopJe are really fo« About 40 yean ago, our coarfe 
wool fold for 3 d. the merk, or 20 ounces ; the loweft price now for the 
worft ivool is 8 d. the mrrk, and our fineft wgol far exceeds the price of 
Speoifli wool. 

286 Stati/lical Account 

Under lo, 


Aged 60, 


Aged lo, 








— 30. 


90, . 




Upw. 90, 


JO, . 

, .54 

In North Yell, 

Men unmarried, 


« m 


Women ditto. 












Sobls in non-age. 

and children, C^c. and married 





Under 10, 


Aged 50, 


Aged xo. 


60, - 


— ao. 





• 94 

80, - 






In this miniftry there are above 40 heritors, who have 
among them about L. 5000 Scots of rent a-year. The 
higheft rent drawn by any of them does not exceed L. 100 
Sterling a-year, and (bme of the loweft do not draw to s. 
a-year. Our feed-time commences the firft of March, 
and ends by the firft of May. We pay no multures here, 
having no water-mills but fuch as are called quims, driven 
by water, on the fame conftrucUon as the mills ufed for- 
merly in the Highlands of Scotland. 

Poor^ Stipend^ Artifis, <Src.— Though the country is poor 
in general, yet we have no daily vagrants among us. 
Every pariih is divided into diflri£b ; when any perfon is 
in poverty, the (cffion, with concurrence of the heritors, 

.. appoint 

of North Tell and Fetlar. 287 

^ippoint them to a certain fpot in the pariih/ where thej 
are maintained ; the feffibn clothes them, and when they 
die, defiray the expenfe of their burial. The prefent in- 
cnmbent has a (tipend of L. 64. The kirks have been 
lately newly bnilt, and the manfe, though an old one, is 
in tolerable good repair ; it was bnilt 37 years ago by the 
prefent incumbent out of the vacant ftipend, and he ima- 
gines it will ferve all his lifetime, as he is now 66 years of 
age, 38 of which he has been minifier in this very fiitiguing 
charge. We have few regular bred artificers here ; the 
people ure all of a mechanical turn; we have 3 fmiths in 
this miniftry, and one carpenter; but the people in gene- 
ral, according to the Daniih mode, are their own artificers. 
They are in general very quick in comprehending any 
branch of literature, or mechanical employments which 
they apply to. But tl^eir great misfortune feems to be this, 
that they never will have the patience to apply fo long to 
any one employment as to become proficients in their pro- 
feiEon. I fpeak here of the commons ; for with refpe^l to < 
the gentlemen, it b believed there is no part in the king- 
dom, where genius is more difplayed, or who make greater 
progrefs in academical literature, and in the polite arts, 
which they apply to. The people in general are very 
bofpitable to ftrangers. We have here three gentlemen in 
the medical line, who are very eminent in their profefHon, 

MamtfaOuns and Tra^.-- Manufadhires we have none* 
We have tried the linen-manufadnre of late, but it did 
not facoee'd, for which many reafons may be afligned. ifi. 
The €ur fex here are fo accuftomed to roam about aniong 
|he rocks in their earlieft moments, (while they are pro- 
curing but for the fifliing), that they cannot apply with 
that diligence that the manufa£hiring bufineis requires, had 
they time to do it, as they really have not. ad^ Conflant 


a&& SuuiftkalJscouni 

fitliag brings on hjfleric difordera upon not a few pf them. 
3d, We find we C9^ purchafe linens cheaper than we can 
afford to make them. After the Dsmes took poifeilion of 
Shetland, which, as above obferved, they 'did between the 
8th and 9th centnrj« the (ettlers here were fupplied with 
all their necelfaries from the Kings of Norway, and there 
were (hips fitted out for the purpote, of a particular conftmc* 
tion, called Scu{ias^ w|io carried from Norway wood houfes, 
and other neceflaries for the new colonifh, and brought 
back witl) them again the King's rent, viz, cefii, fcau and 
wattle : for which there, was paid butter, and a kind of cloth 
called wadmall. This trade continued during all the time that 
this Lbrdfliip was fubjed to the Danes. At the end of the 
1 2th century the people in this Lordibip began to trade ta 
Norway on their own bottoms *, this trade continued till 
the time of Patrick Earl of Orkney, who, among the reft 
of his enormous crimes, robbed the Nifbets of Kirkabifcet- 
ter, heritors in this pariih, of the lad veiTels ufed in the 
trade. About this time the merchants in Bremen had the 
whole trade in this county, till fuch time as the gentlemen 
in the country found it convenient to take their filheries 
into their own hands, when Government thought proper to 
encourage thereto, by giving them fuch large debentures 
for the fifli exported. Within thefe 40 years trade has 
undergone the greateft change perhaps of any finall part ia 
the kingdom. At that period we had no trade with Eng- 
land, and our trade with Scotland and Hamburgh was very 
trifling. Now we have no lefs than 8 veflels, who trade 
to England, Leith, Holland, Hamburgh, and Bergen, ex> 
clufive of 5 or 6 flxips^ which we annually load for tlie 

Advantages and Di/advaniages.'^We have a tolerable 

good foil, confidering our latitude ^ in moil years this ifland 

2 can 

of Norib Tell and Fetlar. 289 

€vx fuppfy itfdl in gt^uo, were it all kept withia the 
place. Wool ' is fo ibarce here, that the poor people are 
neceflltated :to barker their graio with their neighbours in 
Tell, and in the end of the fiunmer their mailers mull 
fapplj them with meal for the fdpport of their &milies. 
One great advantage that we . enjoy is, that we have 
abundance of fiiel at a verj reafonable price. £ut on 
the otbe.r hand we labour nnder many hardibips. Our 
lanns are divided, into fuch fmall p arcels, that the peo- 
ple who cultivate thefe fmall fpots are a good many 
of them poor; and with the greatefi difficulty live upon 
their (mail farms the half of the year. Our crops are fee- 
ipiently bhfted w^ frofts and .mildews, and this has been 
the cafe for thefe feveral yesM» bypaft ; fo that we bend our 
thoughts more to improve our liberies than our crops, a& 
they are fo very precarious in this climate. But in this, 
whidi IB a. principal article of commerce, we labour under 
xonfiderabk clogs. The high duty that muft be paid for 
home fait, that we are under the neceffity of uiing, bears 
very heavy upon us ; but this hardflup has been fet forth 
by a much abler pen than the writer can pretend to, and 
theref^r^ he does not choofe to {ay more on that fubjed. 
To condode this narrative, the writer is forry to fay, that 
withia thefe few years a very pernicious and ruinous policy 
has taken place here. Our very prudent anceftors would 
not have let their lands to any one unleis his moral cha- 
rafler was good, , and he had a vifible fund to fupport him« 
felf and his family \ but now a contrary method of proce- 
dure is greedily adopted by fome of the heritors of this pa- 
rilh, for they let their lands to perfons of abandoned cha« 
raders, if they are only good fi(hers ; but this piece of poli-* 
cy is abfurd to the higheft degree. Every one knows that 
jwverty is the grcateft enemy in nature to honefty, and a 
Vol. XIII. O o parcel 

t AmiiUke probably iovMea/, 

apo StatiJHcal Account 

parcel of poor beggars will never make a rich mafter. 
The commons, on the other hand, are eqoallj inconfiflenr 
in their condnd, for formerly their elodiing was only foch 
as was manufadnred about their own hoofes, bnt now they 
mttft be habited like ^gentlemen, and many of them are 
more extravagant in the luxuries of life than the gentlemen 
formerly were in this country. Though their mafien af- 
ford them a higher price for their fifli, butter, and ofl, than 
was ever given in the land, yet it anfwers no end ; they are 
fo addified to drefs, fpiritous liquors and tea, that a confi- 
derable part of their gain is fpent in that way. They ftill 
retain a good deal of the difpofition of their anceftors the 
Danes ; they think themfelves the greateft flaves in nature, 
and that their maders take every thing from them for no- 
thingi vainly imagining, that they would be happier in nay 
place than in their own native foil* They accordingly enter 
on board the navy in crowds, where they are efteemed failors 
inferior to none in the kingdom. In one word, the writer^ 
after 40 years ftudy of the conftitution of this conntry, muft 
frankly own, he can fee no way of preventing the impend- 
ing ruin of the poor land in general, and of every hone(( 
man in particular, unlefs the gentlemen of the country, una 
voce, enlarge their farms in the firft place, and then let them 
to none, unlefs fuch as are of approved morals. Next, that 
rfiey put the laws of their country in execution againft 
fome few of the many culprits, that have infefted this 
country for a number of years bypaft. Laflly, it would 
contribute greatly to the profperity of the country in ge- 
neral, that the one half of the fuperfluities imponed an- 
nually were curtailed -, were this done, it would tend greatly 
to the advantage of the landholders, and flill more fo to 
^e people in general. Bnt fuch a happy change the 
y^rriter is afraid he never wDl fee. However, he has this 


of North Tell and Fetlar. 29 1 

to comfort him. that he has done all in his power to check 
vice and encourage virtue for a eonfiderable time bypaft ; 
bat fbrry he is to Iky, not with that fuccefi that he eameftly 
wiihed. having had the misfortune to have fuch a torrent 
tofiruggle againft. 'W'hat is related above may not be 
agreemble to every one in this bnd, efpecially to thoib 
whofe charaAers the writer has let in a proper light; but 
they are the words of tnith, and the fentiments of an ho- 
iieft maUi who bids defiance to any one, in a confiftency 
with truth, to ^prove one averment that has been related 
b the abovd narrative. 


29^ StcUiflical Aecountf 




(CouKTT or Inverness, Synod or Gi.£NXLG, Pkss* 


By the Bro. Mr George Mumro. 

Name^ Sittuaion^ E»tenit (^c. 

SOUTH UIST, or, as it b called South WIft by fome 
modem writerSi is a Danilh name, and the deriva- 
tion of it cannot be traced back with anj degree of cer^. 
taint J, hy anj of the prefent inhabitants, at this period 
of time. Perhaps it might originallj be called Uifta, 
or Wifta, as I am informed that there are fome places, 
both in Orkney and Shetland, called Unfta ; for the high* 
efi hiU^n the pariih,.is named I^eckla, and the largeft moan<^ 
tain in Iceland is Heckla, in the Norfe language. Thepa*^ 
riih is of an oblong figure, feparated from the parilh of 
North Uift, to the eaftward and northward, by an arm of 
the fea, which ebbs at low water. It is alfo feparated 
from the pariih of Barra, to the fouthward and weftward. 

of South tTxJI. ipj 

bj a channel or found, nearlj 8 or 9 miles broad, which 
never ebbs \ towards the W. and N. W. it is bounded bj 
the great Atlantic ocean, and to the eaftward and fouth* 
ward, it is feparated from the ifland of Sky bj a channel, 
perhaps 18 or 20 nules broad. The pariih is long, from 
N. £. to S. W. 30 computed miles, and its greateft 
breadth maj be edimated from 7 to 9 miles. 

5oi% Smfaciy ChtiM^^ iSc. — ^Towards the weft fide of 
the pariih, the foil is totally light, and perfeAly fandj, 
and the moft part of it rendered quite ufdeis, by the fe- 
verity of the conftant ftorms, that blow from the W. with 
the force of the fea, during the winter and fpring feafons ; 
further back, there is one continued chain of fwamp and 
lakes, abounding with the greateft variety of the fineft 
tronts ; and ftill to the eaftward, there are high and lofty 
mountains, covered with heath and verdure, fit enough 
&r pafturing black cattle, horfes, flieep, and goats, during 
the fumme^ and autumn months. The well known har- 
bours in the pariQi, worth mentioning, v/2. Lochikiport, 
Lochunort, and Lochboifdale, arq fo accurately and clearly 
hud down by Mr Murdoch Mackenzie, the furveyor, in 
his draughts of this coaft, that it is quite unneceflary to 
mention them here. As the foil to the weft fide of the 
pariih b for the moft part light and iandy, it of courfe 
muft be barren of itfelf, without the force of manure* 
There are delightful fields to be feen covered with the 
fineft natural grais in fummer; yet, in the winter feafon^ 
many of tbefe very fpots are covered over with drifted 
land in fuch a manner, that the leaft trace of verdure can- 
not be leen for many months. Were it not for the im« 
mentt quantity of floating fea-ware that is thrown a-ihore 
during the winter-ftorms, the inhabitants never could ma* 


^94 StatiJIkal Acctmni 

nure the ground, fo as to raife % crop that fignifiedy of any 
kind. Barlej, oats, rje, and potatoes, with filh, are the 
chief produdions for the fupport of the inhabitants of th e 
parilh. It ought to be obferved, alfo/that the produce of 
the country does not ferve the people for 9 months in the 
year, at an yearly average. 

From the great number of fwamps and lakes in the pa* 
rifli, the air o^ courfe mull be moift and damp. The 
inhabitants are often fubjeft, in open feafons^ to fever and 
rheumatifm ; notwithftanding, there are feveral inftances 
of long-lived people in the parlihy to die advanced age of 
90 years. 

ProduRtons* — The well known article of kelp is the fta- 
ple cothmodity of the pariflii of which 11 00 tons may be 
yearly manufafihired at an average ; and this quantity^ in 
a great meafure, depends on the drynels and ferenity of 
the feafouy for making fea-ware into kelp. Next to kelp, 
black cattle is the only article that brings any return to 
the pariih. There may be fold, at a moderate calculation, 
about 450, or even 480 head of cows and young ozeh year- 
ly, (hould the preceding fpring-feafon turn out favourable ; 
and in bad years, the number of cattle fold in the pariih 
will not amount to what is fpecified above. Confidering 
the great rifk, expenfe, and trouble that the buyers and 
dealers in black cattle are at, in coming to this remote 
ifland to buy them ; again, the di&idvantage of ferrying 
the cattle, purchafed in the pariih, to the contipent of 
Scotland \ it cannot be a matter of furprife, ihonld their 
price be low, which is nearly, at an average, L. 2, 10 s. 
a-head yearly ; and with refpefi to the price of kelp, 
which, for a great number of years, is confiderably fallen 
in its value, it ought to be obferved, in giving an account 


tf South Uift. :a95 

•f that once valaable commodity^ that its fudden low pricci 
is owing to the great importation of barilla and other fo« 
reign aflieSy at a (ow duty. 

Shgep* — The number of (beep in the parifli does not ex- 
ceed 7000. The (beep are, for ordinary, of the fmall 
Highland breed, their mutton fweet and delicious, and 
their wool of a very good quality, exceeding in finenefs 
the wool of any fheep imported to the parifh, from the 
main land of Scotland. There was an attempt made 
ibme years ago, by fome gentlemen, to import fome black- 
bced (beep ; but a diforder, well known by the name of 
braxy, got among them, and the crofs-breed flill die of 
that diforder, though not in fuch numbers as the low-country 
breed, originally imported. There are no (beep, to any 
valne, fold in the parifh, only a few to vefTels, who put 
ID to harbours by contrary winds ^ the inhabitants find ufe 
both for their wool and mutton, 

Hor/es.'-^Tht number of horfes in the parifli, at an a* 
verage, may be called 800 ; they are of a fmall breed, 
incredibly ftrong and hardy, confidering their fize. Tho 
great fatigue and toil they undergo, during winter and 
fpring« in leading fea-ware from the ihore to manure the 
ground for barley and potatoes ; add to this, the making 
of kelp in fummer, and their feeding on fandy foil, for the 
greateft part of the year, all this of courfe mud foon render 
them ufeleis. Rearing, and buying horfes in this pariih, is one 
of the greatefi difadvantages ; for without the labour of hor- 
fes, the kelp is unmanufa&ured in fummer, and the ground 
Qnmannred in winter. A young horfe or mare, fit for 
labouring, cannot now be purchafed below L. 5 Ster- 


^9^ StaU/ikal AtcmuU 

^Goats, Game, lie. — There are foms goats- in the ptfiflu 
that pafture the ,eaft fide, belonging to £dme gentlemen, 
but thej are few in number, and of no confe^uence ; there. 
18 fomc deer and rabbits, which are pre&rved by the pro- 
prietors. The panfb abounds in game of the aquatic 
fpecies, of every kind to be fcen in the Hebrides, namely, 
Avans, wild-geefe, lierons, cormorants, ducks, tealst, fo- 
Ion geefe, and curlews. Game, to be found in the moun- 
tains, are, moor or heath- fowls, woodcocks, and pigeons, 
carnivorous birds in great numbers, fach as, eagles, hawks, 
falcons, ravens, and grey crows, in ail fealbns of the 
year. ' 

Fi/beries^ Uc. — ^There is no trade or manufadares car- 
ried on in the parifli, either in the iooportation or exporta- 
tion line, only the kelp and black cattle, mentioned above. 
It is very certain, that the coalb of the parifh, both to- 
wards the eail and weft fide of it, abound wjith every fpe*- 
cies of fiih, to be found in the Hebrides ; fuch as, her- 
rings, lingY cod, mackerel, turbot, ikate, and flounder, 
befides the greateft variety of Ifaell-fifli, viz. lobftcrs, 
crabs, cockles, oyilen, mufclcs, and fpout^fifli. There are 
numbers of whales, feen at all feafons of the year, on the 
coafls of the parifli \ but the fiibermen, as yet, do not un- 
derftand the proper method of harpooning them, as the 
whales do not remain above the furfisce of the fea for any 
length of time. The fail fifli, or barking (bark, appears on 
the coaftsof the pariih early in the month of May, if the fea- 
fon is warm ; he is a ftupid and torpid kind of fiih ; he allows 
the harponeer often to feel him with his hand, before be 
darts at him. ^ The inhabitants to the eaft fide of the ifland, 
(fuch as are able to fit out boats, lines, and harpoons,) have 
been for fome years vttj fuccelsfiil during die fttmmer 


of South Viji. 297 

months. In this branch of bufioelsy owing entirelj to the 
fauidable exertions of the truflees for managing the fiflieries 
in Scotland, in granting premiums to the owners of boats, 
that extrad the greateft quantity of oil from the liver of 
tiie barking^ fliark. The lucky adventurer in this fiihing, 
ihould he chance to harpoon a large one, may have 9 or 
10 barrels of liver, from which the return in clear oil is 
about 8 barrels. The ling and cod fiOieries along the 
coafis of the paiifli deferve the attention of the public,' 
ibould this branch of trade be carried on with diligence and 
pcrfeverance by monied people. The banks for ling, cod, 
Ikate, and turbot, are now difcovered in the fuUeft extent, 
Co anfwer as well as the Shetland coaft. Colin Macdonald 
of Boifdale, £fq; one of the heritors in the parifli, is the 
only perfon here who attempted to carry on this branch 
of the fiiberies with any degree of fucceis, excepting fome 
adventurers from Peterhead, who come to the coaft here 
to fiih in March, and return in July generally pretty fuc« 
ce&ful. The herring-filhing is the great objed in the fiih- 
ing trade, to the inhabitants of the pariih ; notwithftaad- 
ing, this branch of the fiflieries cannot be carried on to any 
great degree, while the fait laws, continue in their prefent 
form. The fevere laws, with refpe& to the importation 
of fait to thefe remote parts, is the greateft fliackle that 
the invention of /nan could find out, to put a ftop to the 
indufiry of the poor inhabitants of the pariih. It is there* 
fore hoped, that our wife legiflators will remedy this evil 
in a ftiort time, according to their acpuftomed goodnefi, 
and prevent the misfortunes that follow of courfe to many 
of the poor inhabitants of the Hebrides. 

Population. — ^According to Dr Webfter's report, the 
jmmber of fouls in 1755 was 2209. The population of 
the parifii has of late years confiderably dimini(hed« Its 

Vol, XIIL F p inhabttantt 

^99 Statiftical Account 

inhabitantB may now amount to 34509 of which number^ 
there are 500 Proteftants, and the remaining 2950 Ron[iaQ 
Catholics. The great caufe of the decreafe of populatioo 
in the pariflii is owing principallj to the vaft numbers that 
have emigrated of late years to the ifland of St John 's» 
Nova Scotia, and Canada, Emigration from the parifli 
commenced in 1772; and again, no leis than 400 ftout 
young feUows iince that period, have gone as recruits to 
the army and navy from the pariih. The inhabitanu are 
induftrious, and a very hardy fet of mankind, able to un- 
dergo great fatigue *, they are particularly attached to the 
I^oyal Family, and the Eftabliihed Conflitution. 

Stipend^ Heritors^ Poor. — The value of the living in the 
pariih, including the glebe, is about L. 50 Sterling. It is 
a royal patronage. The heritors are, John Macdonald of 
Clanranald, £fq; and Colin Macdonald of Boifdale, £fq^ 
The manfe is in ruins, and quite uninhabitable -, the incum- 
bent dwells in a farm-houfe in the middle of the pariih. 

In a didrift of the pariih, called Benbecula, a miflionary 
reiides, with L. 30 of a falary, paid by the truilees for 
managing the royal bounty. There has beep no church 
built in the pariih fince the time of the Reformation. 
The Proteftants aflemble in two fchool-houfes, which are 
now in good order and repair, and the Roman Catholics 
have three mafs-houfcs in the pariih. As to the ilate of 
the poor of the pariih, there is only a fund of L. 10 Ster- 
ling yearly, which was mortiiicd by Alexander Macdo- 
nald of Boifdale, Efq; lately dcceafed ; the fund is diilri- 
buted impartially by his fon Colin Macdonald, Efq; with 
additional donations of his own. The people of both per- 
fuafions, in general, are attentive and generous to the poor, 
in fuppljing them with meal, according to their abilities, 
in feafoRs of fcarcity. 

of South Uiji. app 


Rent (^ the Pari/b.'^Tht land-rent is fnppofied Co be a- 
bout L. 2100 Sterlbg. It has rifen about one half with- 
in tbefe 6 jears back ; bj the accounts given of the land- 
rent of the parifliy the fadors fay, that the whole is laid 
out in paying the kelp manufadnrers. One heritor refides 
now in the parifli. 

AtUiquities.^-^Yht only thing remarkable in this way to 
be obferved in the parifh, are the remains of the Danifli 
forts, which are all built in a circular form, of large whin 
fioneSy without any kind of cement ; thefe towers, or forts, 
are to be feen in all the Hebrides. In the ifland of Ben- 
becula, a diflrid of the pariih, called, in Gaelic, Beian- 
Vealla, the remains of one of thefe towers, of a very large 
fize, are to be feen ; the name is Dun Elvine nean Ruarie, 
or the Tower of Elvina, the daughter of Rory ; this £lvina 
being the daughter of fome Danifli chieftain, as traditionary 
account telb. There are alfo the nemains of Druidical tem- 
ples ftill vifible in many parts of the parifli. Although 
by tradition, it is faid, that this ifland, in old times, abound* 
cd with wood, yet the fmalleft ftump of a tree cannot now 
be feen in it ; indeed, attempts were made lately tp plant 
wood of different kinds, but there is the greateft probabili* 
ty againfi its coming to any perfedion. 


30O Statt/Hcal Account 



(County or Ikvernxss, Stkod or Gucnxlo, Prks» 

BTlAcRT or Ul8T«) 

By tb0 Rev. Mr Allan MActunscN. 

Nmm^ Siiuahem^ Exttntf Soil and Surface. 

T TIST is taken from the Scandinavian word, vifi^ fig- 
^*^ nifying weft in the Englifii language, a name givexr 
to it by the Danes, when in poiTeffion of thele countries* 
on account of its wefterlj fituation. North Uifi lies near 
the middle of the Long Ifland. It is bounded on the 
N. N. E. by a found a mile broad, which divides it from 
Bemera, an ifland belonging to the parifli of Harries ; on 
the E. S. E. by a channel, which divides it from the Ifle 
of Sky, and the continent of Scotland ; on the S. S. W. hy 
a ftrand of confidetaUe breadth, which is overflowed 
with the (ea at high water, and which divides it from 
Benbecola, an ifland belonging to the parifli of Sooth Uift i 
and on the W. N. W. by the Atlantic Ocean. The 
length of thb parifli cannot be exaftly aicertained, as it 


of North mjl. 5<M 

never w«s furveyed, nor divided into miles'; bat bj allow- 
ing a computed mile to be equal to a mile aad a half mea- 
fnredy there can be no great miftake : According to this 
rule, the length c^ it» from the Sound of Bemera to the 
ifland of Benbecula, in a ftraight line, will be ao meafured 
miles, but 30 bj following the ordinary traft that travel- 
lers take. The breadth of it varies, being in fome places 
18, and in others la miles. Along the whole of the W. 
coafi, and round the N. end of this ifland, (being almoft the 
only parts of it that are cultivated), the country b low and 
level for the moft part for a mile and a half from the ihore 
to the moor. In thb part of the country the foil is fandy, 
efpecially ne^r the ihore, and at fome difiance from it : Be- 
tween that and the moor b a thin black ground, covering 
either a hard grave], or folid rock, interfperfed in fome 
places with flats and meadows. The reft of the country 
confifis of a barren, foft, deep moor-ground, and mountains 
of no great height, covered with heath. The cultivated 
part of the country, already mentioned, b estremely plea- 
lant and beautiful in fummer and autumn, yielding in fa- 
voorable ieafons the moft luxuriant crops of barley, and the 
richeft pafture of white and red clover. But, though in 
the warm fealbn of the year no country in the Highlands 
can exhibit a more del|ghtfiil profped» yet in winter and 
Ipring the fcene b totally changed* The face oi the coun- 
try then b quite naked and bare, there being no trees nor 
hi^ grounds to flielter it from the. inclemency of the wea- 
ther. The grafs b fo foft and tender, that the winter rains 
and fiiow take away its fubftance ; fo that cattle, during 
thefe feafona, feed partly upon com and ftraw, and partly 
npon feapweed, thrown in time of bad weather in great 
quantities upon the fliore. 

302 Staii/lical Account 

Sea Coqfi and Harhomrs. — That pan of the coaft waflie^ 
hj the Atlantic is inaccei&ble to veflels of any bordea^ 
and even to fmall boats, bat in verj good weather, on ac— 
count of the rocks, fhoals, and breakers that farroand it. 
In bad weather, when the wind blows upon this part of tlie 
coaft, the fea fweUs to a prodigious height, and rolls with 
inexpreffible violence againft the (hores, exhibiting a pro- 
fpe& awfuUj grand beyond defcription. The coaft on 
the £. fide of the country b bold, except where it is inter* 
fieAed by inlets of the fea, which form fafe and commo- 
dioos harboors. The barbonr fartheftto the northward is 
called CheeCebay, of eafy acceis from the S. £• where vef^ 
feb may ride with £ifety at all feafons of the year. S. of 
this lies the well-known hafbour of Lochmaddie, much fine-* 
quented by (hips trading from Ireland, and the W. of 
England and Scotland to the Baltic. It extends 5 or 6 
miks into the country, and, on account of the great nnni'i* 
ber of iOands it contains, is fubdivided into feveral harboors, 
which are all £ife and commodious. Thb is certainly one 
of the heft ftations for a village in the Weftem Iflands, * 
being a good outlet for veflels going either S. or N. and ia 
the centre of the fifliing ftations from Ulapool to Tober* 
morry. A few milte S. of thb harbour lies Lodieroft^ 
not mtich frequented on account of its vicinity to Loch- 
maddie« It extends 5 or 6 miles into the country. The 
entrance b narrow, hot tihe anchoring ground fafe. At fome 
diftance to the fimth^iNurd lies the harbour of Rudieva^ 
which b alio very nairrdw at the entrance, and on that ac- 
count hot much frequented. About a league farther S. lies 
the harbota* of KeOini formed on one fide by the ifland of 
Grimfay, and onrthe other by a barren ifland caHed Rhona. 
This harbour b very fiife for vefleb of no great burden, 
and b near a good fifliing ground. Round about thefe 
htrboursy and all along the £• coaft, the ground b barren, 
3 mountainous, 

Of North Uijl. 303 

fflonntainouSi and almoft uninhabited, which gives ftraAgers, 
who do not give themfelves the troable of vifiting the cul- 
tivated parts of the country, a very diiagreeable idea 
ef it. 

IJlandi* — A league to the northward of North Uift lies 

Borera jy a fertile ifland, a mile and a half long, and half a 

mile broad. It is prelentlj poflefled by a gentleman of 

the name of Maclean, whofe predeceflbrs have been in 

poiTcflion of it for feveral generations back, one of whom, 

for Cervices done to the family of Macdoaald, obtained, 

for the iinall yearly rent of L. xa Sterling, a very long leafe 

^^^^ 57 7^<^n of which are to run after the prefent pof* 

ieflbr's demife. Between this ifland and the main land of 

North Uift lies Orinfay, an ifland only at high water half 

a mile long, the foil fandy for the moft part, but fertile in 

fiLvourable feafons. 3 miles weflfward of the laft mentioned 

ifland, but fiill N. of the main land of North Uift, lies Val- 

hj, alfo an ifland only at high water, and iieparated from 

the fliore, when the tide is out, by a fand % miles broad. 

It is a mile and a half long, not half a mile broad, the 

Ibtl for the moft part fandy. It is beautiful and fertile in 

com and grals, when the fummer is rainy, but yields 

very little of either when the feafon b the reverfe. In 

t|^e winter and fpring it is quite barren, the furface 

being covered with &nd, which a gale from the N. W* 

never fails to blow over it. a leagues to the weftward 

of North Uift lies Heiiker, nearly 2 miles in length, but 

very narrow. The foil is fandy, yields very little grafs 

at any time, and is only valuable on account of its kelp 

ihores, and a (mall quantity of grain it produces. The 

iflands of Kirkboft and Ileray lie ftretched along the W. 

coaft of North Uift, pretty clofe to it, and feparated 

from it, and from one another, by a iand which the £ea 

overflows at high water. The former is x mile long, but 


304 Stati/lical Account 

very narrow; the foil fandj, lies quite ezpofed to the 
Wefiern Ocean, which makes yearly encroachments, and 
b in danger of being foon blown away by the wind. The 
latter b 3 miles long, and half a mile broad in moil places. 
The foil is partly (andy, and partly black groond, yielding 
tolerable crops of barley and pafture for cattle. South of 
the main land of North Uift, between it and Benbecula, lies 
Grimfay, an ifland only at high water. This is a barren 
iiland, % miles in length, and covered with heath ; but is 
very valuable on account of its kelp ihores. It is in the 
pofleflion of Mr Maclean of Boreray, and is included in 
the long leafe already mentioned. 

Product' — ^Barley and fmall oats are the only kinds of 
grain that this parilh produces; the quantity and value of 
which can hardly be afcertained, on account of the variable- 
neis of the feafons. The only method of findbg out, with 
any degree of precifion, the average quantity, is firom a 
ftate of the multure. The 13th part of the grain ground 
in the mills is taken up by the millers for multure, of 
which they are obliged to pay 180 bolls to the prq>rietor. 
As they are bound to keep the mills (of which there are 3 
in the pariih) in repair, they will require 8 bolls each for 
that purpofe; and alfo 18 bolls each for the fupport of 
their families, fo that the 13th part will amount to 258, 
a^nd confequently the whole that is brought to the mills 
will amount to 3354 bolls, Befides thb quantity, there 
are at leaft joo boUs given as provender to cows and horfes. 
In favourable feafons, indeed, the quantity will be a great 
deal more ; but in bad feafons it will fall far ihort of it. A 
dry fummer fcorches the fandy foil, and a wet ftormy au- 
tumn deflroys every thing the ground produces. A fcarcity 
is the confequence. In this cafe, recourfe mud be had to the 
importation of low*country meal, which is purchafed at 

Of North Vijl. 305 

an average for 17 s. the boll ; bnt in very bad years, fiich 
as the years 1783 and X784, at 243. The feafon, indeed, 
mail be very favourable, when the country produces a 
quantity fufficient for the fupport of the inhabitants. The 
returns in barley are from 15 to 20, though there are a few 
joftances of more than 50 fold. The boll of this country 
meal confifts of 16 pecks \ and if at any time a pr rfon has 
any that he can difpofe of to his neighbour, it is fold at 13 s* 

4 d. Potatoes are alfo a confiderable part of the pro- 
duce of this parifli, being cultivated for a few years back 
to a much greater extent than fotmerly. The quantity 
cannot be afcertained ; but it is become fo plentiful, that it 
makes the principal part of the food of the inhabitants for 

5 months of the year. The manure chiefly ufed here is 
fea-weed, which is thrown upon the fliores in bad weather. 
This manure, though favourable to the produftion of bar- 
ley, does not at all enrich the ground fo much as dung, 
which is alfo ufed, though not in great quantities. Kelp 
is the principal part of the produce of this pariih, the ma- 
nufafluriflg of which was totally unknown here, as well as 
in every other part of the Highlands, till about the year 
1735, when it was but imperfeftly introduced by one 
Rory Macdonald, whom a gentleman in this country 
(Hugh Macdonald, late tackfman of Ballifliar) had invited 
over from Ireland, for the purpofe of making experi- 
ments*. The quantity of kelp manufadtured yearly in 

Vol. XIII. Qji this 

• In his firft attempt?, he only rrduced the fei-wecd to ifties, on which 
account he wai called Rhuary-na-luahigh, or, * Rory, maker of aflies/ 
At firft it fold at L. I, Is. a ton ; but gradually rofe in value, till fome 
time after the breaking out of the American war, when it drew about 
L. S the ton at the diflferent markets in England ani Sc^uland. Since the 
clofe of the war, the price has been on the decline, on account of the im- 
portation of great quantities of barilla and ^t-a(hes; and it is now fu low, 


3o6 Statijiical Account 

this pariih will amount to a little more than iioo tons» the 
greateft part of ^^hich is in the hands of the proprietor 9 
150 tons belong to Mr Maclean of Boreray, and the reft to 
principal tacklmen, ivhofe leafes are not jet expired. AJl 
the inhabitants of the parifli are employed in manufafiu- 
ring kelp from the loth of June till the loth of Auguft ; 
excepting the principal tackfmeo and their fervants, with a , 
few tradefmen. 

Cowsy Hor/eSf and Sleep. — Though there may be about 
aooo cows, yet the number exported yearly will not ex- 
ceed 300, owing to the numbers that die of want, and to 
diftempers, to which they are^here more liable than in any 
other part of the Highlands. They are fold in the month 
of June at a public fair, to drovers from different countries, 
at different prices, according to their value, £rom L. 2, 5 s* 
to L. 2, 15 s. a-head ; and there have been a few inllances 
of parcels drawing L. 3. llie riik and expenfe of ferrying 
cattle to the ifle of Sky, make them of lefs value here 
than in that country. The price of a milch -cow is at an 
average L. 3, 10 s. The ntimber of horfes may amount 
at lead to 1600. Their value in general is from L. 2 to 
Ja. 6, excepting a few that the principal tackfmen keep for 
the plough, which may be valued from L.8 to L. 15 *, 


that it is to be feared the manufacf^uri ig of it will be given up entiicly, 
(to the utter ruin of the tenants of this parifli), unlcfs Government, to 
encourage ho mc- ni an u failure, may louk upon the coramodiiics ufed inihc 
■ place of it as proper objeds of taxation. 

• It may be a matter of furprife, that one parifli fliould require as many 
horfes as a county in fome other parts of th« kingdom. But when it is 
confidered, that the fandy foil here requires a greater quantity of manure 
than any other ; that this manure is carried (not in carts, but in fmall 
creels on hoifeback) to the diilance of a mile in fome places; that th^ ' 


Of North Uift. 307 

There arc no farms here fit for fheep; hut every te- 
nant endeavours to rear as many as will furnifli kim 
with a little miitton and wool fot clothing. They never 
thrive fo well as to enable the tenant to export any. The 
aomber of (heep in the whole partlh may amount to near 
5000, of a very fmall unmixed breed, covered with fine 
ihort wool, of which about 1 5 fleeces go to a ftone. The 
price of a flieep trith lamb is 4 s. 6 d. and of a wedder the 

Implements of Hujbandry. — -Although no country can be 
more capable of being improved than this, little has hi- 
therto been done to recover it from a ftate of nature. The 
implements of hufbandry, with very few exceptions, are the 
fame kind that were ufed a century back. The plough ge- 
nerally ufed is little known any where elfe beyond the 
Long liland. It is drawn by 4 horfes, has only one handle, 
which the perfon who directs it holds in his right hand, ai 
he walks befide it, having in his left a lafii to drive the 
horfes. Before this plough is a machine drawn by one 
horfe, to which is fixed a crooked iron, of the form of a 
reaping-hook, to cut the ground, fo that the plough may 
torn it up with greater facility. The number of men and 
horfes requifite to keep this plough a-going, makes it very 
ezpenfive. It requires one mian to dired the plough, and 


ploofli ufed here retjuifei more horfes to keep 2t agoing than any other ; 
that the fuel is can ied in the fame manner that the manure is, at the 
diftance of a mile and a half, and % miles in fome places; that the kelp 
ware is led bj horfes from the ihore to the drying ground, and iv. m thence 
to the kilns, in which it is to be burnt ; the occaHon for fuch a number of 
l.orfe« will in fome meafuri be accounted for. The great number of 
working Iiorft« requifite to carry on the bulinefs of the farmer does not 
allow him to keep breeding maref^, fu that horfes are in great numben 
yearly imported from the ifle of Sky and Lewis, which occafiom a con. 
ftant draia of caih from the pariili. 

3o8 Statiftical Account 

another to lead the horfes, one to direft the iron that cuts 
the ground before the plough, and another to lead thehorfe 
that draws it. The gentlemen who pofleis the principal 
ferms have given np this auk ward machine, and introdnced 
in its place the plough generallj ufed in the low country^ 
which they find much more convenient. The thin gnnmdy 
which does not admit of the plough, is turned up with an 
' inftrument called the crooked fpade, which is defcribed bj 
Dr Johnfon in his tour. There are only 8 carts in the 
parifli, where fome hundreds might be ufed to advantage \ 
moft of the farms being fo level, that carts might be eafily^ 
drawn over them. 

Climate, — In no cq|intry can the climate be more varia- 
ble than in this. There are inftances of froft, ihow, fleet, 
and deluges of rain, in the courfe of the fame day. High 
gales of wind are frequent throughout the year, but parti- 
cularly the vernal and autumnal equinoxes are attended 
with florms that fometimes prove fatal in their effirds upon 
corn and cattle. Weflerly winds, with hazy weather, 
prevail for two-thirds of the year. At the fame time, the 
climate is not unhealthy, there being no diftcmpers pecu- 
liar to it; coughs, colds, and the rheumatilm, prevail 
here as in other places. 

Frejh IVater Lakes, — ^There is fuch a number of freCi- 
water lakes in this parifh, that a perfon flanding on the 
top of a hill in the middle of it, would imagine, that ith 
part of it is covered with water. Some of thefe kkes 
are very large, and contain a great number of rocks 
and iflands, where wild-fowl, fuch as geefe, ducks, fea- 
gulls, &c. build their nefis, and hatch their young. The 
whole of them are full of trout, which, in fiie and quality, 
are equal to any in the kingdom. 


of North Uiji. 30^ 

State of Propirty. — ^Lord Macdonald is fole proprietor 
^£ this pariili, and his predeceflbrs have been in polTeflioii 
of it for feveral centaries back. He is the reprefentativc 
of the Eark of Rofs, whofe hiilorj is well known, and 
^wrho, in point of power and antiquity, yielded to none of 
€he Scots barons. The rents in the year 1763, including 
kelp-ihoresy amounted to upwards of L. I2C0. In 177 1, 
ihey amounted to L. 1800, including kelp-fhores. The 
prefent land-rents amount to L. 2100, befides the profits 
arifing from the fale of 800 tons kelp, the amount of 
which cannot be afcertained, on accouilt of the flufiuating 
ftate of the price of that article. The tenants may be di- 
^ vided into a clafles : ift^ The gentlemen farmers or tackf^- 
Hien, who poifefe one or more farms each \ and, 2dly^ The 
fmall tenants, a number of whom live together in a farm, 
according to the value and extent of it. The division of 
tenants into thefe two clafTes is not peculiar to this parifh, 
but extends to all the weftern iflands, and the adjacen^^ 
parts of the continent. The firfl of thefe clafTes,' name- 
ly, the gentlemen farmers, are for the mod part the de- 
fcendents of the different branches of the families of the 
chieftains, on whofe eflate they live. Of old, when the 
chieftains lived upon their own eftates, and had no encou- 
ragement to fend their younger fons as adventurers to a 
foreign land, they planted them about them upon their own 
properties, and gave them portions of lands for fmall year- 
ly rents, which were continued with their defcendents from 
one generation to another. At the expiration of ouq 
leafe, another was granted nearly upon the iame terms *. 


* The chicfuin prided himfelf upon tlie number of his f eotlemen fd 
mucii, that he looked upon himfelf as their comiaoo father. lo theiv 
^lefs he relieved their wantiy and when one of them died^ he becamf 


316 Statiftical Account 

The prefent fet of geDtlemen farmers in, this pariih, are/ 
though few in nambefy men of a liberal education, iw'bo 
ivould be an ornament to focietj even in a more public part 
of the kingdom. They are renowned for their hofpita* 
lit J, which the flrangers, who travel through the country, 
can atteft, and which they find very convenient, there be- 
ing no inns or public houfes for their accommodation. 

The 2d clafs of tenants have the lands divided in fmall 
portions among them. The divifion of farms is into pen- 
nies, half-peiyiieSy and farthings. The greateft part of 
this clafs of tenants poflefs half a-penny each, fome one- 
third of a penny, and fome one-fourth, or a farthiojf 
lands. All the cattle on the fame farm feed in comoion, 
each tenant being reftrided to a certain number, according 
to his divifion of lands. The (late of this clais of tenants 
will bed be illuftrated by an inftance ; fo that when the in- 
comes and expenfes are compared, a difcovery will be made 
«on which fide the balance lies. A tenant polTefling half a 

X penny 

the guardian of his cblldren, and the executor of his will ; which truft 
was in general executed with fidelity. On the other hand, when the 
chieftain was threatened with danger from the invafion or encroachmenty 
of his neighbours, his gentlemen flocked to his caitle to affill in his deli* 
bcrations, and to offer their fervices. If war was determined upon, they, 
with their adherents, followed him to the field, to fupport his pretenfions, 
and (hare his fate. By this means the ftrongeft attachment was eftablilh- 
ed between them, partly on the ties of confanguinity, and partly on mu- 
tual fervices. This attachment continued unimpaired, till the rebellion 
in tbe year 17451 which, though attended with the happy confequence of 
civilizing the Highlanders, and making them good and loyal fubjedls, 
yet was attended with this difad vantage, that it weakened the attach- 
ment between the chieftains and their people ; for Unce that period, the 
chieftains, from different motives, have withdrawn themfelves from' 
their eliates, have bccv^me unacquainted with their people, whom they 
vifit but feldom, are not fo attentive to the ties of confanguinity, and aire 
become lefs fcnipulons in removing the tackfmen from their farms, if t' 
higher oflfer is made than the pofleiibrs can afTord to pay. 

of North Uyi. 311 

funnj lands, if he has any grown up children to affift him, 
will, by manufafturing kelp, make about L. 6 Sterling 
f early. He has 6 cows, that is to fay, as many great and 
fmall as will be equal to 6 grown up cows. Three of 
them will probably be milch-cows. One of their calves 
will be killed, in order to have 2 of the cows coupled, a- 
nother may be fuppofed to die by accident, or through 
want, before the time it (hould be fit for the market, fo 
that this man has only one cow yearly to difpofe of, for 
whl^b he may be allowed to draw L. 2, 8 s. at an average, 
and which, added to the L. 6 above mentioned, will a- 
mount to the fum of L. 8, 8 s. This is his whole year- 
ly income, having nothing elfe that he can turn into 
money. On the other hand, this man pays L. 5, 4 s. rent, 
including public burdens. As he muft keep 6 horfes, he 
will be under the necefiiAy of buying one every fecond 
jear, at the average price of L, 3, 10 s. which makes L. i, 
15 s. a-year. Though in an extraordinary good year, his 
loads may fupply his family with meal, yet he is for or* 
dlnary obliged to buy that necefTary article; fo that 
matters are not exaggerated, when it is faid, that he buys 
I boll ay ear, at the average price of 17 s. From thb 
Ratement, this tenant has only a balance of 12 s. in his 
favour, for the purpofe of buying all his other nccefTaries ; 
fuch as timber, for keeping his houfes, implements of huf« 
bandry, and perhaps boat, in repair ; for buying iron, tar, 
fpades, flax, and feveral other articles that a tenant has oc« 
cafion for throughout the year. This man, therefore, will 
\ either fall in arrears to the proprietor, or become indcbt- 
I ed to thofe from whom he buys his neceiTaries ; fo that if 
the proprietor's chamberlain fhould be rigorous in taking 
pp the rents, and others in exading their lawful debts, 
pany fuch would find thcmfelves much diftrefTcd. 

Population, S^^.*— 'According to Dr Webfter's report, 



Statijlkal AccoutU 

the number af fouls ia 1755 was 1909. — ^Tbe fiate of po* 
pulation at any former period camiot exadlj be afcertain* 
edy there being bo lift to which a reference can be made ; 
but at prefenti from an eza^ lift latelj uken, it amounts 
to 3218 foulsy which in the opinion of the oldeft people 
in the pari(h» is more than a third abov« what it was 30 
jears ago. This great increafe of population is owing 
principallj to 3 caufes : iftt The preference giTen hj the 
proprietor to the fmall tenants ; ^diy^ Toearlj marriages; 
and, idfyf To inoculation, which is now become fo general, 
that the poor people, to avoid expenfes, inoculate their 
own children with furprifing fuccefs. Thej are all, with 
a very few exceptions, natives of the parilh, and of the 
Eftabliihed religion, excepting 4 of the Romifii perfuafion. 
The average of births, deaths, and marriages, cannot be 
afcertained for want of a parifh ittgifter ; but the minifter 
remembers, that during the currency of the year 1792, he 
celebrated 25 marriages. Below, is a Table, containing 
a lift of the inhabitants, clafTed according to fex and age, 
as exadly as could be dotie, without the help of a re- 




Below 10, 



From 10 to 20, 



From 20 to 30, 



From 30 to 40, 



From 40 to 50, 



From 50 to 60, 


From 60 to 70, 



From 70 to 80, 



From 80 to 90, 



From 90 to loo. 






of North mjl. 313 



^mithsi * * 5 Boat Carpenters, 

Tailors, '- - %$ Houfe ditto, - 3 

Weavers, - - 23 Millers^ - 3 

There are only 1 Ifaoemakers by profeffion, the people 
for the moft part making their own ihoes. There are 40 
women who work at the loom. There is i furgeon, i 
merchant, i fchoolmafter. There are 460 families, fo 
that, at an average, there is nearly 7 to a family. There 
are 460 houfes that are inhabited. There are 860 married 
perfons, male and female : 25 widowers \ 34 widows.^^ 
There are iSo boats, from 2 tons burden to 8 tons, which, 
at an average, may be valued at L. 5, the whole amount- 
ing to L. 9C0. There is likewife i floop, of 70 tons, and 
another, of 30 tons burden, both built in the parilh.-^ 

The number of ploughs amounts to 200 *• 


* IVaget, \^e,^~Mtn feirftnts t^ of 1 fdrts, married ami linmarried. 
The yearly wages of unmarried fervants are from L. a, lo s. to L 3, be* 
fides (hees4 YOung lads, from la to 1 4 years, liare from L. i to L. a ( 
tod an unmarried grieve, from L. 5 to L. 6. The married fervants have 
the price of their labour paid them in qaite a different manner. Each of 
them has a milch cow. with its followers, rangiiig with his mafter's cowl 
* throughout the year, with grafs for a few flieep ; he has the labouring of 
fooe ground, which is carried 00 at the mailer's expenle, and which 
produces about 3 bolls meal, bciides fome potato ground, which yields 
from 8 to 10 barrels. A matricd grjeve has grafs for 3 or 4 milch cows, 
with their followers, as alfo grais tur fome Oicep, beddes the labouring 
0^ ib much ground, as will yield from 6 to 10 bolls meal, befides potv 
toes. The married fervant has alfo 5 bolli meal yearly for his mainte- 
nance, and a free houfe, and fuel. The unmarried fervants are much 
cheaper; but on account of the common peopie*s early marriage, they 
are very tew in number, which is the only caiHe why mafter^ hire I'uch as 
have families. There are uo laboure'is to be had for day's wages, fo that 


Vol. XIII. Rr 

314 Statijlical Account 

Fi/berus^-^Thc conllant round of emplojment in which 
the people are engaged throughout the year, puts k out 
of their power to pay any attention to fiflitng, thoBgfa» 
without douht, the fea all around, the coaft abotmdb 
with fifli of different kinds. Soon after the fowing fca- 
fOB (which generally is from the beginning of April to 
the latter end of May) is over, they remove, with their 
cows, {heep and horfes, to the eaft coafi, where the kelp 
Aores for tlie mofl lie ; and where they continue maao- 
iaduring kelp till the loth of Auguft. About die begift- 
ning of September, they begin to cut down their corn^ 
and it is in general the latter end of 0£b>ber before thej 
can fecure it in their corn-yards. They begin to maaore 
the ground very early in winter, and contmue at h wbea 
the weather permits, till the fowing letffon com^ on »- 
gain. The prefent laws refpeding fidt are a gre^t bar m 
the way of filhing, though the people G<Mdd otberwife at* 
tend to it. 

Stipend^ PooTf Sclool.'-^Thtre are 6 places of worfhip in 
the parilh •. 


the mailers are under the ncceffity of hiring their Terrtnts for the yeir» 
which obliges them to keep the fame number when they have leaft as> 
when they have moil occafion for them. The wages of women fervants 
^^e very low, not etceeding L. x ar moft. 

* Thefe are, Kilmuii', in the centre, where there ii a church in very 
good repair, and where the minifter officiates 2 Sundays fuccefllvely ; ano- 
ther place of worfliip is at Clachan, in the diftriA called Sand, at the 
diftance of 1 3 ihiles from the former, wheie the minifter officiates every 
third Sunday. There is no church at prefent in this place, the houfe in^ 
which divine fervice ufed to be performed having lately fallen to ruia. 
A third place of worfliip, is Sollas, at the diftance of 7 miles from Kil- 
mair, where the minifter officiates once in the quarter. Ko k al^ bound 


ofUortb Uijl. 315 

There ^ a glebe, but no manle, the proprietcMr furniih- 
ing the prefent incambent with ahoufe on the farm he pof- 
fefles. The KiQg 13 patron. . The fttpend is 1200 merks 
Scots, an4 the allowance for communion-elements 60 merks. 
•^The number of poor to whom charitj is given amounts 
to 50. The 00I7 fund for their fupport arifes from the 
fines of delinquents, the colle^ons made at the church- 
doors on Sundays, and at the time fet apart for the cele- 
bration of the Lord's Supper. Lord Macdonald alfo orders 
ajfew penfions for the benefit of the moft needy. But 
the poor are indebted for their principal fupport to the 
people at large, among whom they go about begging, and 
who arc in general very charitable.-^Thcre is only one 
fchool in the pariih. The Committee for managing the 
Royal Bounty pay L.. 25 a-year of the Cilary, to which 
is joined the parochial fakry of 200 merks Scots. The 
number of fcholars is in general from 40 to 60, 10 of 
whom in general read latin; the reft ftudy geography, 
book4Lcepiag, arithmetic, writing, and reading Englifli. 
This fthool fends one yearly to College. There have been 
2 at the Univerfity lafi winter, who got the rudiments of 
their education at this fchool *• 

to preach oikc In the year in etch of the iflands of horrtnj and Heilker. 
Carinifli, the iwtbeft foath put of the pwifli, is alfo a place of woifliip, 
at the diftance of 12 miles Aom KiUnoir, where the minifter uied to 
preach once in the quarter, but it is no«r a part of the charge of the mif- 
fionary ftationed at Benbceula, on the oftaliliihment of the Committee 
for managing his Majelly's bounty, for reformation * of the Highlands, 

• Dr Kemp, SecreUry to the Society for propagating Chriftian Know- 
ledge, who was in fummer 1791 employed upon a tour through thefe 
parts of the Highlands, witli the intention of difcovering tbofe ftations 
t^We mifBonaries and fchoolma;fters on the Society's eftablillunent were 


3 16 Statijlical Account 

Ftff/.— The fuel ofed here is peat, which is procured at 
an immenfe labour and cxpenfe. Nothing contributes 
more to retard the progre& of improvements, than the time, 
expenfes, and number of hands requifite to fecure a fuffi* 
cient quantity of peats. It is cut down in the month of 
April with irons made for the purpofe. Four men to an 
iron, 30 of which will hardly be fufficient to fupplj a 
tackfman*s family and fervants with fiiel *• 

moft neceflarj, pointed out 3 popotous diftri^s in thtt ptrifli, vm. Pli- 
ble and Sard, as plncet dercrrtog the attention of the Society^ and where 
fchoolf rni^ht be creAed to grest tdvanuge. He alfo fixed Tipon the Uft 
mentioned place, t diftrid^ conuiflinj^ 600 fouls, with the adjacept iilands 
of Beru-ea and P?ba, belonging to the pari(h of Harris, as a proper fta- 
tion for a miflionary. The Society, always ready to beftow their funds 
vhere they ma> be it promote the objedis of their inllitntion, propofe to 
^rant a falary of L. 50 yearly to a raiffionvy to be employed in the above 
ftation, and L. 15 yearly to each of a fchoolmaders to be employed in the 
dtftrtdls already mentioned ; if the proprietor (hould co«operate with their 
views, fo far as to grant certain accommodations required by the Soeiety. 
|iis LordOitp has not hitherto figntfied his acquiefcence ; an4 it ii hoped, 
that he will not long withhold his coantenance from a mcafure tending 
fo much to promote the civil and religious ioterefts of hii tenants. 

* When it hardens a little, it requires near the fiune number of hands 
to raife it on end, for the purpofe of drying. The next ftep* is to put 
it into ftacks near the peat mols, which requires a great number of men 
«nd horfoi. but ihe greateft part of the whole trouble and ezpcnfe lies 
in leading tliem in crrels by horfes a mile and a half, and in fovit places 
two miles, to their refpedlive homes ; fo that this bufinefs of procuring 
a fufficient quantity of fuel, employs the Uchfrnens inen-fervapts» from 
the month of May to the 1 ft of September, excepting the time fpent in 
making heath ropes for fecnring their houfes. The fmali tenants aps 
employed every hour they can fpare from other neceffitry .occupations, in 
fiimiihing themfelves with peats; and after all they can do, they feldom 
have but a fcanty fupply of that neceflary article. In veiy rainy feafons, 
fuch as the year 1790, there has been fuch a fcaretty of fuel as to oblige 
people to go with their horfes fcveral miles for heath to dreis their vio 
tuals witiu 

of North Viji. 317 

' Km^atums, — ^The fudden rife of the Itnd-rents was 
/Dertaiolj the original caufe of emigrations from the iile of 
Sky and Uift Co America. Thofe who found a'difficultj 
in fupporting their families when the rents were low, could 
not be perfuaded that any exertions in induftry would e« 
nable them to live with any degree of comfort, when raifed 
a third more at leaft. This determined feyeral of them to 
look out for an afylum fome where elfe. Copies of lettess 
from perfons who had emigrated feveral years before to 
America, to their friends at home, containing the moft 
flattering accounts of the province of North Carolina, were 
circulated among them. The implicit fidth given to theiie 
accounts made them refolve to defert their native country, 
and to encounter the dangers of crolfing the Atlantic to 
iettle in the wilds of America. From 1771 to 1775, fe- 
veral thouiSuids emigrated from the weftem Highlands to 
America, among whom w^re more than 200 from' North 
Uift. Thefe in their turn gave their friends at home the 
fame flattering accounts that induced themfelves to go, fo 
that thefe countries would in a fliort time have been drained 
of their inhabitants, had it not been for the American war. 
However, it will be acknowledged, that in this pariih, 
thofe who took the benefit of the leafes granted at that 
that time, never lived in greater affluence than during the 
currency of them, owing to the fiidden and great advance 
in the price of kelp, occafioned by the American war. 
Since the clofe of the war, the rage for emigration has 
broke out again in diflPerent parts of the Highlands. To 
produce this, other caufes have concurred with that already 
mentioned. The fenfe of grievances, whether real or ima- 
ginary ; the fear of having the fruits of their induftry called 
for by their landlords, many of whom think they have a 
right to the earnings of the tenants, except what barely 
Rapports life \ the want of employment for iiich as have 


%i 8 Siati/lical Account 

no lands to ctiktvate; the encoangemcatB held out to them 
by their fneods, who are already fettled in that country, 
of living in a fiate of much greater affluence with le& la* 
hour ; and the facility of procuring a property for a fbiaU 
fuoB of money« the produce of which they can call their 
own, and from whieh their removal does not depend oa 
the will of capricioua maften. Thefe are the principal 
motives that determine people now to emigrate to America, 
without at all attending to the difficulties and diicourage* 
ments in their way, arifing from the danger they muft ea- 
eonoter in croffing the feas ; the expenfe and trouble of 
removing with their fiEimilies fome jiop miles from (bore, 
for the benefit of enjoying the fociety of their friends, who 
have gone before them ; the inconvenience of buying ^11 
their neceffariesy till fuch time as they are enabled to live 
by the fruits of their own labour, and die di&creenble ef- 
fcAs that a change of cUmate may have on their healths 
and eonftitutions. This contagion has not, indeed, done 
much to the psejudice of this pariih finoe the dofis of the 
American war, excepting, that after a leafe that. Lord Mac- 
dooald had of his lands lately, there were fome murmnr- 
ings, which produced a general defire to emigrate, but 
which his Lordlhip in fome meafure removed by augment- 
ing the manufaduring fees of kelp ; however, the people 
are ftill in fbch a ftate of fufpenfe, that very trifling cir- 
cumflances may weigh down the fcale in favour of emi- 
gration. To put a flop to the prefent rage for emigration 
requires very nice management in the proprietors. The 
old attachment between them and their people mufi in 
Ibme meafure be renewed ; .long leafes.muft bfS gt;an|Dtd to 
fecure the tenants the polTcffion of their lands fer a period 
of years, to remove their apprehenfions .of frequent calls 
upon them for an augmentation of rent. A melioration 
for improvements to a .certain extent ought to be gmnted, 

2 with 

of North Uift. 319 

with pvemiimis to the mbfi defisrving. Manafadttres nwft 
b^ eftabfifiied for tlie benefit of fach m bavci no lands to en- 
gage their attention, and viUages muft be ereAed for the 
benefit' of thofe who Aaj dirco^rer a fpirit for commefce, 
and whete thofc.tvho, by the fe verity of theif mailers, may 
be driven from thle plough, maj find att' afylom, and be- 
take themfelvcs t^ oth^r ocoupeitions ; bm this is not to be 
left wholly to the proprie^fs« The dOffimttftity at large, 
are inter tiled, and ift^rreap foxne benefit from' theim^ 
provement and profperity of tbt HighlaiKts, ^ The jotnf^ 
fiock Company have difcovered a laudable zeal to promote 
the general good of the Highhnds, and have made fach be* 
gbnings'as their fmaU capital would pcnnit: hot their ex- 
ertions araft be fiseble* to bring about this defirable ead» 
wicfaoat aid -from the foftering hand of Government. 
The Highlands have a claim upon the attention of Go- 
vernment, being inhabited by as loyal fnbjeds as can be 
found in his Majefty's dominions, aad having ftimiflied; 
{reqnently, ikimbers of brave fellows, who have figna- 
Uz< d themfelves in all the comers of the world, fighting foir 
their Kin^ and country. It is a matter of furprife, that the 
Highlands have fo long been neglefted by Government, and 
that while they lay out fo much of the public money in 
fettling diftant colonies, a channel fliould be left open, 
whereby a confiderable part of the mother country may be 
drained of its valuable inhabitants ; but this cannot long be 
the cafe ) it is to be hopedt that the time is approachbg when 
a relaxation from war, and other objeds of importance, will 
afford them leifure to direft their attention to thefe remote 
comers. Then means will be made ufe of that will be 
adequate to an objeft <^ fuch magnitude as the improve- 
ment of the Highlands. Towns and villages will rife in 
different places, where nature has furnilhed the mod ad* 
vantageous fituations \ lands, that are now barren, will, in 


320 Statijikal Acamnt 

the vicinity of thefe villages, be brought to ft AAte of ciilt»« 
vation ; population, which under the prefent difidvantagcs^ 
fiill makes a rapid prqgreis, will then increaiie tb a mach 
greater degree » an entire ftop will be put to the ipirit for 
emigration ; new fources of wealth will ipring up from an 
extenfion of commer^ and manufiiAbresi a nnrierj for 
feamen, in which the ftrength of the Britiih nation in a 
great meafure confifts, will be eftabliflied : So that the High- 
land, which now wear a gloomj aifneft, will then bepomc 
a flouriihing part of the Britiih empire. 

Antiquititu — ^There. is a number of Druidical temples 
in this pariih, differing little from others in feveral parts of 
the Highlands, which are already defcribed, particularly by 
Dr Smith of Campbeltown, in his hiftory of the I>niidi» 
There are a very large heaps of ftones, thrown together 
without order or regularity, near the tops of two hills in 
the middle of the pariih. What makes thefe any way re- 
markable, is their great iize, and their di&ance from any 
place where ftones could be found. Some of the ftones are 
fo large, that it is inconceivable by what mode of convey- 
ance they were carried up hill to the ground where they 
lie. They feem to be the tumuli of leaders of great in- 
fluence, who have iignalized themfelves by their valour or 
accompliihments *• 


* There are xniny Danifh forts in this pariih, fome of them bailt on 
rocks in the middle of frefti water lakes accelfible from the ihore bj a 
caufeway, raifed almoft to a level with the water, and others built oir 
high ground in diflferent parts of the country, a of them being in view of 
one another, for the purpofe of communicatiog the alarm fpeedily, in 
cafe of danger or invafion. In a part of the pariih, called Carinifh* there 
is a church called Teanapal t» Trianade, or Trinity Temple, which tra- 


^ North Vyi. 321 

Uifcdltatie6tfs OJ^^a/MUj.— 'Nature has fiirnUhed this 
^ariihi vhen the tide is but, with the beft road that can be 
in an j country^ beibg for the mofi part over plains and ex- 
keufive ^bods ^ b4t when th£& iahds are joverflowed with 
ibfiSdLt tbe traveller miift go by a more tedious path, 
where there are «^ery bad Heps, efpecially io wbter wea- 
ther. Jlow£ver, theie fteps will footi bedome vttj good 
toadf as the jpe^^e w^re inade to work at them for fom^ 
days in .the ifids^g ietSifa Sot two yean paft, and mttft 
JooQtinue to .dp ib till they are finiihed. It may be a mat- 
^ter.of (^Ipia£B, thdt thcojig^ no trees grow at p^refent in this 
^tiiki ^€ Uitkc b^ been when the whole fac.e .of it was 
.covered with wood. The truth of this aflcrtion is evident 
rbom this circuoiflan^ey that the rocfts of trees are found in 
j^at mofie^, ^ different pact^, .and even below high water 
mark ; where the Ibnd is wa(bed away by the fea, or blown 
Ai^ay by the wind; they plainly appear in a kind of black 
foil, or rathe^ mols. This is the cafe, particularly in the 
ifland of Vallay. The Only method of accounting for this 
is, that the ipray of the Atlantic Ocean, which is carried 
by the wefterly winds in the atm^fphere dver the whole 
ifland, is linfavonrable to the growth of trees. This is 
clearly proved from experiineiits frequently made of plant- 
iag trees in gardens; where tl^y fpring up fad to the height 
of the garden-wail, but never higher ; and though it is 
Evident that the ifland was once covered with trees, it 
inuft have been at t period .when the ocean was at a greater 
Vol. XIII. S f .diftance, 

-^on giTtt odt to be the oMHt btttUiAg of the kind in the HigbUods. 
'Wbit corroboritet dixs tridition is, fhit from the circmnftance of its 
4)eing dediottsd to the Trinity, it (eemt to have been bailt before the 
flomifli kalendtr was made known in tbefe puts ; all cbmrc^ei. buUt lioce 
4^m period beb^ 4edieat«d So-feimi 

322 Stati/lical Account 

difianoe, that is to lajt when the lands eactended a gcemM 
deal farther to the weftwavd *• 

Advantages arid Di/adoafUagej.^^The inhabitants of tfaiv 
parifh enjoy the great advantage, that no fenrxces are e±- 
afied. Thej afe likewife fupplied by thi proprietor, with 
low-country meal, and fome other ufefnl and neceflary ar- 
ticles at prime coft. The difadvantages they labour under, 
arifing from the number of horfes they muft keep, the la- 
bour and expeufe of iecurihg fiiel, and the want of tioi- 
ber, which they muft buy from other countries at a dear 
rate, have already been obferved : but one great difadvan- 
tage they labour under, and for which a remedy has been 
offered, is, that the means they enjoy of being inftruAed 
in religious and ufefiil knowledge, are not adequate to 
thefe great ends. For it is impoffible that one clergyman, 


* For it is evident, thit the Uin makes conliderable encroacIimentK, evea 
in the courfie of one generation, fo that in the courfe of many, it may be 
fuppofed to have waflied away a great extent of coiuitry. The rocks and 
ihoais, and banks of faad, extending a great way to the weft, corroborate 
this hypotheiis. There are 2 rocks to the weftward, the one at the dif- 
tance of i6, and the other, of 4 miles from fliore, inhabited only by 
feals, which the pof&flbrs of the firms thefe rocks belong to^ attempt to 
kill once a-year, either in the month of Odober or November; for this 
purpofei they ufe clubs or long fti^, heavy at one end, and with which 
they ftrike them on the head, a blow in any other part being ineffc^ual. 
Thefe rocks have once been very valuable ; bat for fome years back, their 
inhabitants have, for the moft pnt, deferted them, and betaken diemfelves* 
to other habiutions, where they probably meet with milder treatment. 
This pariih once abounded with deer ; but on atccoont of the increafe 
of population, the ground that afforded them the beft pafture formerly, is 
now partly cultivated, and partly coveM with cows and flieep. There is 
a variety of wild fowl, which may afford recreation to the fportfman, fuck 
as geefe, ducks of different kinds, moor-fowl, fiiipe, ploven, pigeoA^ 
with numbcrlefs tri^ of a fmaller kind, too tedious to mention. 

^/NmbUifi. 323 

Ii0we vor affidaoms lie may he in the difcharge of his dutj, 
can be equal to the taik of inftruding in the principles 
of religion, fuch a multitude ^f people difperfed over a 
great trad of country, man j ^f them im ficuations fo dif- 
continuous to the places of worihip, that thejr' hardly have 
an opportunity o& hearing the word of God preached once 
lA the twelvemonth. It may alfo be affirmed, that the 
labours of one fchoolmafter, however centrical his fitua- 
tion may be, cannot be of eztenfive ufefiilnels in a parifh 
of fuch extent, and where^the people are not rich enough 
to fend their children to ichool at a diftance from their own 

CbaraBer ^ the Ptefle^-^Thc common people of this 
pariih are fober and induflrious, fagadous'and acute, in 
4ifcovering their own interefi, when placed within the 
Iphere of their obfervation, and perfevering in the pur- 
fttit of it. Though living on a poor fimpk diet, they 
aaay be ufefully employed in matters that require patience 
and &tigue, Nvhen their exerdons are int>perly dire6ted. 
They are fuU of curiofity, which makes them inquifitive, 
to a degree bordering on impertinence, and rather offenfive 
to firangers. They are infinuadng and artful in their ad« 
dreis, obliging and peaceable in their difpofitions, except- 
ing when their interefis interfere ; and in that cs^e, if any 
difierence or quarrels fublift among them, they plead their 
own caufe before the baron-b»Uiie, who is the only magi- 
firate in the pariih, with furprifing eloquence and addre£i ; 
and reft quite fatisfied with his dedfion, without ever ap. 
pealing to any higher tribunal. They are honeft for the 
moft part ; but among the poorer fort of them, petty pil« 
fcring, and even ifaeep-fiealing, is too common, for v^ch 
there is no adequate puniihment, for want of a proper 
IP^llice i for though the mqft of the gentlemen are on the 
I rolls 

324 Stat0kal Axotmt 

rolb of jaftices of the peaoe, none of them hme 
takcft to aft at foch> toe want of means to eafiMPce their 
^ifioBSy there being no prifon nearer hand thaa lairei^ 
ne(S| which i« at the diftance of more than 100 Biiks. 
They are indeed ignorant, for reafons sdreadj mcatioded. 
They are of a middle fifte, there being neither dw«c<^ noc 
any remarkable for height among tiern. I« their maanem 
and cuOoms there is nothing peculiar. 

Methods of meliorating the CMtikion of the Peopk. — Lon[^ 
leafed are certainly the btft means that can be put in the peo* 
pies' power to better their condition. It is not to be fuppofed, 
that without this encouragement, they will difcover any 
Qew exertion in induftry, or be at the expenfe of introdu* 
ciog any new implements of hufbandry, or give them* 
(elves the trouble of making any improvements that will 
turn out to no advantage to them before the expiration of 
their leafes, which were only 9 years at tfateir commence** 
ment. It will be fiud, in anfwer tq tfats^ that though 
there were tp years leafes granted in the year 1769, there 
has not been much done to improve the coimtry. But to 
obviate tliis objediop, it may be obfervedv tlhat iudi as 
were in the vigour of life at that time did a good deal in 
that way, that the mod to whom thefe leafea were grant* 
ed were people on the decline of life, attached to the old 
method of farming, and ignorant of any other. But the 
cafe diftrs widely no^r ; The gentlemen who poAe& the 
principal farms in the parifli now are aQ young aftd ac- 
tive, and difcover a fpirit for improvements. They have 
likewife, by their intercourfe wiA the low country, ac- 
quired a knowledge of the methods of cultivating the grouo4 
there, which they are inclined to introduce in tbiscoaniry 
upon proper encouragement. 


fff North Uift. 325 

A melioration to a certun extent for building good hoofiss^ 
would alfo contribute much to the improvement of this 
country. There h not a ilated houle in the parifh, but the 
churchi one mill, a houfe at Lochmaddie, that was intend* 
ed for a public houfe, and another in the Ifland of Vallay, 
in a ruinous conditileih But if the ab^vo encouragement 
was granted, the principal tackfinen would foon have flated 
hoiofes ; the great quantities of ftraw now ufed for thatch 
to their houfes, would then become provender for cattle ; 
and the time employed by their fervants in making 
heath ropes to fecure the thatch, would then be laid out in 
improvements of different kinds. The fmall tenants have 
|iot much time bdeed to improve their lands on account of 
the round of employment already mentioned. But if any 
method could be fidlen upon, that would enable them to 
le^en their number of horfes, nothing could turn out more 
to their advantage ; ufing carts in place of creels, would 
help much to bring about this defirable end. If the pro- 
prietor fliould fend a quantity of feafoned wood, and fome 
cart-wrights to the country, fo as to have carts made, a- 
dapted to the finall file of dieir horfes, which might be 
fold at prime coft, a great reduftxon of the number of 
hor&s might be the confequence. In that cafe, a part of 
the com now given as provender for horfes might be 
faved; a part of the money fent out of the parifli to 
purchafe them, might be otherwlfe employed, and the peo- 
ple enabled to keep a greater number of black cattle. 
It is almoft unneceffary to obferve, that eftabliihing ma« 
nufaAures, and erefting villages, would help much to 
better the eondicion of the people, as then the tenant 
would be furiiidied with a market at band for many arti* 
^les that now turn to no account. 


j}»6 Staii/iical AccoiM 


(COUKTT or IyTEEN£89> StKOP OP 6leni(lg, Pu^« 

yxTERT or UistO 

Bj^ the Rev. Mr IEdward Macqueeh- 

Name^ Situation^ E^cienif ilf c, 

* rriHE ancient name of this parilh is not known. Itg 

X prefent name feems to be derived from St Barr, the 

tutelar faint of the iflaildy and to whofe memorj the a jt!| 

of September is dedicated as a holiday. On this da j the 

Prieft (ays mats, and all thole of the Romiih religion ufe4 

. punftually to attend *• On the N. this parifh is divide4 


• After maft the people amnfed themfelves with hoife-nces, and fpent 
the evening in mirth and conviviality. Of late jean this cvftom has been 
mvch on the decline. Formerly there was an image of the Aiat in the 
church-yard of Shilbar, (the principal place of worfhip, and probably the 
burial-place of the fiunt), which was clothed with a linen fliirt every 
year upon hit own aoniverfary. Some of die priefts who refided here in- 
formed me, that it was not enjoined at « neceflary put of their doty to 


of Barray. ^2f 

froln Uift by a channel of 8 miles ; the ifland of Tyree, in 
the county of Argyle, and the property of the Duke of 
Argylcy is the heareft land to it on the S. and lies at the 
diftance of aboat 40 miles ; Canna and Rumi in the parifh 
of the Omall ifles, lying at the diilance of 24 miles ; on the 
W. it is expo&d to the Atlantic Ocean. The parifli of 
Barray confifls of the main ifland of Barray, particularly 
fo called, and a number of other iflands, diftinguiflied 
by their refpedive names, the largeft of \vhich are inha- 
bited, fttch as Water&y, Sianderay, Dabay, Mengalay, and 
Bemaray, to the S. ; Flodday, Keillefay, and Gigay, on 
the £•; befides a number of fmaller iflands not inhabited. 
The main ifland of Barray b 8 computed miles in length, 
and from a to 4 in breadth, being interfered in different 
places by arms of the fea. The compilers of the Ency- 
dopocdia Britamiica will do well to corred their errOr in call- 
ing Barray a rock half a mile in circumference, inhabited 
only by folan geefe and other wild fowls. The ifland of 
Waterfay, feparated from the main ifland by a channel of 
one mile, is about 3 miles in length, in fome places a mile 
and a half broad, and is divided into two diflinfi farms 9 
the one, poflcflcd by Mr M'Neil of Waterfay ; the other is 
now in the hands of the proprietor, called the farm of Rilis. 


pty fb much veneration to Saint Barr, as he never had the honour of heinf 
tanked with the Saints of Rone, nor was hh name at any time inroUed 
in the Roman kaleodar. From this it appean, that the chvrches ia theie 
parts, which were fabjedl to Icolomkill, never recognised the authority 
4f the chorch of Rome. It appears from Bede, who wrote in the begin* 
iiing of the Sth centtfry, that the monaftery of kolumkiil was not fubje^ 
^oRoae at that tiflae. loiter writers have Ihown the fame m their timet ; 
befides, if at any fabfeqnciit period it had fiAmitted to Paful jarifdidlion, 
it is more than probable that fome Pope or other would have dignified 
with canonisation, a perfon who had fanAity enough to render him wor- 
thy of being appointed the patron or protestor of any diPridl of eccl»- 
£afUcal ttrntory. 

^i^ kiatijiicdl Account 

The nat is Sandera j, diftaot 5 miles from Barraj ; it i^ 
2 miles in leoglhp 1 in breadth, and conuias 9 bmilles. 
i^abajr, lying at the difiance of 8 miles from Barraj, zt 
ia length, and i in breadthi contains 3 families. Men- 
jplajj at the diftance of X2 miles, a aules in length, and 
a miles in breadth, eontains 8 fitmilicA. The laft is Bcr- 
iieray, which, from its being called the Bilhop's Ifie, fisems 
to have once belonged to the Biihop of the ifles ^ it is 16 
miles diflant from fiarraj, x mile in length, | in breadth, 
and contains 3 families. Tbeie iflands are fertile in 
torn and grab, but liable to be blafted hj the S. W. winds^ 
which frequently blow here. They are very difficult of 
accels, on account of the firong currents running between 
them, and landing is fometimes not only difficult, but ha- 
sardous. Clofe by the ifland of Mingalay is a high rock, 
with very luxuriant jrrais growing on the top of it. The 
inbabitants of this ifland climb to die top at die rifle of 
their lives, and by means of a rope carry up their wedders 
lo fatten. This muft be the Scarpa Vervecum mentioned 
by Buchanan *. The main ifland of Barray has a bar- 
ren appearance, from the great quantity of rock to be feen 
every where, exoepling the north end, which, for its ferti- 
iity, if the climate were equally goodj might be compared to 


« To'tftis, awd to the ilUnd ef Bmen, .gitit oambfisof fea-fewk re- 
fdit cftxj feftr4n the month of May, the fainc^ilh cfaoft in St KUde; 
•<hbu^h not in Aich variety ; they come in the Utter and of Apsil or the 
begfnmog of May to clean their nefts^m tbe rubbiHi of lalt year, then 
fct off, ond «^r fome aayt retom to lay their egg^and hatch, and fo loon 
is the yoang are able to take the #ing, they difiippoa^, and ane pot ao^he 
Men till the fame fcafon next year. The inhabitaota of theft two iflands 
>oateh fome of them in the rocks, which they think very good eating, aaJ 
Itom which liiey get very fine feathen ; thefe lealhen Uiey fell at 6 d. t!be 
Hk in the ct^tuitry, as tbey never bave^diAu in fnch qnaoti^ite a< to tet 
ibem to a pifrlic market. 

of Barray. 329 

any of the fame extent in any part of Scotland. In the middle 
and fouth end are very high hills, and fome flat ; the hills 
are a mixture of green, rock, and heath ; and feem to be 
better calculated for a fheep-walk, than for rearing black 
cattle, but lie at too great a diilance from market. 

Agriculture^ Soil^ ifc, — Agriculture has been almoft in- 
variably the fame here (as in moft of the weftcrn ifles) for 
time immemorial, till within thefe lad 5 years, when Mr 
Macneily the proprietor, returned from viliting foreign 
countries, has begun to introduce the method ufed in the 
low country, as far as he thinks the foil and climate can 
admit of. The foil in general is thin and rocky, (except- 
ing the north end, which is a mixed foil, and almoft free of 
rock) ; there is alfo a great deal of fand, which is blown one 
way or other with every gale of wind, fo that a great part 
of the beft corn land has been thus blown away, or covered 
with fand. There is fome meadow grouad between the hills. 
The ground here requires that the manure be thick laid, 
in order to procure a tolerable crop ; thtre are lome mea- 
dows that yield three fucceflive crops with one coat of ma- 
nure, vrx, one of potatoes, and two of oats. The people 
here ufe the plough for the moft part ; but in their rocky 
ground they dig or turn up the ground with a kind of 
lever, wliich they call the crooked ipade, and which Dr 
Johnfton has deicribed in his tour through the Hebrides. 
They lay their potatoes for the moft part in lazy beds, in the 
following manner : — (ft, Tht-y nurk out a ridge of about 
four feet wide, then lay on the manure, and with a fpade 
cover it with earth taken out of the furrow ; in this Itate 
it remains till the beginning of April, when they begm to 
plant the potatoes by means of a dibble, or pointed itick, 
with which they penetrate the earth thus laid on, (making 
a hole to receive the feed), then break the earth with a 

V01..XIIL Tt hand-rake. 

33^ Statijlical Account 

hand-rake, which ferves the purpofe of harrowing ; this is i( 
more tedious operation than laying the plant upon the ma^ 
nure before it is covered with earth, but is the only method 
that can be ufed on thefe meadows, which are deep and 
wet, and the feafon mufl be very bad when they do not 
make good returns. They have of late begun to plant po- 
tatoes in light fandy foil, which anfwers very well ; and 
Mr Macneil, the proprietor, plants almoft all his with the 
plough, which gives ample fatisfadion, and every one be- 
gins to follow the example. The principal crop here is 
barley and potatoes ; there is fome fmall black oats, and 
little rye. The returns in barley are from lo to 15 ; in 
potatoes from 15 to 20. Sea-weed is the principal manure 
here ; as that is fometimes precarious, the crop muft be fo 
alfo, for when a fuflicient quantity of fea-weed is not caft 
ijpon the fhore, a plentiful harvcft is not to be cxpeded. 
Formerly the fea-weed that grows upon the fliorc was 
ufed for manure ; but iince kelp has become fo valuable« 
the proprietors every where have reftrified the people from 
cutting it for that purpofe, which is certainly prejudicial to 
agriculture. Tlie .people alfo make fome compoft. In 
good feafons they raife as much crop as will be fuflicient 
for their fubfiftence, otherwife there is a fcarcity ; but the 
proprietor fupplies the country with low-country ipevA at 
the mat ket price. It is to be hoped, that a fcarcity may 
not happen fo frequently henceforth, if the people in gene- 
ral could adopt the improvements lately introduced, in 
railing crops and rearing cattle. The cattle here are gene- 
rally finall. Mr Macneil, who has an extend ve farm in 
his own hands, having bought from the bed folds in dif- 
ferent parts of the Highlands, can now produce a fold of 
his own rearing equal to any of them; The lands here, as 
in many other places in the Highlands, are diflinguiflied 
into fingle and double lands, and the divifion of them is into 


of Bar ray. 33 1 

pennies, halfpennies, and farthings. No tenant here pof- 
feffes more than halfpenny, for which he pays from L. 3 
to L. 4 for fingle lands, and L. 6 for the halfpenny of ^ 
double lands. The foaming of the halfpenny, that is, the 
number of full grown cattle, is 8, young ftock arid flieep in- 
cluded ; ^ three -year old queys, or 3 two-year olds, are 
equaita^ foum, and 8 iheep. So that the ftock of the pof- 
felTor of a halfpenny o£ fingle lands, confifls of 3 horfes, 4 
cows, and 8 or 10 iheep. The tenants pay their rents by 
manufa&uring kelp and fale of their cattle. The proprie- 
tor employs a number of them in making kelp upon his 
fkrm, for which he pays from L. i, 10 s. to L. 2, 2 s. and 
for the kelp made upon their own ihores, which he alfo 
has at his own difpofal, L. 2 : 12 : 6 the ton, which is the 
higheft manufaAuring price given in the Highlands, fo far 
as I know. So that, from the fale of their cattle, and 
making of kelp, the people live very eafy, excepting in 
bad years, when there is a fcarcity of bread, they are un- 
der the neceflity of buying low-country meal. There arc 
5 farms which were let for 19 years at ftipulated rents ; 
the leafes are nearly expired *, 

/ Population. 

* The diitance of this place from market, and its infular fituation, has 
prevented the pric^ of cattle from advancing in the fame proportion as it 
has done in places more acceflible, and more conveniently fltuated. 
Notwitliftandiog this difadvanUge, the price has advanced to a third 
more at leaft ivithio thefc i8 years ; for a cow that fold then at L. i, lOs. 
would fell now at L. 2, 5 s. or L.i, 10 s. ; and parcels that fold then at 
L, 2. fell now at i:. 3 ; milch«cows fell at from L. 3, 10 s. to L. 4 ; whereas, 
mt the period above mentioned, they fold for L. 1, and L. 2, 10 s. accord- 
ing to their (Quality. They are bought by drovers who come hither from 
diferent places at ftated times. The ezpenfe in carrying them from this 
to the neareft part of the continent, which lies at the diftanceof 20 leagues, 
is a s. 6 d. the head, befides the buyer's ezpenfe and trouble in coming 
lor them, and the rUk of lofiog fome by the way, as tbcy fometimes mi]^ 
% udiouspaflagc. 

33^ Statijiical Account 

Population.'^Accorditkg to Dr Webller's report^ the 
number of fouls in 1755 was 1150. There has been no 
exa& lift taken of the number of inhabitants here fince it 
was erefted into a parifli \ at leaft I could find none. But 
it is evident that population muft have increa/ed confider- 
ably within thefe lall 20 years, from this circumftance, 
that then there were fome lands unoccupied, and many of 
the tenants pofleffed a whole penny ; whereas, lately, the 
proprietor was obliged to divide the lands into fmaller 
portions, in order to accommodate the inhabitants. At this 
time, no tenant occupies more than 4 penny, and manj 
have but i and *** of a penny. In the laft cafe, it is to be 
obferved, the land is what is called double ; at prefent» the 
number of fouls in this parifh is 760 males, and 864 fe- 
males, in all 1604, of which only 80 are Proteflants. Be. 
fides thb number, upwards of 2:0 left this country within 
the lad 2 ybars ; fome emigrated to the iiland of St John's, 
and Nova Scotia, in North America, being inveigled thither 
by a Mr F»»* upon promifes of the undifturbed profeiBon 
of their religion, (being all Roman Cathdlics), and of free 
property for themfelves, and their offspring for*ever ; but 
how foon they were landed, he left them to their ihifts, 
and returned back to his native country *. 

Superiority. — ^Barray held originally of the Kings of 
Scotland till the reign of James VI. when an Englifh 


« Thcfe poor people were left in tbe moil deplonble fihution. If 
the inhabitants ot* the different places in which they landed, had not ex- 
erted themfelves for their relief, many of them muft have perilhed, for 
want of the common neceflkries of life. They became fenliMe of dieir 
folly when it was too late ; otlien went to Glafgow, being invited thi- 
ther by Mr David Dale, to work in hit cotton mannfhAory ; bat Mr 
Dale's terms not coming up to their expe<^ations, fome of them returned 
home ; and many of them, from a change of diet and occupation, con* 


of Barray. 333 

ihip was feizcd upon the cpafl by Roderick Macniel, then 
Laird of Barraj, furnamed Ruarj 'n* tarter, or Rory the 
turbulent, probably fo called, from the frequent depreda- 
tions he committed in different places, which were not un- 
common in thofe days. Queen Elizubeth complained to 
the Court of Scotland of this aft of piracy committed up- 
on her fubjefts ; upon which, the Laird pf Barray wa* 
fummoned to appear at Edinburgh, to anfwer for his un- 
juftifiable behaviour ; but he either refufed or defpifed the 
fummons* Several attempts were made afterward to ap- 
prehend him, which proved unfuccefsful. Mr Mackenzie, 
commonly called the tutor of Kintail, predeceiTor to the late 
Lord Macleo^, undertook to effeft by (Iratagem, what o- 
thers could not do by more direft means. Having come, 
under cover of a friendly vifit, to the Caftle of Kifimul, 
where the Laird then refided, he invited him and all his 
retainers on board, who not fufpefting any hoflile defign, 
fuHered themfelves to be overpowered with exceis of li- 
quor, fo that all his friends were eaiily perfuaded to go on 
ihore, and truft their chief in the hands of one who had fo 
hofpitably entertained them *. 


tn^ed diftempen, of which they died ; many more prepared themfelves 
ibr emigration, but repented time enough to avoid the fnare intci which 
their friends have been inconfiJerately ied, by going to America ; they 
alfo fold their effe<^.i, and fpent the money ariiing from the converfion, 
fo that they would have been deftitute in their native country ; but Mr 
Macneil, the proprietor not only gave them, and fuch as returned from 
Olafgow, lands, bat likewife money enough to porchafe a new ftock of 
cattle, and all the other neceflkry implements of hufbandry. The fpirit 
for emigration is now happily and totally fupprefled. 

* Kintail improved the advantage put into his hands, hoiiled fail un- 
der night, and the wind proving fair, he was foon oat of reach of his 


334 Statijlical Account 

Antiquities and Ouriqfities, ^^Thert are fevcral duns lii 
this parifli, moft of which were built by the Danes, other 3 
of greater anti<juitj, built by the natives, to defend them* 
felves againft the encroachments of the neighbouring clans« 
as alfo of the Danes, when they invaded thofe iflancU. 
The Danilh duns are 11 in number, 5 on the ifl^d of 
Barray, 2 in Waterfay, 1 in Sanderay, i in Perbay, i in 
Mengalay, and i in Berneray, the laft of which is taken 
notice of by the learned Dr Macpherfon of Slate, in his 
antiquities, and is more entire than any of the reft. Each 
of thefe duns is in fight of fome other, that, in ca(e of arx 
invafion, the alarm might be the more fpeedily communi- 
cated to the whole. That upon the ifland of Berneray, 
being the fartheft fouth, it may be fuppofed, ferved for a 
pharos or watch tower, as well as a place of defence, as 
did another in the ifland of Grifkay, (the property of Co- 
lin Macdonald, Efq; of Boifdale, but at that time the pro- 
perty of the Laird of Barray,) on the eaft. While the 
Danes were in poiTeflion of thefe iflands, they confined the 
natives to their own duns, which are all built on frefh water 


purfoen. He at length irrived virith his prtfoner at EdtDbnrgh, wher^ 
be was tried for his life. Being interrogated why he treated Queen Eli- 
zabeth's fubjedls with fuch barbarity, he replied, that he thought himfelf 
bound, by his loyalty, to retaliate, av much as lay in his power, the u&« 
pardonable injury done by the Queen of England to his own Sovereign^ 
and his Majefty's mother. By this anfiver, he obuined his MajcftyS par- 
don, but forfeited his eftatc, which was given to Rintail, who reftored 
it back to the Laird of Barray, on condition of holding of him, and pay. 
iDg him 60 merks Scots as a yearly feu-duty. Some time after, Sir 
James Macdonald of Slate, great-great-grandfather of the prelent Lord 
Macdonald, married a daughter of Kintail's, who made over the fuperi- 
ority tu Sir James, either as a prefent or as a part of his daughter's dowry. 
The fuperiority continues in the family of Macdonald to this day. 

of Barray. 33^ 

lochs* or fmall creeks fonned by the fea ; whereas thofe 
of the Danes are built upon eminences *. 

Fijhery. — ^Therc are great quantities of cod and ling 
catched upon the £. coaft of this ifland. The fiihing banks 
extend from the mouth of Loch Boifdale to Barrayhead ; 
from 70 to 30 boats are generally employed in this bufi- 
nels from the latter end of March, or the beginning of * 
April, to the end of June, and five hands in every boat j 
at an average they kill from 1000 to 1500 ling to each 
boat. Mr Macneil of Waterfay, who took an ezad account 
pf the number of ling fent to Glafgow in the year 1787, 
found it to amount to 30,000, befides a great number fold 
in the country. They have not been equally fuccefsfiil at 


* At one time, the Dani(h governor made alliance with Macneil of 
Barray, by marrying his daughter. But after the battle of Largs, the 
power of the Danes began every where to decline ; and fuch of them as 
remained here after the Ebudfe. were rellored to the King of Scotland, 
were expelled or maflacred by the natives. In one of the adjacent iflands, 
there is a coUe^ion of human bones, where it is faid the laft of the Danes * 
were murdered. In Kilbar are two churches, built by the monks, be- 
longing to Icolumkill; another at Borne, dedicated to St Michael. 
In Caftle-bay, it a fort, built upon a rock, which muft have formerly been 
alrooft covered with ihe ff a. This fort is of a hexagonal form ; the wall 
is near 30 feet high ; in one of its angles is a high fquare tower, on the 
top of which, at the comer immediately above the gate, is a perforated 
ilonc, through which the gockroan or watchman, who fat there all night, 
let a ftone fail upon any per Ion who attempted to furprife the gate by 
night. Within the wall are feveral houfes, and a well dug through the 
middle of the rock. The tradition here is, that this fort was built up. 
wards of 500 years ago. Buchanan cklls it an old caflle in bis time. 
It has always been the refidence of the Lairds of Barry, till the begtnniof 
of the prefeot century. Here are alfo feveral Druidical temples^ none 
of them remarkable for extent or ftru<flure ; near one of thefe is a well* 
which mnft have been once famous for its medicinal quality, u tUb for 
curing or preventing the efieds of fafcination. It is ctlled tobbu OM 
Imadb, er the well of virtues. There arc a few miqeral fpringi, 

33^ Statiftical Account 

all times ; but one year %vith another the qilantitj may be 
computed at 30,0^0 ling, befides cod. They carry their 
fifh to Glafgow in the very boats they ufe at the fiOiing, 
where the ling fell from L. 5 to L. 6 the hundred. Her- 
ring has often been got here in great abundance ; but the 
want of fait has fometimes prevented the inhabitants from 
deriving any conCderable advantage from it. It is to be 
regretted, that the feverity of the falt-Uws hinders the poor 
people here from ufing any other than what is got from 
the cuflomhoufe, which lies at the diftance of 10 leagues ; 
if the Legiflature thought proper to remove this grievance, 
Alhing of various kinds might become a fource of affluence 
to the people in general, of wealth to individuals, and the 
public markets would be more plentifully fupplied. They 
have been at times fo fuccefsful m the caraban fiihing as to 
be entitled to fome of the premiums granted by the Board 
of Truftecs \ they alfo make fome dog-fiih and cuddy oil, 
fome of which they burn in their lamps* the overplus they 
fell at yd. or 8d. the Scotch pint, borne have even been 
known to pay their rents with the oil extruded from the 
fmall fiih called cuddy. Shell tilh abound here, fuch as 
limpets, mufcKa, wilks, clams, fpout fiih, or razor-iiih, 
lobders, crabs, &c. &c. but what is Angularly beneficial to 
the inhabitants, is the fiiell fifli caUed cockle. It is found 
upon the great fand on th^ N. end of Barray, in fuch quan- 
tities, that in times of great fcarcity all the families upon 
the ifland (about aco) rcfort to it for their daily fubfifl- 
ence. It has been computed, that the two lull fummers, 
which were peculiarly diflrefiiing on account of the great 
fcarcity, no lefs than from ico to 200 horfe-loads of cockles 
were tikenoffthe fands at low- water everyday ot thefpring- 
tides during the months of May, June, July, and Augiifl. 
If tbe people made ufe of cockles in plentiful years, they 
3 ^^^ 


of Bar ray. 337 

might &ve as much bread as would prevent a fcarcitj in 
the word of times *• 

Harbamrs. — ^The firft towards the N. is Otttrvore, which 
is more properly a road than a harbour ; the entrance to it 
is from the £. between the iflands of Griikaj and Gigay. 
The next further S. is Flodday Sound, furronnded by a 
nomber of iflands, and opens to the S. £• ; here the largeft 
ihtps may ride with fiifety all the feafons of the year. Ti- 
rivahy or the inland bay, £d called from its cutting far into 
the middle of the coudtry 4 here veiTels may ride out the 
hardcft gales ; it opens aifo to the S. £• Oo the S. end of 
Barray is Kiflmttlbay, fe called by the natives, and by 
mariners Caftle-bay, from the old caftle formerly men- 
tioned ; it opens to the Su la the ifland of VVaterfiiy is a 
very commodtoos haifiour for (hips of any burden ; it is ac- 
ceffible from the S. £. between the iflands of Sanderay and 
Muldonich, or the Deer Ifland. Ottirvore and Flodday 
are nuich frequented by ibips to and from the Bultic. The 
convenience of thefe harbottra, and the great quantity of 
6ih killed upon the eo^, fliould make Barray a more eli- 
gible fituation for a village than any that the joint-flock 
company have }iet pitched upon. Thefe harbours have 
good outlets for the S. and N. and are near the fiihing- 

Vol. XIII. Uu banks; 

* Bacbttian is unclvubtedly miftaken, when he tflrrts, that the cockle 
originated from fmall animalculi coming down along with the water of . 
a fpring in the top of a green hill above the fand. It is true, there is fuch 
a'hill, with a fpring on the fummit of it ; but any i^'ater running from it 
does not come to the fea^ being abforbcd by the inter^'ening ground, 
which is fandy ; beOdes, that it is allowed by all natural ift«, that vttty 
animal procreates its own fpecies. Bat this vulgar notion prevails amon^ 
the iiihabiomts to this day. The fhell of the cockle maket the whiteft, if 
not th« flitofigeft lime ; they lie in great banks on the le»>fide| where a 
imlll vtflll 0ay be loadtd in a tide. 

336 Statijlical Account 

banks; they alfo abound in (mall cod and floundeni. 
There are foms frefii water lochs with plenty of troat* 

Religion, Stipmd, School, Places ofWwJhip, Poor, Wr.— • 
The Proteftant religion univerfaUj prevailed here till aftev 
the Reftoration ; when the Church of England was efla- 
blilhed in Ireland, fome Iriih priefis took banifliment firon^ 
that kingdom to thofe iflands} at that tine Harris and 
fiarray made one pariifa ; the minifter always refided in 
the former, and was at too great a diftance firom the latter ^ 
fo that the inhabitants were ezpofed to the artifices of the 
priefis, who taking advantage of the abfence of the mini- 
iter, and the ignorance of the times, perverted the people. 
The ftipend of this parilh is 2 chalders meal, and 900 
merks Scots, of which 300 are paid out of the una&ded 
tiends of South Uift, together with 56 for communion-ele* 
ments. There is no manfe *. The glebe is a fmall farm 
given by the heritor, when this place was ei:eded into a 
parifli* to the Preibytery, on condition that every incum*- 
l>ent ibould pay 46 merks Scots yearly rent ; the whole 
may be valued at L. 12. The number of Proteftants has 
been always fo fmall, that it was thought nnneceflary tQ 
put the heritor to the ezpenfe of building a church. 
There is no fohool here but one granted by the Society fop 
Propagating Chriftian Knowledge, which is now upon a 
more refpe&able footing than formerly, as the Society, 
fince the laft vifitation by the Rev. Mr Kemp, their fecre- 
tary, have augmented the (cdary from L. Z2 to L. 15 ; the 


* A (hort time after the prefent ipcnoibcnt was fettled in the pariih, 
Mr Macoeil, the heritor, went to America at the cammencenient of the 
laft war. The minifter agreed with his man of bu6nefi at Edinbnrgh to 
accept of L. 10 a-year for his munfe, and melioratibn for any houle he 
(hottld build to accommodate himfelf, till thq heritor (bould retam* Jhf 
matter lh|ids fo ftill. 

of Sarray. 339 

iierltor ha? built a good fchool-houfe, ad alfo a boufe for the 
mafter, and has furnifhed the (chooltnailer with all the con- 
veniences required by the Society. At the lad vifitation 
upwards of 40 fcholars attended ; it might be of conlider- 
Stbfe benefit if it was equally well throughout the year ; 
but in the bufy feafons, fuch as feed-time and harveft, the 
parents are obliged to withdraw their children. There 
are three places of worihip, vi%. Kilbar, Borve, and Wa- 
ter&y. The minifter preaches two Sundays at Borre, 
which is only a mile and a half from his own houfe ; the 
third Sunday at Kilbar, at the diftance of 3 miles ; and thd 
fourth at Waterfay, which, including a ferry of i mile, is 
at the diftance of 5 miles. The inhabitants of the South 
ifles are all Roihan Catholics ; the prieft goes there only 
twice a-year, unlels by a particular call to vific the fick, 
and to adminifler extreme unftion. What renders this 
pariih fingularly troublefome, is its diftance from the feats 
of Prefljytery and Synod ; the in North Uift, at the 
diftance of 40 miles, beiides a ferry of 8 miles, where he 
attends two ftated Prefbyteries in the year, the one in the 
beginning of December, and the other the middle of 
March ; befides occaiional meeting?, and attendance upoti 
facraments in North Uift and Harris, the laft of which is 
at the diftance of near 60 miles, beiides the ferry already 
snentiotted, and that between North Uift and Harris, 12 
siiles in length ; thisdiftance the minifter is fometimes undet 
the neeeflity qf walking on foot^ though at other timeSy 
when horfes are in good order, he is obliged to the gene* 
rofity of the principal gentlemen on the way for the iife of 
their horfes, which he takes this occafion to acknowledge. 
The feat of the Synod, which is Glenelg, on the continent 
of Scotland, is at the diftance of 30 leagues by fca, when he 
muft be at the espenfe of boat and crew *, and if he goes 
from hence to North Uift, to take paffagc by the packet- 


34^ Statijlical AccoutU 

boat to &unveggan» and then through Skj, the diAance 
is much greater, and the expenfes more confiderablew— » 
The number of poor b generallj from 40 to 50 ; dicre 
are L. 400 Sterling of a fund for them, L. loo of whkh 
is a mortification bj Archibald Macneil, hte tackf- 
man of Sanderay, and L. 100 bj Roderick Shaw, tackfrnaa 
of Alafdale, now living v they never go anj where elfe t^ 
colled their fubiiftence. 

Servants^ Wages^ iic. — ^Thc number of fervants depends 
upon the extent of land a man pofiefles ; a farm of any 
confiderable extent, according to the prefent mode of farm- 
ing, employs 5 or 6 men, 4 or 5 maid fervants, and a or 
3 bojs ; the wages of a labouring man fervai»t, for th« 
whole year, are from L» i« ids. to L. 2. ; the bojs have 
from 15 s. to L. i, 5 s. ;- women from 15 s. to L. 1. BeGdes 
the above wages, the men and bojs get a feventh part of 
the crop to divide among them, the grieve has double wa- 
ges. Giving them a ihare of the crop, makes them more 
induftrious, and binds them fafter to the matter's intereft» 
as it is for the time infeparably conneded with their own. 
Such a number of fervants muft be verj burdenfome to a 
farmeri and muft run away with a great ihare of the pro« 
duce of hb farm ; but the difficulty of winning their peats, 
which is the only fuel ufed here, renders it neceflary to 
keep fo many fervants, and double the number of horfes 
that would be fufficient for their ploughing -, for a farmer 
that muft keep fuch a number of fervants, muft alfo keep 
X 6 or 18 horfes, both which are almoft wholly employed 
drying and carrying home their peats, from the beginning- 
of June, when the fowing b at an end, till the latter end 
of Auguft, when the reaping comes on. If the Legifla- 
ture thought proper to take the duty off coal, it might, in 

Of Barraj. 34I 

a great mearate, alleviate this grievance; and if the hx^ 
Tiiefs could nfe coal, inftead of peats, tfiej might employ 
their fervants for verj ufefid purpofes, fuch as, making 
Kelpv buflding walls, making indofures, compofis, ^c. iSc. 

MifetBanious Oifervaiitms.'^The Gaelic is the enlj lan- 
guage commonlj fpoken here, and I believe the pureft 
diftleA of it to be met mth in any country; though by 
their frequent ezcnrfions to Gfatlgow, the people have in« 
troduced a number of Engliih words. Numbers of the in- 
habitants, who attended the fchool, fpe^k Engliih tolerably 
inrell.— There are 200 tons kelp fent annually to the mar- 
kets of Liverpool and Leith, and fetch the beft price 
that is given for any that is fent from any part of the 
Hi^Iands ; fifli and oil are fent to Glafgow ;' price as for- 
merly mentioned. There are alfo from 200 to 250 head 
of cattle fold to drovers, at an average, about L. a, 5 s. a- 
head, great and fmall, befides about 100 hides of beef fent 
to Glafgow, or fold on the neareft part of the continents 
The number of horfes here is 557 ; cows, 11 70, the num- 
ber of foums in iheep, 277, which, at the rate of 8 Iheep to 
the foum, is 2216. — ^The weather is rather inconftant. The 
W. and S. W. winds blow moft frequently here, and prove 
very deftruAive to corn. This lafl winter was very wet 
and flormy, much the fame with that of 1790, both which 
have been the mofl diftreiEng to the people here, in the 
memory of any man living. We have had very little 
fnow this winter or fpring, and none at all the two pre- 
ceding. The fea feems to have made fome encroachmenta 
here. The tradition here is, that 3 or 4 generations back, 
(he cattle ufed to feed in places, where kelp is made at this 
day i but now it can hardly go any farther, as the (hore 
along the weft coaft, (where the fea could have made any 
progrels formerly), is almoft all rocky, and may ferve as a 


342 Statijlical Atxodnt 

fttffideot btrrier againft anj future encroachments. It is 
to be obfetred, that notwithftanding the great quantities 
of filh killed upon this coaft, the proprietor never claimed 
any emoluments from that lucrative bufinefe, but allowed 
the people to make the beft of it for themfelves ; and he 
alii^ays gives premiums to the firft people that diicover 
the arrival of the herrings upon the coaft ; nor does an j 
proprietor in the neighbouring pariih derive anj advan- 
tage from the fifliing there.-^*The iiland of Barraj, with 
all the furronnding iilands, is the property of Roderick 
Macneily £iq; of Barray, whofe predecefTors are iidd co 
have been in ppfTeflion of thofe iflands before the Daaes^ 
and were the firft of that name who came from Ireland^ 
whence thej derive their pedigree ; fo that they have al* 
ways been acknowledged the chief of the Macnicls iji 


of AnwBtb. 343 


(CouKTT OF SUri(CUDBR|ght> Stnod qf GallowaYi 


Bjf the RiV' Mr Hugh Gordon, 

Namtf Extent f Surface^ Sml^ %Sc. 

IN old records, refpe£Hng this parifhy dated about 60 
years ago, it is fpelled Anwotb^ fometimes Anweth^ 
and at other times jlnwortb^ but the name Anwoth is at 
prefent retained, and its origin, we believe, cannot now be 
sdcertained. The parilh is about 6^ miles long, from N. £• 
to S. W. and 34 broad. The fea-fliore, which bounds 
the parifli for about %\ miles from the mouth of the river 
Fleet, to the confines of Kirkmabreck, is generallj flat and 
^ockj, though in one place it is bold and elevated. It 
contains no harbours. The land which lies upon the fea^- 
(hore, and near the mouth of the river, is in general flat ; 
tl^e foil is dry and fertile, lying for the mbft part on a bed 
of fand or gravel. This part produces excellent crops of 
gr;un and grais \ but the foil bebg thin, it is much injured 

344 Statjfikal Account 

by dry fieafons. Farther np the river, towards the north, 
the furface becomes more uneven, broken, and barren, 
and hills, which are not very elevated, every where aip* 
pear. The leffer part here is arable, excepting a finall 
ftrip on the banks of the river. On the borders of Kirk- 
mabreck, the country becomes rather mountkinous ; the 
hills are covered with heath, intermixed with grais, and 
principally appropriated to feeding flieep. As foon as the 
traveller turns his pye towards that part of the pariQi, 
which lies along the river, and on the fea-ihore, a beauti- 
ful profped opens to his view. This fpot, liatare has em- 
belliihed with fome of her fined ornaments, to which have 
been added fome of the improvements of art. There is a 
great variety of profpeds. For about 6 miles along the 
banks of the river, and at fome diftance from it, there is a 
confiderable quantity of natural and planted wood, which 
being intermixed with gentlemen's feats and cultivated 
£elds, having the river on one fide, and the hUls on the 
other, rifing at proper diftasces, forrn^ one of the moft 
beautiful profpeds that is to be found in this part of Gal- 
loway. Thefe woods grow on the eflates of Mefirs Max- 
well of Cardonefs, MaccuUoch of Ardwell, Murray of 
Broughtion, Hannay of Rufco. They confill moftly of oak, 
alh» birch, and fir, and it is believed, that if fold at 20 
yeara growth, they would give L. 7000 Sterling. 

ClimaU.-r^Tht climate here, like that of all diftrias 
Inhere the elevation of the land, in one place, difiers- fo 
much from that of another, varies, in different parts of the 
parifli. It is often (harp and cold on the hills, while it is 
warm and comfortable on the ihore, and in the vallies. In 
winter and fpring, the tops of the hills are fometimes co> 
vered with fnow, when,, about a mile or two diflant, on the 
(hore« and in the vallies, there is not a fpeck of it to be 


♦ ofAnwcth 345 

fficfi, and' a general' verdure appears on the face of the 
groan^.* ^Though the faiBs on the weit ^ttrafl: the clouds, 
and eaafe them to difehar^e a confiderable quantity of rain, 
jet as the general furface declines towards the fea and the 
river, and as the foil is fuch that it readily abforbs the 
witer,- ttfe air is for the xhoft part as dry, pure, and falu- 
briofis, aar" arty virfiere^n the neigh bourhbod. No epidemi- 
cal '»di(eaies* are preVail here, the meafles and 
ftiall-pax excepted ; to prevent the baleful e£Feds of the 
latter, inocntation is notir generally ufed. ' 

UnffTi.^^The river Fleet runs on the borders of this 
pfariih about 7 miles ; one branch of Trhich iifues from a 
fmd lo^'of'' the fame name, in the parifli of Girthon ; 
the other branch has its fource in the parifli of Kirkma- 
breck, near the bafe of a very high hitt, called Cairnfmuir. 
It is navigable for fmall veflels- of about 50 tons as far as the 
viQige of Gatehoufe, which is fituated about 3 miles from 
t^e moiithof the river. Fifli are not plenty in this river; 
a few falmon, fea troitt, yellow trout; and flounders, are 
caught in it/ The falmon and fea trout are taken with 
draught nets, but the quantity h fo fmall, that it will fcarce 
defray the expenfe of hbour, and is not a tenth ^wX. of 
what it was 50 year5 wgo. They are caught from May to 
the middle of Augufl. and fold in Gatehoufe and the neigh- 
bonrhood at about 3d. the pound. 

Hills. ^^The moft remarkable hill in this parifti is Cairn. 
harrah, which is fituated partly in this parifb, and partly in 
Kirkmabreck. It is elevated above the fea about x too 
feet. The foil on it is of a mofly kind, covered with 
heath, intermixed with grals, and not much incumbered 
with rocks. It is the higheft ground in this part of the 
country, Cairnfmuir excepted, commanding an extenfive 

Vol. XIII. Xx view 

346 StatiftktA Account 

view of the adjacent countr j, of the Hum of Wigtoo^ oC 
the Ifle of Man, of a part of Cumbcdaod, and of the hi^ 
land on the coaft of Lrdand* It cadhabits no ¥okanic w^ 

Population. — ^According to Dr Wdbftcr'a scfortt ibe 
pojtnlatian in 1755 waa 531* The nnaabcr of iobabirgBft* 
in this parilh has within thcfe 50 jcafs confidtimblj di- 
miniihed. At that tisMr^ the number amomitfd to 50P 
examinable perfont* Lail year (X793) an exa& enwno* 
ration of the inhabitants^ of all ages, was made, when thej 
amounted 10495; 370 of whom wetemaks, and 225 fe* 
nules« About 450 of the inhabitants live 11^ the countr/ 
part of the pari£h» and the reft in a village^ wU^ as in its 
infant ftate. It is hoik on the river Fkctr OH^^ ^ 
Gatehoufe, and being conneded with it by n bKt4gP it i^ 
confidered as part of the iSune village. The iahidutiwoy m 
the viUage are moflly employed in munu&duroig colto«» 
which a few months ago was eiirnied oa with fpini aftd 
fuccefa, but like many other branches of tiadei. S is now 
almofi given up. The decreafe of the inhabitants is eauiad 
partly by fame of the proprietors taking farms into their 
natural polleffion to improve them, and coi^ainiRg fevicaal 
in one when again let, aad partly to the viciaky of the 
pariih to the village of Gatehoufe, to which many of then 
have removed, where thofe who formerly were eotnmaa 
labourers, commence fpinning cotton, and trade&nen fol- 
low their former occupacions. I fiad the annual nvwage 
of marriages from i^jo to z 760 to be 4> and thai of Ueths 
la ; for a long time thereafter (he rqgiftration fcems to be 
difcontinued. The annual average of births dutiog.tbefe 
3 laft years has been xo,. and that of marriages i. There 
. are 9 proprietors belonging to the pariib« a of whom con- 
ftaotly refide in it, and x pccafionally. By £ur the g!?eater 
3 aiunber 

tf Afuwfnh. 347 

namber of die Inhabihuits are tenants or cotta^rs. There 
«e 6 wearers, 4 tulors^ a fhoemakers, 5 wrightSi 6 ma- 
Cons, 3 finidifiy and a miUexa. All the inhabitants are of 
die Eftabfiihed Charch.' It would be imoeceflary, it is pre- 
famed, to attempt to give a peculiar charader of the inha- 
bitants. In every pariih in which no town is iituated, and 
where fiew people of fottune refide, the inhabitants moil be 
nearly imilar in manners to their neighbours. I (hall only 
oUerver that they ate in general fober and induftrioos, 
and, with fevend ezeeptions, enjoy in a moderate degree 
the comfiMts and conveniencies of life. 

!^jiamiiif of Acrts^ Rattf C/f.-— There is no map of die 
whole pariih. The quantity of acres amounts to about 
8600, nearly 1900 of which is arable. The valued rent of 
the pariih is L* 2871 Scots ) the real rent is about L. aaoo 
Sterling. Some fiurms are rented fo low as L. 10 a-year ; 
others fo hij^ as L. aoc 1 it is believed the average is 
aboot L. 6o. Beil araUe land is in general let at 15 s. the 
acre; but fome contiguous to the village is taken in fmall 
^piaatities at double that price. The improvement of land 
in this pariih and the neighbourhood has been very rapid 
widiin thele few years. Fortnerly there were but few en- 
dofures, and the ground was in its natural itate ; confe- 
qoendy, when tilled, it yielded but fmall returns to the 
farmer, fometimes two, fomedmes threefold. Now the 
land is generally endoled, and before it is broken up, it is 
improved with ihells, marl, or lime. There is fome marl 
in the pariih, and the ihells on the iea-ibore fetm to be in* 
exhanfiibie. Lime is brought from Cumberland, and fold 
at 1 8. the Carlifle bnihel, 50 of which are commonly laid 
on an acre. For the moft part 3, fomedmes 4 crops of 
gram are taken from die land thus improved, with the laft 


348 Statijliclil Account 

of which clover and rje^gra^ fixds are fowa. The fol- 
lowing year the grata is fometimes cut for hay, and 
fometimea paftured The land lies 6 or more years befiore 
it is again broken op, and affords excellent paftoie . £>r 

Animal and Vegetable ProduBianst^^A. n^iich greater 
qnantity both of grain and cattle is produced ib the parifli 
than is neceffarj for the fuftenance of its inhabitants. Abont 
650 acres are employed in railing oats, 70 in barley, and a 
few acres in potatoes, about i at an average to each farm. 
The foil is not confidered to be well adapted to the produc* 
tion of wheat, though in fome'fpots good crops of it have 
been raifed. Little attention is paid to the cultivation of 
hemp and lint, Oats is the principal crop. The grain 
not confumed in the parifh is partlj fold in the neighbour- 
hood, and partly (hipped for Whitehaven, Liverpool, and 
the Clyde. There are about ti6o black cattle, 140 
horfes, and 40C0 (heep in the parifli. A few catde are 
fatted for home confomption, or fold to butchers, who 
{laughter them in the neighbouring towns and villages \ 
but the greater part are fold when three years old to dro- 
vers, who take them to the Engliih market. They are of 
a middle iize, fatten well, and weigh far beyond their ap- 
parent bulk. The fheep which pafiure on the mooriih part 
of the parifh are of a middle fize ; their face and legs are 
black, the body white. They fell at about L. 7 a fcore, of 
21 to the fcore, before they are fatted ; their wool is rather 
coarfe, and is fold about 9 s. the done, of 38 pounds. 
There is another- kind commonly called muggs ; they are 
much larger ; their wool is fiir fiiperior, both in quantity 
and quality, but their fleih is not reckoned near fo delicious 
as that of the moor Iheep. The kind moft efteemed in the 


ofAnwo^L 349 

cultivated part of the country is a crois breed ; that id, be* 
tWeen the moor ram- and oiogg ewe, or tice verja *• 

Limngi Schovi^ Poor.— The manfe was boilt abbut 4^ 
je^TS ago, and is now receiving a confiderable repidn The 
patron is David Max^u^ell of Cardoneis, Eilq, The fiipend 
of the parifh in ordinary years is s^bput L. 80 ; a part of 
thby however, being payable in grain, it is fometimes a 
Jittle tibove, and fometimes below that fum. The glebe 
contains about 6 or 7 acres.— The public fchool is at. the 
church. About 30 or 40 fcholars attend in winter, but 
fewer in fummer. They . are taught reading Engliih, 
writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, French, prafiical ma- 
thematics, and JLatin. The emoluments of the fchool are 
L. 1 1 . of yearly falary, is. 6 d« the quarter for . teaching 
£nglifh, 2 s. for waiting, 2 s. 6 d. for arithmetic, 3 s. .for 
Latin and French, and ids. 6 d. for teaching a fet of book* 
keeping. The {choolmafier alfo receives L. a, 2s.a-year, 
(together with 2 s. 6 d. for. each proolamation), for being 
feffion^derk and precentor if he holds thele oiEces«->-There 


* Setd Time and Sfafvfftf PriV^/.-^TIie ordinary time of Cowing oats 
here it from the loth of March to the aoth of April; and potatoes are 
planted and bariry fown from the loth of April to the end of rhe firlfc 
week in May. In wnrm and dry feafons, when ti>e crops come fooner to 
maturity, the harreft begins rather before the middle of Aaguft, and is 
concluded in the courfe of 5 weeks. In wet and cold feafons, however, 
the harveft is much later. The ordinary price of beef and mutton is 3 d. 
of pork 4 d. of batter 6 d. and of cheefe 3 d. the pound of 16 ounces. The 
AVinchelUr bufliel of oats is commonly is. 8 d. and of barley is. 6 d. 
The ftcne Of meal is I s. 8 d. but at prefent all thefe articles, particularly 
grain, are much higher. The common wages for labourers are 1 1. the day, 
but when employed in ceruin kinds of work they have more. Mafonsand 
Wrights receive i s. 8 d. or a s. the day; tailors 10 d. and vidluals. The 
prdinary wages for a male-fcrvant, when he hires for the half-year, art 
)^ ^ ; for a maid-fervant, L. i, 15 s. 

35^ Stat0ical Account 

are xo perfooft on the poor's lift, fome of whom tre taurel/^ 
fappotted ; brnxi who can eani part of theii: fiift^ yii^ i^. 
oeive a quarterly aid, and others an occafional one, as their 
fieceffities require. The fiind for this pnrpofe aiiles from 
the wftekly coUeAioos, amounting to about L. 14 a-jear, 
from duca received for the ufe of the mortcloth, fines tn- 
pofed on delinqueniB, and from the intereft of L. top lent 
money. This kft fum has accumulated, partly from do- 
nations, and partly from the overplus of the poors funds, 
after their necei&ties had been fnpplied. 

jtntiqukigs. — ^There are two old buildings in the parifli, 
the Tower of Rufco, and Caftle of Cardoneb. The for- 
mer has a flate roof on it, and is inhabited ; the latter has 
had no roof in the memory of the oldeft perfon living. 
Both are nearly of a fquare form, and like many of the old 
buildings feem to have been dcfigned for ftrength and mag. 
nificence rather than convenience. They have no charaAeia 
on them by which dieir age can be afcertained ; nor can 
we find any records in which it is mentioned. Both thefe 
ftand on the banks of the Fleet ; the Tower about 2\ 
miles above where the river ceafes to be navigable, and 
the Caftle a mile below where it becomes navigable. This 
latter b fituated on an eminence, or point of land, Ipoking 
towards the bay at the mouth of the river, and a more 
beautiful fitfaation and profpeA can hardly be imagined *• 


« At the S. W. e«d of the parUh there if 1 betutiful moat, (landing 
•a 1 fteep and rockj peninfula that juts out into the Tea. It has been 
completely fortified by a deep trench, cut quite acroft the narrow piece 
of ground that joins it to the main land* Near to this moat ftands a thin 
ilooe, nearly perpendicular, $ feet 3 inches high, engraved on both fidef 
with the mde figure of a crofs, accompanied with feveral ornamental 
ftrokes, which fome antiquaries fuppofed to be Runic infcriprtons. An 

6fAniwotb. 351, 

On Ike tflf of a hill, about half a nik S. £. of the church, 
b one of tbofe vitrified foita which have lately excited the 
curiofity of modem antiquaries. It confiils of a fteep rock, 
elevated about 300 fleet above the^ievel of the fta, and 19 
fortified on the moft acceffible jdaoca. with a doable fofiei 
The top, which forms a level ana 30 .paeea long and to 
broad, is nearly fittrounded with an irregvhtr ridge of 
IfQofe fioofs, intennized with vaft qaantiiies of vitrified 
matter. The ftoaes^ confifiing of the eommon bine icbiflns 
of the country, have been foftened, twified, and partly fiified 
by the fire. Thcfe heapa of loofe ikmes and vitrified not* 
ter are fcattered irregolarly over the top of the fort, and 
exhibit no appearance of having ever formed a ^'^mi^itTBfd 
walL The vicrificatioo is only partial and fiiperficial, add 
ieems to have been the acddenlal effisA of large fires kind- 
led on thefe high rocks, either for feme domefiic pufpofe, 
or for fignals to abrm the conntry im the approach of as 
enemy. It was formerly believed that thefe vitrified forts 
were peculiar to that part of the ifland which is N. of the 
Forthr But befidea the one deforibed above, there are 
other two in this country, and they all command a very 
•xtttsfive profpeA of the foa. On the S. fide of this fiMt, 
~ there is a broad flat flone, inicribed with (everal waving 
and fpiral Kaes, which exhibit however no regular figure* 
New it Itkewifo were lately found feveral fihrer coins ; 
one of King Edward VI.; the reft of Queen £lia». 
hflth; each of then foens to contain about one third or 


mm& 4nwvinff of tfait ftona hu been Utdf feat bjr Mr Rcid to tfao Loo* 

don Society of Antiquaries. This moat and fto«e feaoi both to have been 
formerly eitlier places or object of roligious worihip. And the fisore of 
the crofs (eenis to have been a pious artifice of fonne Chriftian miffiooaries, 
hi order to fan^tfy the idotatroits wohhrp which their new converts paiA 
to thefe perpendicular ftoaes. 


35 2 Stdti/iiedl Account 

fourth' of an ounce of filvrr ; foitie of them are in the po£^ 
feffion of Mils Brown in Borknd. 

Dtrivaiioti of Namis.^^Some names* of phces hett ftrc 
.{aid by thofe who know fomething of the Saxon,* to be de^ 
rived from that language. Scerabam (Skyfebum, the 
name of a bom or fmall river which mas throngh tbe pa- 
ttih) figniiies Clear Biimv this feems to be defcriptive of 
the colour of its water. CardoneCs, derived from Cwv vt 
fort, Don or Duji a hill, and Nets a point of hmd jtitting 
out imo the fea ; that is, the fort fituated on the hill jotting 
out into the fea. This u alfo very defcriptive of the Htxta.* 
lion of the Caftle. The fea ftill flows to within a fe^ paces 
of it ; and from the banks of (hells that are depofited on «sch 
fide of the point of land on which it ia built, it appears 
that the fca, at no very diftant period, «waflied the rock on 
which it now fiands. .. Some^names are iaid to be derived 
from the Gaelic. ' . ■ 

Advantages and DiJadvantagex-^t^Thc ad vantages of this 
parifh are, its vicinity to the Tea, on account of which, lime 
and other articles are got with very little land-carriage, 
and great quiuitities of ihells lie on the Ihore, in the lower 
end of the parifli, which experience has proved to be well 
adapted to the improvement of knd. The great road from 
Carlifle to Portpatrick pafles through the parifh. The other 
roads in it are judicioufly direfted, and generally in good re- 
pair. The fcarcity of fuel is one difadvantage ; peats are not 
plenty *, in fome places of the parifh they mufl be carried 
' 4 miles. The coals ufed muft be brought from Cumberland 
or Ayrfliire ; the high duty hitherto impofcd on which, 
rendered them extremely dear, and amounted aim fl to 
a prohibition againfl their being ufed by the middle and 
lower ranks. 


9f GarOald and Bara, 353 




tCouKTT OF Haddington, Synod of Lothian and 


By the Rev. M^ Andrew Nisbet. 

Name^ Extent ^ Climate^ Soil^ and Surface. 

BY fodie perfotis who underftand the Gaelic, it is fkid 
that Garvald b compounded of two words iii that 
khguagCi vi%. Gar, rough or rugged, and Vald, a fmall 
watet 6r bum. This etymology is exafUy defcriptive of 
the local fituatioa of Garvald^ for the village is fituated 
Vol. XIII. Y y upoa 

* The pftriihes of Ganrald and Baro wr re united in 170a. The prefent 
inciUabent's immediate predeceflbr preached, in terms of the decieet oi 
Annexation, at Garvald and Baro,^rr alUrnatat vices f till about the jear 
1 743 or 1 744, when the kirk of Baro fell into dlfrepair. It is now a 
complete ruin. In old papers/ the name of this place is always #rittea 
Darrtld, never Ganrit. 

554 Siati/iical Account 

npon a fmall water or barn, the bed or run of which thread j 
abounds in .ones of Various fizes, as there are a great many 
freeftone quarries along ita banks. When this water is 
flooded, fuch b the immenfe force and rapidity of the 
ftream, that it fweeps along, and throws out upon the low 
grounds,* ftones of a great weight and fixe. In Qdaber 
1775 this water was prodigioufly flooded, overflowed all its 
banks* and had it not cut out a new run for itfelf, the whok 
village would have been infallibly fwept away by thb 
fudden inundation. The depth of the water in fooie 
houfes of the village was upwards of 3 feet. The united 
parifbes of Garvald and Baro extend from £. to W. about 
8 or 9 miles, and from N. to S. about 4 or 5. Their fi- 
gure is irregular, being interfeded by feveral of the adja^ 
cent pariflies. The air is extremely pure and healthful* 
Having at all times a free and full circulation, its lalubrity 
is feldom injured by noxious vapours. The inhabitants are 
of a robuft and healthy coilflltutibn, and generally enjoy 
the bleflings of life to a remote old age. There died lately 
in tbis pariih a man upwards of 90, and there are living in 
it juft now ar nmnber of perfons on the bohlei's of 80, who 
fupport the fatigues of their refpeftive employments with 
a confideraUe degree of ftrength and aftivity. No epide- 
mical diflempers are peculiar to the inhabitants; colds, 
fevers, of different kinds, and the fmallpox, fometimes 
prevail here •. The grounds that lie in the S. and N. of 
thefe p»riihes, exhibit fo different an appearance, that they 
are a ftriking contrail to each other. The grounds that lie 


* Inonilation for the fmall-pot bath been introduced, but tlie com. 
mon pecple arc not quite rec ncilcd to it. However a great many of 
this clafs do n .w int)cuiate tncir chiidren, as inoculation harh been 
prachfed wii''« orrat ficcefs in thir countrv ; few having died that were 
inoculated, formerly this diHeaper proved fatal to t vtft number of 
young people. 

ofGarvald and Baro. 355 

ID the S. are mofilj cpvered with heathy of a thin gravelly 
foil, others are of a deep mo&, abounding with fwamps 
and mlrfhes.. The whole range of the L^oimeroiqor Hills, 
which in thefe pariihes extend from £. to W. about 8 or 
9 toxXeSj are for the mofi part covered with heath, inter- 
fperfed with large plots of grafs. The grounds that lie in the 
N. are of a deep, rj^h clay (oil, and produce excellent cro^s 
of wheat, barley, oats, Uc. Thefe towards the E. are of 
a fine light gravelly foil, excellently adapted for the culture 
of turnips and potatoes both of which are here rai&d to a 
great extent* A great part of the foil in thelie pariihes is 
either of this deficription, or of a deep rich .day. 

^gricukure^ W^.— Agriculture is the prevailing occupa- 
tion in thefe j)ariihes, as the farmers who rent the Lam- 
mermoor Hills rent at the iame time the adjacent low 
grounds to a con£derable extent. The lands which lie on 
the N. of thefe hills are moflly encloled, and their agricul- 
ture in a (late of very high improvement. Lime brought 
from the didance of 4 or j miles is extenfively ufed, aad 
l^roves an excellent flimulus. Turnips, as they are always 
raifed with dung, and frequently cleaued, have a furpriling 
efie6l in meliorating and enriching the foil. Fallow is an- 
other fpecies of improvement pra&i&d with great fuccefs, 
and to a confiderable extent. But the greateft improve- 
pient in agriculture is that of fowing the land with grals- 
feeds, and turning it into pafture for a few years. This 
^cies of in^provement is found to be the bed reftorative 
where manure cannot be procured. Excellent crops of all 
kinds of grain are raifed, but the moft prevailing are thofe 
of oats and barley ; wheat and peafe to a leis extent. As 
a great part of the foil of thefe pariihes is of a fine light 
gravelly foil, excellently adapted for the culture of turnips 
fl^ potatoes, both of them are raifed to a confiderable extent. 


i Siaii/Kcal Accwnt 

Oi\ two farms adjacent to this village, for fcveral yesn 
paft, from 80 to 90 acres of turnip have Been ndfed ; and 
on fcveral other farms to the weflward, from 20 to 30 acres. 
A few (heep, and a great nuoiher of black tattle, were fed 
with thefe turnips, and fold to the butcher. Potatoes like* 
wife are raifed to a confiderable extent ; for, befidca what 
the tenants and their cottagers raifc for the ufe of their 
families, a number of people iff the village and neighbour- 
hood rent land from the tenants, and plant it with potatoes, 
at the rate of L. 4 or L. j the acre. They efteem this root 
both an agreeable and wholefome food, and it is one of the 
principal articlts on which they fubfifl for a con{iderabI« 
part of the feafon. The plouj;hing with two horfes with* 
out a driver is a method which is univerfally adopted in 
this country. Some affirm, that a plough with two horfes 
will perform as much work in a day, as one with four 
which was formerly ufcd. Others are of a different opi- 
nion. There are in the pariih about 20 tenants, remark- 
able for their induAry, application, and knowledge in agri- 
culture. Indeed, a fet of more inteUigent and refpcftable 
tenants are fcarcely to be found any where. One of thefe 
lately wrote an eflay upon the beft method of raifing a green 
crop, for which he was adjudged a gold medal, value L. 5, 
5 s. by the Truftees for the Improvement of Filheries and 
Mar.ufi^ures, ir'r. He hath fince written another effay 
upon the fame fubjed^, for which he was alfo adjudged a 
gold medal of the fame value. But it is now faid, diat in 
lieu of thefe medals, the Truftees intend to compliment 
him with a piece of plate. There are about 46 or 47 
ploughgates in the parifh, and each ploughgate is aflefled 
in L. I Sterling, fo* making and repairing the ro«ds. The 
heritors meet every year, according to a6i of Parliament, 
fbr the allocation of this aficlTment, and are extremely at- 
tentive to tliis impoi cant branch of police. On this ac- 


o/* Garvald and Bfiro. 357 

count the roads are kept in prettj good repair, a) ka(l 99 
nnch fo as the exteht bf the funds will admit • 

* S&eep, tforjist and 9&ci Cattle. — Tn winter, the number 
of flieep paftured in lhl> parifli is about* 5680 ; In fummcr, 
aibout 400 more at an average. Thefe are all of the l.aiU7 
xnermoqr kind, except a very fevir which pafture on the 
low grounds. An attempt was made to introduce 61^ 
3aHc^cU kind, tut proved unfuccefsfcil *, the gentleqian 
iK'ho made the'attempt is now eroding the breed with rams 
of the Lamm'ei'moor khid. Salving or fineafing is a prac- 
tice which here univerfally prevails. Store farmers are 
of opinion, that ^thjs operation matly contributes tQ ^re- 
fcrve the animal from vermin, to render it more ^healtbj, 
to improve, and even increafe the quantity of wool. Thq 
ftorc farmers annually fell a co^flderabk. number of ewes, 
}a^bs, and wethers, but do not chooie to have this number 
publifhed^ There are in the parifh s^bout 213 borfes, the 
greatcft part of which is ^n^ployed in agriculture. The 


• Price 9f Labour tmd Proi'iJioni.-^-'An experienced mnn-fervaQt re- 
ceives from L. 7 to 1. 6 yetrly. A woRian-fenrant from L. 5 to -L. 4. 
Womoa, aod jKwng peoplie of both Ikxu, eoiplojr^ in Iipeing tpmip, wsk 
1rec4h)g the corns, (tmu ^ d. to 6d. a^y withoat vi^iiaih. Ta(kei% 
1cho(e employmeot it is to thrcih out the com, receive one boll of every 
as* or tlie 25th part of their labour, and this hath been their dated wages 
time immemorial. Cottagcn or hynds receive their « aget m grain an4 
•ther ptrqni^lev vohich in tlui paci0> aoe owcfa the firnit with thafe dc^ 
titkd in th« $aii#ic4 A(KOunt» <^ this county already pabli(bed. Ma* 
faa» receive 1 s. 8d. a-day ; Wrighu J s. 6-d. ; day-Ubouren from 10 d. 
la 1 s. ; tailors from 6 d- to 8 d. and their visuals. The price of oat- meal 
11 gencrstly aboat 2 s. the Hone; be«4 mutron* pofk, and vcat from $ <!• 
m 4d. tiM poaodo Hcna fi^aai 1. 1. to 1 s^ 4 d. tach ; ehickww from^ <L 
lp>M..ei^)b.. l^v,i|hia>CQi|«tcy I^Qbs wmI chickens were never ia\d by the 
•otmd weight line imgiemorial. A\l thefe articles of |uft>vifion vary ag. 
cording to the different feafons of the year, aad have rtfen greatly wilhil 
the lait ten or twelve years. 

358 StaH/Hcal AceouMi 

high price which horfes now bring st market b«th indufle^ 
the tenants to rear their ovn horficiy and a fiew for Ikle. 
In this conntiy the price of a dravght hprfe is from L. 35 
to L. 30, foiQie hig)ber. The number of black cattle ai>» 
mounts to 575, oonMing chiefly otjoang and milch^^owa. 
The tenants breed a oonfiderable number, not only to lap* 
ply their own demands, but likewife for CUe ; but this nnzn- 
ber cannot be eafilj a(certained| as it varies everj year ^ 
befides thefe, for man^ years paft upwards of 100 black 
cattle have been annually fed on turnip, and fold to the 

Villages. — ^There are a villages in thefe parifhest Gar- 
vald and Bare. The village of Garvald contains 114 in- 
habitants. Within thefe 14 or 15 years upwards of 30 
new houfes have been built in this village \ but prior to 
this period, and even fince, almofi an equal number of old 
ones have been pulled down. All the new houfes (except 
a or 3) are feus at the rate of L. 3 the acre, built by mn^^ 
fonsy Wrights, weaven, <s'€. In the vicinity of the village 
there is a great number of freeftone quarries, of an ex- 
cellent quality, fome of which are only at the diftance of 
200 yards. The grounds in this neighbourhood are almoft 
all enclofed with fiones from thefe quarries. There are 4 
public houfes in the village \ befides thefe, there is an inn 
or public houfe at Danikine, on the great road from Had- 
dington to Dunfe, where travellers receive proper accom- 
modation. Thefe, however, have had no bad efieft on the 
morab of the people. Drinking to ezcefr is lefs prevalent 
here than it was ao years ago. The inhabitants of tbele 
pariihes, with a very few exceptions, are fober, virtuous, 
induftrious, and remarkably s^ttentive to their di&rent em« 
ployments. The village of Baro is fjoaallf thinly inhabited, 


ofGaroald and Bdro, j5^ 

and does not contain half the number of people whidi are 
m the Tillage of Garvald^ 

5ea/i.^— There are onl j s gentkniens feats in the pariih^ 
Nanraw and Hopes. The houfe of Nunraw fome centu* 
ries ago was a nonoerj beloa^g to the priory of Had^ 
dington, and tbongh modernized, ftill exhioits evident 
marks of great antiquity. The houfe of Hopes is plea£uit- 
Ij fitoafeedy very near the bottom of a glen, and to the 
weftward of one of the Lammermoor HiUs« on which there 
IS an eztenfive and flourifhing plantation of various forts of 
trees. This, and feveral others upon the eftatCi were raifed 
by the late Charles Hay of Hopes, £fq; a moft polite and 
worthy gentleman* Adjacent to this plea&nt and roman- 
tick villa, there is a large garden, well flocked with a va- 
riety of fruiC trees, through which a rivulet gently glides, 
and plentifaUy fupplies it with water. 

Ecckjtafiical Saae^ School^ Poor, lic^<'^Thc Crown and 
Marquis of Tweeddale are patrons. The ftipend, inclu- 
ding the glebes of Baro and Garvald, upwards of L. too 
Sterling -, the manfe and ofice-houfes are in excellent re- 
pair ; the church is old, but hath been lately repaired^ 
There are 6 heritors, 2 only are refident. All the inha- 
bitants are of the Efiablifted Religion, except 8 or 10 Se- 
teders.«^There is but one fchool in the parifli. The 
fehoolmafter^s fidary is L. 100 Scots, befides his perquifites 
as precentor and feffion-cierk, an houfie and finall gardenw 
'the nomber of feholars ftoui 69 to 80. The fchool- wage» 
are, for Englifh z s. the quarter -, for writing z s. 2 d. ; for 
arithmetic z s. 6 d. He is not qualified to teach Latin. 
-^The ntmber of penfioners at prefent on the poors roll 
amounts to za ; they live in their own houfes, and generally 
receive 8 s* or 9 s. the quarter -, fome lels, as this allow-* 


j6<» SUtiftkai Ac49Uni 

wooc Titfics ftocofdiag to circmnflaaoa. This CauH al« 
lowance is granted onl j as an help to their iadoftty, not as 
an encouragement to floth and idleneft* There is not one 
beggar within the liana of tfaefe parifliet *« 

I'd^dWfbe^^Adeonlbg to Dr Webfttr's rspoit^ the 
mmber of fouls in 1^55 was 774* At pifefent (1793) ^^ 
IS 730^ of whom, males 349, females 581. Thoiigjh no 
manofafiores are carried on in cbcfe pariflic8« yet the aom- 
ber of tradefmen is coafidetabley inefaufing a few ^^pren- 
tkm\ there ore ta wrigfatst 9 mafoosi 7 fiaMthsi 8 weavers, 


* BtffldH Ae peniiMth m fh« n4l» OMafidnal fu^lils tt« ^aattsd te 
oiber famihci, whu by fic^«6 iumI mitfortttiies kn reduced to MHffitoiis 

circumftances. A confidcrablc number of houfc^renti are allewed, botli 
to the pciifioDert upon the roil, and for neccllitotts perfont who are not, 
end who do not receive any uther fupply. Vthtti a Widow U left with ^ 
or 4 children, who can do nothing for themfelves, (he Is allowed 15 s. or 
ft^ti the quarter. Wh^n one dr two of tkeft chiUm atrife tk the age 
of raaturi^ . and can fitp|)ort themfcWes, her pSnSon is jMU^rtiooally cmr. 
tailed. When all of them arrive at this age, if the widow can fupport 
herfelf by her own labour, her hame is ftruck from the rolL The inone/ 
annually expended on the poor of thefe parities amounts to L. «o atsd xtpi 
warde. Thk foiii is nifed fix>m the intereit of a fibail fond, fraoi ^weeldf 
ceUe<^iottt at the church- door, mortrtotfas, mvriages, tir. No afleiD 
mert hath been made for the poor of thefe pariHies during the laft 18 
years, the period of the prefewt incumbent's admiflion. In 17^2, indeed, 
wTien the prices of all kinds of provifions were fo elorbttantly btgb, that 
rrfany of the induftfious pocr were reduced to great llraits, the heritors 
voluntarily nfk^d them!e>ves in a fmall dim, and pofchafed oin-meal to 
fu| ply this uleful fet of men at the rate of I s. the peck. This necei&r/ 
fupply was intruflrd to the management of the kirk-feflioo. No fiinds ia 
the ifland are more frugally or cmifcientioufly managed thatf the poort 
Amos in Scotland. The Gonftiiution of England hath juftly been heM 
up as the admiration and envy of furrounding nations; but in refped to 
the provilion for the po^r, it may be aflcrted, that the Nobility an4 
Gentry m Scotland neither admire nor envy their rich neighbours* iH tbS 
South, as their poors rates are enonuouf. 

tffGaf^oM and Sard* 362 

i taUocSt a fhoemaLerst 1 millers, i cooper, alid i 6j^m 
In the village of Garvald there is alfo a baker and brewer* 
In 1775, the period of the prefent incumbent's admiffioliy 
the nnmber of fouk was about 900.' This alteration haCh 
been produced b j rarious cauies, fuch as the conjundidh 
of taxmSf the ploughing with two horfes without a driver, 
the increafed quantity of grais-grounds, and the great de- 
creafe in the number of cottages. The conjunAion of 
farms greatly tends to depopulate the country, and to in« 
creafe the number of poor in towns and villages. 

Abftrad of the births, marriages, and deaths in the pa- 
riflies of Garvald and Baro, for 4 years preceding January 
1791, eztraded from the records : 





















^if^t|7a(iirf(f/.^^Adjoining the Lammer-moor Hills are fi« 
tuated the ruins of Whitecaftle, in the eaftem boundary ^f 
the pariih. In the ages of violence and hoftility this forti^ 
fication was of confiderable importance, as it guarded a 
pafs from the Merie and £rom England. About a mile to 
the N. on the fiu-m of Garvald, there is a large fortification 
or encampment, fituated on a rifing ground ; it is of a cir- 
cular form; and is in circumference Sibout 1500 feet. A 
little to the weftward, on the farm of Carfrae, there was 
till lately an encampment nearly of the fame form and di« 
menfions*. Upon a peninfula formed by the water o£ 

Vol. XIII. Z z Hopes 

• A few yetrs igo tb« ftonei of the cflctmpnieiit were dfg np to eiU 
tlfiik tBe farm. One of the woricmen, in digging up theieikonef, found 


3^9 Siaiiftkal Account 

JiofCB M die £• and a brge rtvulet on tke W. Atnds tlic 
mAfitt cafife <^ Yeikr. Sir David Deliyinple, xa his Aji- 
4uds» lelatca^ tbftt '< Hagk Gi&ird de YeOer died in 1267 ; 
. ^* that in bia caftle there was a capacious cavern ibrmed 
^ ^ %f iBaiical aiti and called in the eonntry Bobfaal^ L t, 
<< Hol«eUMi Hall.*' AflairafMAcpleddown to this 
. a|paffts»eQ^ vvlbkh is a krge and fpaciom hall, with an arc3i- 
ed ^oof } and though k hath flood fixr fi» many oenauxies, 
aild been expofiBd to the external air for a period of 50 or 
60 years, it is fliU as firm and entire as if it had only flood 
a few years. From the floor of thb hall, another flair of 
j6 fteps leads down to a pit which hath a ooromontcation 
with Hopes^water. A great part of the walls of thb large 
and ancient caflle are ftill ftanding. There is a tradition 
that the ca^e of Yefter was the hfl fortification in this 
country that furrendered to General Gray, iient into Scot- 
land by Frotedor Somerfet. About a mile below this 
majeftic ruin, and on the fame water, is fituated Yefter 
Houle *, a large, elegant and magnificent ftru&uM, built of 
hewn ftone of a fine reddifli colour, brought £rom the 
lands of J>algety ip Fife, which forlnerly bdonged to thb 


the brafs handle of afword, which f robahlj had been concealed there for 
feveral centuries. About % mites to the W. on the &nn of Newlands, 
fhere are 2 large artificial tumuli thrown up hi the middle of a plain. 
C9lU«d by the country people the Black Goftlet and Green €a#les. The 
Marqiiia of Twecddale planted them wiAi Scotch fin, asdlbweflraf 
wood many years ago. Antiquaries are of opinion that thefe tumnU, 
from their etymology^ were formerly Roman ftations. To the W. of 
thefe tumuli there are other two encampments, one on the farm of Park, 
and th« other on the eftate of Hopes. 

* Yefter Houfe is not within the limits of thefe pariihet ; bat ■• it was 
fcarcely mentioned in the Sutiftical Account of jts own pariih» the writer 
jii this piper thouaht proper to give this Aort aocsunt of it*. 

qf Garvald imd Baro. \ 363 

Noble fiunily. Both this elegant manfion and Its pleafiire- 
ground have been greatly improved by the prefent Marquis 
of Tweeddale, a nobleman of a moft amiable chara£^er, and 
of a fine tafte. The enclofures and pleafure-ground of Yefter 
are about 10 mile^ in circumference, in which are woods 
and plantations to a great extent. A conliderable part of 
the wood with which the calUe of Yefter is almoft fur- 
roondedi is within the limits of the pariih of Garvald. 

Miftdtantom ObJirvations.^Tht valued rent of the 
pariQi is L.4133 Scots; the real rent cannot be eafihjr af« 
certained. Farms are rented for the pourfe of a 19 jears 
leafe at from 10 s. to L. i, 5 s. the acre. A great many 
farms are let by the lump, particularly tbo&'in which part 
of the Lammermoor Hills are included. There are thre^ 
threfhing 'machines in the parifh. The original coft of 
each is about L. 60 or L. 70 Sterling ; they are drawn by 
4 horfesy and require 6 or 7 people to attend the opera- 
tion ; they threfh at the rate of 5 or 6 bolls in an hour. 
Coals are generally ufed for fuel in this pariih, and a few 
peats. Fourteen ftone of coals (or what is here called a 
load) now coft 7 d. which 10 or 12 years ago coff only 5 d. 
They are moftly brought from Penftone and F^ncaitland, 
at the diftance of 6 or 7 miles. — A few years ago a fociety 
of a charitable complexion was eftabllflied in this parifli. 
The defign of this fociety is to aftbrd relief to the lick, the 
infirm, and the aged. Every member at his entrance 
pays ^s. and as long as he continues a member, the fame 
fnm quarterly. This Society hath already afforded relief 
to feveral perfons in diftre&, who otherwife muft^ have 
come upon the poors funds. On which account they merit 
the attention and encouragement of the public- 


364 Stati/iical Accouia 



(CouKXT or Lanark, Synod of Glasgow akd.AtHi 

P&£SBTTE|tT 0|^ LaNARK.) 

By the Rev. Mr Robert Ikqli9. 

Namif ExUnt, Surface^ Soilf Climatic lie. 

MICHAEL appeurs to have been the tutelary fiunt of 
this pariih, there being b it a well and bog that go 
|>j bis name. Hence Carmichael, the ca(Ue or dwelling 
of Michael* The lame is the name of the principal fami- 
ly in the pariih, created Earls of Hyodford, beginning of 
this centurji afid who, till of late, have long refided here. 
The pariih is 5 miles in length; and from 3 to 4 in 
breadth. The forface of this pariih is very unequal \ in it 
^xt ieveiral hills of confiderable height, covered for the 
poll part with fliort heath. On the S. and S. £. ftands 
TintOy faid to fignify the ^* hill of fire/' the name given 
to a range of hillsi ftretching above a miles from £• to 
S* W. Near the eaft end of this range, there rifes greatljr 
l^bove the reft, a mountaioi Ibmething of a circular form. 

of CarmichaeU x 365 

upon the top of which is a large cairn, or heap of fiones, 
how collededy or for what purpofe, it is impoflible to faj. 
Upon the fouth fide, and at no great diftance from the 
fummity is a fpring of good water *. The foil is very va- 
Tious ; towards the Clyde, it is in genertd thin, fandy, and 
fSry. The S. W. and fonthern parts, where arable, are 
clayey and wet. Situated fo high, and in the immediate 
neigbboorhood of fo many hills, the climate is cold and 
wet. It is, however, not unhealthy, few epidemical di« 
fiempers prevsdl here, and fome perfons have lived in this 
parifh to a great age. There are in it at prefent, feveral 
above 80f and % in their 92d year, one of whom, an heri- 
tor, retains the entire ufe of his faculties, is cheerful and 
contented) walks about, and amuies himfelf in his garden. 

Earl of Hyndford^ bis Plantations^ (jf r.— In this parifli 
was bom John, third Earl of Hjmdford, who, in the years 
1739 ^^^ '74^' ^^ CommiiEoner to the General AiTem- 
bly of the Church of Scotland. In 1741, upon the Kin^ 
of Pruffia's invading Silefia, he was fent as Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Plenipotentiary to that Prince, and the year 
after accommodated the differences which had occafioned 
the war. Upon the conclufion of the treaty of Breflaw, 
he was created a Knight of the ThifUe, and as a teftimony 


* The liighdl point of tlM cttrn is above the Clyde about a mile 
If. E. from the bottom of the mountain, 1740 feet ; above the Clyde, at 
the bridge of Lanark, 1050^ feet; apd at the old bridge of Glafgow, 
1351 1 ieet. So' that from oppolite to the N. £. part of Tinto to Glaf- 
waw, a diftance of little more than 30 miles, the Clyde fiills tfxx j. feet. 
About half a mile from the weft end of this range, of hills, there is a 
pafltge through it, whidr has much the appearance of being, although 
not whoUy formed, yet greatly aflii|ed by art. For a confidexable way» 
fhe piflage is little more than 7 ftet wide, the mountain rifing fteep on 
each fide ; and at the north end there are little hills, which feefflf as if 
juried from the middle, to make the paffiige cafier. 

366 StatyikaJ Account - 

of the fatisfa^on of the contending powers, be recrived 
from the YiXtsg of Pruffia a grant, far adding to his coat 
of arms| the Eagle of Silefia, with this motto. Ex bate 
meritOf which was ratified by the Queen of Hungary. 
In 1744, he went AmbaiTador to the Court of Raflia, 
where he continued till the end of 1749, and was 
very inftrumental in accelerating the peace of Aix la 
Chapelle. On his return to Britain* he was appointed 
tmt of the Lords of the Bed-chamber, and of the fttvj 
Council. While he thus ferved his country in a public 
capacity, he was highly ufeful to the place of his nativity, 
by employing, for many years, a great number of work- 
men in the buildings, and extenfive plantations, carried on 
at Carmichael, and at Weflraw, in the neighbouring pariih 
of Pettinain. Upon thefe, the whole rent of the eflate, 
and fometimes more was expended* There are at Carmi* 
chael laoo acres enclofed and fubdivided by him. The 
enclofingand planting was begun about the year 1738, and 
^oftly completed in the 176a. The (tone and earchen 
fences at Carmichael alone, are faid to meafore 35 miles. 
The enclofures are of difierents iizes, containing from 20 
to 30 acres, and upwards, furroonded by belts of plantation 
of various breadths, from 40 to above xoo feet. The 
quantity of ground oeoupied by the plantations has not 
been afcertained, but the weedings here, and at Weflraw, 
yield near L. 200 annually. The prefent Earl is adding 
to the plantations, having planted ibis lafl feafbn about 
ic,coo trees. In the plantations here, is % great variety 
of pines. The larix grows fait in every foil, at die finne 
time yielding a clofe |>ored tough wood. There was a la- 
rix tree cut here, when 24 years old, the root cut 9f which 
8 feet long, was fqnared into planks of tile tpean bivadth of 
X7 inches. The Scotch fir thrives well in dry ground, as 
does the filver fir in feveral fbib, where it rifcs to a great 
height, making a beautiful and itiiking appearance. The 
3 Weymouth, 

Of CarmicbaeL 367 

Weymouth, or New England pine, fecms much more de- 
licate, and does not attain to an j great fize. The fpruce 
fir, when yonng, grows fSail, from its conical figure, makes 
an excellent aorfe to hard wooj trees, but appears fhort 
lived, as here, even in the rooft favourable fituations, when 
about 40 years old, it begins to die at top, and quickly 
decays. In planting the lariz, which is now fo jufily va< 
lued, there generally prevaib what appears an error. It 
is commonly planted out from a foot to x8 inches, or more 
in height, with feedling, Scotch, or fpruce firsasnurfes, grow- 
ing much fafter than either, its tender ihoots are always 
expofed to the violence of the ftorm, and much waved by 
the witid* It might perhaps fucceed as well to plant the 
nurfcs 3, 4, or even 5 years before, by which time, ha- 
ving attained feme (ize, they would be a better fhelter to 
the larix *, there feems no danger of this being fmothered 
by the odiers, as no tree gi'ows better in the ihade, and by 
coafieqoence it anfwers well for filling up wants in planta- 
tioes. The enolofures here are generally let from year to 
year in pafture, and in that way yield perhaps an higher 
re^t than they would do in tillage. There are in the pa« 
rifli a fbw endofures, and feme plantations belonging to 
Mr Carmichael of Eaftend. Lcrd Douglas has alfo enclo* 
fed a hiH, containing near 300 acres, to be planted next 
feafon, which, when grown, will be an ornament to the 
cottrttry, being feen in feveral dire£hons at a great di- 

jtgrieukure* — Agtieulture is for the mod part carried 
00 in the old mauner. The (fivifion into croft and outfield 
is generally rotaioed. Formerly the eroft was kept con- 
flantly in orop, by which, particuhdy iii wet feafons, the 
crops, though bulky, being much filled with weeds, yield- 
ed imie food grain. Convinced of the impropriety of this 


368 Stati/lical Account 

management, manj of the tenants are now lajing part <A 
their croft onder pafture, and cleaning other parts with ^€>' 
tatoeSy and (bme with turnips. The general crops are oats, 
bear or bigg, and a few peas ; the latenels of oor faanreOs 
are unfavourable to the laft fpecies of grain. The leafotis 
of fowing are generally, for oats and peas, from the mid- 
dle of March till towards the end of April ; for bear, from 
the be^ning to the end of May \ for turnip, from the ik of 
. June to the end of the month. There are as yet but &w 
ofthefcy-and little gra& fown. They are however &irly 
introduced; and as the fiumers begin to lee the advan- 
tage of them, they are likely to be more generaDy 
ibwn. The feafons of reaping are various* Bigg is gene- 
rally cut from the ift to the 20th of September, and oats 
from that to the beginning of November. The greatefi 
improvement that has been made in any branch of hut 
bandry in this pariih, is in the management of the dairy. 
Farms which 50 years ago made little hotter for iale, and 
not as much checfe as was fufficieot for the conlumption of 
the fiumer's family, now depend upon thofe articles for the 
payment of fome, the half, and others the greateft part of 
their rent. If the produce' of their cows and bear crop wiU 
not pay the rent, it is reckoned too high. The can£es 
which formerly retarded improvements in agriculture ia 
this pariih were its diftance from markets for its produce, 
bad roads, and the latenels of its climate and foil. The two 
firll of thefe are in a great meafure removed. The efia- 
blilhment of cotton-works at Lanark and Donglas has 
brought ready markets for butter, cheele, and grain, within 
a few miles, whereas formerly the principal market for the 
two firfi of thefe was Edinburgh, and for the laft Glafgow, 
the one above, the other near 30 miles diftant, and the 
roads to both fo bad, that during the winter and Ipring 
months, the general mode of carriage was upon horfes 


of Carmicbael. 369 

^lacks. By the esertlons of the proprietars in the neigb- 
bourboody an handfome^ and commodious bridge of fiVe 
arches has been built over the Clyde, one end of which 
fianda in this parifli, and the ro4ds are fo much improved 
that carts pais at all f^ajTons. The ftatute labour is parti/ 
ezaded in kiod» and partly commuted. There are two 
turnpikes within the pariih. The climate and foil continue 
i^eat difcpuragementa to the etertions of the farmer. For 
after much.expenfa and toil, by one night's froft, or a (;on« 
tjouance of rainy weather in harveft, his hopes are oft(n 
4ifappointfdy and he feldom knows what it is completely to 
iaye a fitlly ripened crop. The oats generally fown arc 
what .are here called the Tweeddale or Blaiaflie, and the 
moprlaqd Ayr feed. The laft is about a week or ten days 
earlier than the firft. Earlier kinds of oats have been tried, 
but they are fo apt to fliake if not cut before fully ripe, and 
on poor land yield fo little fodder, (a circumftance much 
attended to, where fo much depends upon rearing and keep- 
ing cattle), that in the prefent ftate of the grounds, they 
are not thought to be profitable. They might fuccecd bet- 
ter w^re the* fields more fheltered, and the foil made richer; 
a^ in ibme linall rich and fheltered fpots, they yield abun- 
dant crops. The kind that is mofl likely to anfwer, is what 
b called the fmall barley com, or the red oats. They ap- 
pear mnch the fame ; but even thefe anfwer only upon the 
richefl of our grounds •. Arabic &rms here conuin from 
Vol. XIII. 3 A 50 

• .The circttinfttnces thtt hive been mentioned p^iot out grafg u the 
gr^t objea of the ftrmer's attentioo in this pirifti, and thit tillage 
ought to be employed only fur t^e purpofe of meliorating the pailure, ot 
prerenriog it fa proper Ofder. Grain, with the dtfadvantages of late haK 
Wftt, and the prefent high wige« of fervants, will not pay a rent, and do- 
liray the expenfe of lahdariog. Convinced pf thit, fome of tlie tenants 
have difmifled their labouring fervanti and horfes, and laid their farms 
tinder p«ftnTe4 This would be done with more advantage, were their 


370 StatiJHcal Accaum 

90 to 180 acr^s, aad rent from femcthing above 5 s. t^ 
IDS. the acre. Thej are generally laboured bjdie te- 
nants and their foM and daughters^ or bj hired tenets who 
live in the family* The emplojing thefe» and not cot- 
tagers, has the cftft of making iervants fcarcer. Flooghmcn 
receive from 6 to 8 and 9 gdineas a^year, with board and 
waflsingr which is nearly doable of what they got 10 years 
ago. Women receive from L. 3 to L. 4, valning what are 
called bountiths. Labourers wages are from i s. ta 1 s. 3 d. 
without vifhiaby or 8 d. to to d. with them in finnmer. 
Carts with two wheels are oniverfrUy ofed, as is the Scotdi 
plough, thought beft adapted to fhff and Ibid ground. 
There are a few fheep-farms, which are rented by the 
number of flieep they are fuppofed to matntaio, and diftt 
according to the quality of the pafturci being from fome- 
thfog above 3 s. to near 3 s. the head. The flieep kept are 
the black faced and black legged kind, fuppoled die bar* 
dieft and beft adapted to this high fituation. No fair trisl 
has been made of any other kind. Smearing, or laying 
with tar and butter, is generally pra^fed, and diopght to 
defend the animal from vermin and being hurt by wetnefs. 
A few kept within the enclofures, where they are more 
flieltered, have for fbme years gone without finearing, and 
done very weU, only the wool haa become a very littk 
Goarfer* When fed as the high grounds upon which they 
are reared will admit the carcafe weighs from 30 lb. to 
40 lb. Dutch weight. It takes from 6 to 8 fleeoes to make 


grounds enclofed^ and (helttred with belts ofpUnttt'ion. Qaickfet hedges 
lire indeed difficult to rear in this high fituation, and poor thin foil. But 
by forming a proper brd for them before planting, getting thorns of fufi* 
ctcnt ftrength, am. pajing attention to tliem for the few firft yearsi thcf 
may be raited^ and make both a fence a 'id (heltcr. In many places oi tnc 
pariih) there is bwth jioor and free ftoot to be had at a modcnte e^>enfe. 

^ CarmicbaeL 371 

fli9 ftpfi^ of wool, which had been fold within the Iaft<en 
years, from 2 s. to 6 «. the ftone, aa pounds to the ftone. 

A|iMMra£r.«-There is one €Oftl<mine fitoated in the S. W« 
fide of this pariOi, adjcnning to ihat of Dougks, which be-^ 
longs to the Earl of H jndfonl. Three iieveral feaai6» from 
three to 4k feet in height, and of a very good quality, are 
nt prefent working. They decline S.W. about one in 
four. TiU of late no coal had been wrought in this pariih 
by machinery. Levels had been at different periods com* 
xnnnicated from the low grounds, and fo much of the coal 
wrought as thefe drained. The whole coal to be got bjr 
fucb levels being wrought out, a fteam-engine is npw uled 
for draining it more to the dip. The coals. are ^rried to 
the bank by the colliers and their children^ or others em- 
ployed ibr the purpofe. Ooals are SM npon the hiU at 
6 d. the loadt of ta pecks Linlithgow meafiirfr, which is near 
about 3 d. the cwt. They have been raifed about a third with« 
in the hit ao years, and were for (bme time laft «^ inter with 
diflkuity to be got. There is, as in the cafe of all other la* 
bourers, a great rife in the wages of cottiers ^ a man, wiih 
two children of to and la years of age, it is faid, can earn 
from 3 s. to 4 s, a- day. It is believed that in this, and the 
neighbouring parifli of Douglas, there is a certainty of 
coal to anfwer the higheft demand that can be expeAed 
for fome centuries. The quantity of coal fold from this 
parifh at prefent is (aid to be 70,000 loads and upwards . 
annually. The demand has ' increafed greatly fince the 
cotton manufadures were efiabliihed at Lanark and Ebu- 
glas, and is fUU iocreaiing. There is one limework alfo 
ii^ the S. W. fide of the pari(h, belonging to the Earl of 
Hyndford, which is wrought by an open quarry, and drain- 
ed by a level. There is nothing remarkable in the flone ^ 


37^ Statijtical Account * 

it jields good lime. Shelb are fo^d at 15 d. 'and fltckel 
^fime at j d. the Boll, Llnlitiigow meafore. ' 

Manft/affw*es. — Thtre is a tanwork sa the pariih, began 
9 jeaif ago, hj two young men, nativea of the place, who 
now mannfadure 700 cattle hides, and 900 calves (kins 
an'nuatlj. Hiere ate x8 weairen, the giteat past of whom 
are employed in working cbarfe linen and woollen cloths 
for the people in the neighbodriiood. Two or three are 
occafionally employed in the cotton buinels fromGla%ow 
of Lanark, 

^Heriton, Schdol. Poor, 6r.--^Tbe Earl of, Hynd&cd k 
patron of the parifli, and proprietor of near the one half of 
it. There are two other heritors,. Lon) Donglas, and Mr 
Carmichael of Eaftend. • The lail only refides«*^There 
b a partfii^fchool, at which there are generally from 30 
to 40 fcholari. The (choolmaftfr is precentor, fefEon« 
clerk, 'imd kirktreajiireri the income ariiing from the 
whole feldom exceeds, and ift Ibmetimes below L. 15 
a«year, with a honfe and (may garden *.-«-The poor in 
this pariih are maintained or aflUled in their own hou- 
fes; hone of them are allowed to go without the bounds 
o^ the parifh v^nbne of them, indeed, go from houfe to 
a honfe in it. There are generally xo or la upon the 
. roll, who receive a fQpply once in 4 weeks, more or 
lefs, according to their circumftances, befides a few, who 
raceive a'fmall occaiional aid. There is expended from 

* Befides this, there if uother fchool, above three miles from the 
pari(h one. ard in the neighbourhood of the roal-work. At tliis there 
sre generally from 10 to 30 fcholars. The mi(^er is paid b'y the feholaV^ 
excep'ting one guinea' |riveiT yearly by each of t!ie greaf proprietors. His 
intome is from L tf to L p a.year, with^li fmall houfe and garden. The 
ground vvas given by the t>^ o neighbouring heritors. The houfe wm 
)>uilt» sofi h^ l^ept in repair by the iahabitaots ia the neighbourihood. ^ 

fffr CkmAehaek ^x 

X'. 1% to L. }e, -or Vlftde aljove I^^jo^ a^year.' Tbk aiifes 
fiiobi the iiitefcft oE'ii'flnail capitsd, |niit of k m mbrtiHca-^ ' 
tioa bj one of tliii iaatciirjxil Hyndfordy^^tiic reft Mcotttttv 
IsfeM from fomife^llaviil^^ from' MUeEHms made a( ehwdi, ' 
aiiU'priTale marriages aiM baptUbsI tlie heritors do not 
regulsirlj^otitribi^^iijVhmg; thmlieing no aflfetfmtet; ' 
but at an;' time ivttett ^ed, haTe' dciiie it libendly ^J - ^ 

Pbfittbiti(m.^^At&f:^aing t^ Dt WebAer*8 report, the., 
number of '(bah in 1755 wail 899. Thepopvlation of the 
pajriih at prefentia fSi i of thefe^ abore rpyeaiaoldi 590;' 
under to, 1911 mBlesi*367*9 ftmakt,'4i4; £umIies,i8o.;.. 
of which IX con&ft'of fiogle perfoos; The average nnmber 
of birthff'for tl yearapaft is 1^2 } the maniages near to 5 ; 
tbe d^ths, fo neat aa can be afcertun^d, i^, but of thefe 
110 regi((er » kept t« 


• This Wis' expcrfenced after the bad htrreft of 1782; they that yeir 
perchafed meal, ivhich was Cld through the whole feafon, not to thofe 
Dpon the public charity only, but to many otHen whofe circumftances 
reqoiteil it, at the re^e^ price of i s, the peck- There were no good 
feed oats 10 the pariih that fcaron ; (bme few, the growth of the pariih, 
were fown ; none of them did well ; but it was remarked, that fuch u 
were green at the time the froft happened, and not cut tilt fome time 
^iter, did better than fuch as were nearly ripe., Though almoft the whole 
of the feed fown the following fpring was bronght irom a diftance, yet 
the crop did not aflbrd meal fofficient for the fupport of tbe inhabitants ; 
ihey ware foppUed with grain, particularly white peas, from Leith. 

f The popnUtion appears to be nearly the fame w at the end of laft 
and beginning of this century. The average nomber of births font 
^cars ffum the 1694, is within a fmall fra^ion of 22. Although feveral 
lioofoa were taken down when the lands at Carmichael were ^nctufed, yet 
the number of bhabitants has been kept up, by the planting and building 
that were at that time carrying on, and fince» by th0 tncreafe of the coaU 
#orkSy in the neighbourhood of which, ferend new hoo&s have been 
•« lateljr 

37^ Stg(i/lUaf.dc€owi 

the ^XJftHrVotl^f rh« pf^ hp^j t4 ti^^ Jft^t^ in this pari4 
are £^^iMr« a^d l^boiH^ai, Tbeja^^iq gc9e|:alibberflpco* 
iiop[ypl«9pd.ii4pltaf90b. 99Joj the o^oifinci of life, 9114 
feciff cemented with their fitiu|t]|Mi. Tk^^ ^r{|£fwdif* 
fwtera 6^m thf 'E,t^^!|litd C^mi^h i- a Qorgheriv and x,o 
or la B|acmillani^ea, s^I , V¥^^ iiK^i^fiVf P^9Pl^* There 
are kept in the parifh 1500 ihee^ 156 labouring horfiea, 
54 tDl;i» ^ nsutAittf thefe hft is verj rAiiaUe, depend* 
ing upon the encourngemeiU then r ^ to. ceviog horCco* 
The horfe coke ar» cMuliPply fM ^t.ta er <5i9Kmi|psol4« 
and hring fima L. 6* to L^ 15 price. Thbrr ^^e 470 mjlqh 
coirs.; ajo queTS., The above is excloQve of wlM are 
paftered in fiunner in pait of the encipiiuea of Cannichacl* 
nvhich are pofleilbci bj deftlersi iitho J^eep no. fished iMf^ 
upon them. 1 . 

lately built. If the cotton oiainalk^Qrti at Lanark and Z>oiigla9 facceed. 
the population of this pcriih is likely to decreafe. The grounds beia|^ 
luoftl;^ in the pofleffion of two great proprietor, who grant no fens, is a^ 
favourable to the raifing of a manufadlnring Tillage, which might other* 
wife happen. A proprietor* pn the oppofite of the Clyde, in the.parifii 
of Lanark, has lately feued fevcral fmaU pieces of giound, ujon whicH 
boufes are buUt» and fome building. 


tffAMe. 375 


Sy iht Itiv. Mr Johk Oo^Doii. 

NanUt Situation^ EsftttU^ Surface, Soilf &c. 

LVIE, in feme old charters called Alloway, is pro- 
L bablj derived from the Gadic AUeibh, i. ^/^^ Cold 
«• Ifland,'' the place being formed into a peninfttla by a 
lake ^ within the neck is the kirk, manfe, and nearl j all 
the glebe, a delightful fitoation in fixomier, but eztremelj 
cold in winter, within j- mile of the high road* AU the 
names of places here are Gaelic* and defcripiive of their l<»- 
«al fitttation. The pariih fiea in the diArifi: of Inremefr- 
lUre called Badenoch (buihy), from its being interfperieA 
with bdhes of wood. Its form is irre^dar. The princii 
pal inhabited dtvifion lies along the river Spej, on the N*- 
fide, between Nv E. and S. W. lo miles long^ and from 
X to a miles broad, throogh which runs the great road 
leading> from Invemeis, Fort George, &c. to Edinburgh^ 


37^ Staii/Hcal Account 

Near the centre of the pariih the river Feffie falb into the 
Spej from the S. direfi along which lies the fccond divi« 
i^on of the pariflv extendiq^ foath,«rard 6 miles, from 2 t6 
4 mile in breadth ; Bat including the hitb, the [Muiih ex- 
tends from N. to S« upwards of ao miles. The hiDs in 
general are extremely batren» . £ovtr^ with heatH, fre- 
quently rocky ; thofe to the S. ot the opey (the Granipians) 
are much higher than thofe to the N. probably as high as 
any in. Scotland fixini the level of the fea# oh whole tops 
there is not the finalleft vegetation ; the interjacent val- 
lies afibrd a plentiful and rich paihire in fummer, but are 
for the mod part inacceilible in winter. The hills did 
abound in moorfowli ptarmigab, and mountam hares, witli 
fome deer and roe, which are exceedingly diminiibed of 
late yeaTd, owing more to the inclemency of the weather 
during the hatching feaTon, than the havock of the fportf- 
man. The lower, or arable part of the pariih, interficfie^ 
by the Spey for the fpace of t miles, confifts of a light; 
dry foil, miicti ihcuinbered with flones, lying on landy 
gravel, producing heavy crops of com in a wet ieafon, but 
exceedingly parched in dry westtherJ 

Agriculture^ (jf^.— The crops confift of oats, rye, barley, 
and pcttatoes. In general there is a fufficiency for the 
fubMenoe «f the inhabitants ; the rent (all money) is paid 
from the incteafe of this cattle. There h only one farofi 
ftocked wholly with (heep. The Itfte or eariy frofts feMom 
fill] to hurt the potatoes in foihe degree, which is a great 
bar to the culture of that moi{ ufeful root* Seldom any more 
than the third of the crop of peas is faved ; it is only fbwn 
|(y thofe who Ixm6 ; the mildews frequently afiedt the oaGk 
and bear \ tttmipis rarely fown beyond the garden. Theri 
h not fd muich flaxraifedas is fufficient fortheconfumptlon 
#f the inhabitants, owing to the bad fervices in the neigh- 
t boUriag 

ofAlvie. 377 

bouring miliy together with the difficulty of procuring feed 
lA this inland fituation. There are a few farms having ex- 
tenfive meadows along the Spej, which are extremely 
produdive of grafs, but liable to frequent overflows ; to re- 
medy which one of the moft extenfive meadows has been 
lately furrounded with an earthen bank by the proprietor, 
which refcues it completely from the fummer and harveft 
floods, fo that rich crops of com can be now with fa&ty 
raifedy where the grals was formerly precarious. The 
gentlemen of the pariih have begun of late to lime their 
lands, which has anfwered extremely well, producing 
luxuriant crops of com and grab *, but the inferior tenants 
cannot be prevailed on to adopt this mode of farming, 
though very fenfible of its benefit, alleging as a caufe 
their poverty and fhortneis of their leafes, from 5 to 9 
years. It might be for their benefit that the proprietor 
would article in their leafes, that fo much muft be limed 
annually. The parifh abounds with fir, birch, alder, 
and a few oaks ; one proprietor only has an exclufive right 
to the woods on his own eftate, who has lately let a lot of 
it to a Company, which will probably bring him L. aooo 
before the expiration of the leafe \ the other woods are 
fubje&ed to a fervitude, (/ . e. all the feuars have an equal 
privilege), which is a great lois to the proprietors, and, 
upon the whole, a difadvantage to the tenants, as on this 
account no melioration is allowed for houfes, and now 
. all the principal wood b mangled and deftroyed by this 
libertine mode of cutting, fo that they can hardly be fup- 
plied from them with the neceiTary timber.— The old Scots 
plough is generally ufed *, the gentlemen ufe the Englifli 
plough, from which they find a great benefit. All the 
farm-work is carried on with horfes, of which they muft 
have a great number on account of their fuel, which is at 
a great diftance, and difficult of accels for thofe on the N. 
Vol. XIII. 3B of 

378 Stattfikal Account 

of the Spey, where horfes c«n bring onlj btckJoad^ • th« 
ibiubern divifion of the pftriih ii pkntifuUy tad eafily (up* 
plied with peats and bomwood. ^ 

.Mamufa3mrfs,^^Thz natives are remarkable Sot ibe 
quantity and quality of white plaiding they bring to niar* 
ket« all manufaAuring what wool their own exigencies 
will permit in that manner. Their blankets and clothing 
have very few dyes, and are exuemely coarfe \ their plaid- 
ing fells at about xo d. the ell (39 iocbes.) 

Morals, Xic. — ^It is very uncommon to have any recoorie 
tp the Sheriff^ much leis to the Judiciary Court ; any dif« 
fierence arifing is fettled by the Juftices pf tbe Peace £or 
the diftrifti Only one fnicide has been heard of. They 
are much addided to drinking of whiiky ; whence, at their 
public meetings (fucb as buriak, &c.) iquabbles are fre- 
quent ; their fondneis for fpirits is owing to tbe eafy acceis 
to it, there being no lels than 13 houfes in tbeparifb* where 
drams are fold without a county or excife licence, to the 
very great prejudice of the pur£e, conftitution, and morals 
of the natives. Such a nuifance to fociety is overlooked 
by the proper officer, on account of the trouble and diilance 
from the county town, the proprietors alfo refiding at a di- 

Proffffions.^^T\itte is no furgepn, public writer, officer of 
ezcife, meflenger, mafoo, carpenter, baker, or butcher in 
the purifli, and no jail. There is one Juftice of Peace, 2 
ihopkeepers, 2 fmiths, 6 weavers, 4 tailors, and 2 brog- 
makers ; thefe handicraftfmen are fit only for the coarfeit 
jvork. If xMafures could be adopted for the encouragement 
pf prpper tradefmeui it would benefit the country greatly. 
* * ' ' The 

of Alvie. 379 

Xlie noQ-reikleiice of ihe proprictoni i$ e^ceedioglj againft 
its improvement in many refpefis. 

MifctUaneous Oi/irvations. -^The inferior tenants arc 
▼erj poor, owing to their fmall holdings, and their habi- 
Utions wretched ; they pay from L. a to L. 6 rent, which 
may be from 5 8« to los. the acre arable, affording a fcaiity 
fabfiAence to a &mily, which af!edd their morals, fo that 
their veracity or honeily b not always to be depended on* 
They have no idea of trade or mannfadures, and confe« 
quendy no defire to leave their native land ; they prefer 
living on the fmalleft pendicle of land as tenants to the beft 
fcrvice, and are extremely averfe to the military. They 
procure their little neceflaries from the market-towns, by 
the fale of fmall parcels of wood they bring thither (diftant 
40 miles). They are very ignorant of the principles of 
. religion, as but few of them can read. There is no Diifen- 
ter of any defcription in the parifli. There b but one place 
of worihip, and that in the extremity of the parifh. The 
incumbent frequently preaches in the kirk of Inch, as being 
nttre contiguous to the greater part of the pariihioners than 
the parilh-church. The climate is dry and healthy, and 
there is lels of ftorm than what is at a few miles diftance on 
, either hand, probably owing to its being equidiftant from the 
' £. and W. feas. The natives live to a good old age -, there 
are feverals at prefent beyond 80 years. The laft minifter 
died at 10 1, and preached till within fix months of his 
death. The principal difeafes are fevers, rheumatifms, and 
confumptions*' The prejudice againft inoculation is hap- 
pily removed, fo that very few die now of that naufeous 
diforder, the fmall-poz. 

Rentf Population, ISc. — The valued rent of the parifli is 
L, 1394 Scots, die real rent about L. 806 Sterlmg, befides 


3 8o Statijlieal Account 

the woody which perhaps mxy return L. loo Sterling more 
annuallj. There are four heritors*— According to Hx 
Ayebfter's report, the popalation in 1755 was loai. The 
number of foob in 179^9 is lozi ; of whom 378 are honlc* 
holders, 551 children living with tiieir parents, 8t in ler- 
vice. There are 1104 black cattk, 510 horfes, 7000 {keep, 
lox ploughs. Births and marriages are entered in the pa- 
rochial regifter as below for the laft 5 years *• 

Stipend^ Poor^ Sehaob^/^^Th^ chnrch is in a very ruinous 
flate } repaired about 30 years agoj not known when built. 
The manfe was built in 1730, and b now condemned ; it 
has always been very damp, though on an eminence, being 
furrounded with water. The. ftipend is L. 70 Sterling. 
The arable glebe is t| acres ; the grais not fufficient for 


• Biptirmi. 


lyW, »8 

1789. 18 

x7y^, 18 

'79'. 3« 

1792. as 

Twint thrice daring faid period. 



OfFevers, . 6 

Under z, - - s 

Between i and xo, . t 

Suddenly, * a 

xo and 20, . a 

Chincoagh, - z 

aoand30, . 

Inward InflimmAtioiik i 

30 and 40b - t 

Age^ - . I 

40 and 5^. - S 

Hivei, . X 

50 and 60, . s 

Scurry, - . x 

60 and 70, . a 

70 and 60, • a 


80 and 90, - a 


Difeafes are fiated u the fiiendf reprefent, as a forgeoa is not slwajs 
called opoo. 

6f Ah)U. 381 

one cowf thefe is L. 15 SterlingN allowed snnually by the 
heritora in lieu of a manfe. The Duke fA Gordon is pa^ 
tron^^-The number of poor on the parochial roll is 25, 
who have no other fond than the public coDeAions, which 
feldom exceed L. 3 a-year.— There is a parochial fchod, 
with L, 10 Sterling of a fidary, where about 30 fcholars are 
taught, paying of fchool-dues i 9. a-quarter, for reading, 
3 3. ditto, for Latin or arithmetic; the ibho<dmafter, as 
fefiion-derk, gets 6 d. each baptifin, and i s. each marriage. 
There is alfo a Society fchoolmafier, with L. 5 of a £dary» 
as catechifi, irom a mortification in the parifh, and L. 9 
from the Society as fchoolmafter, by whom 30 fcholars are 

RiverSf 6*^.— The river Spey interfefting the parifli for 
a miles, abounds with ialmon, trout, and pike ; a num* 
ber of falmon are killed with the rod, but more with the 
fpear. The Feffie, a &iall river which runs along the feu* 
them divifion of the parifli, (aa mentioned above), affi^rda 
trout, and fometimes falmon to the induftrious filher. The 
only loch in the parilh is that which furrounds the glebe, a 
mile long, and from i to •}- mile broad, having white and 
red trout, generally about x lb. weight, though feme are 
found 4 lb. or 5 lb. It has a commtmication with the Spey, 
but it b not fuppo&d that its trout vifit Spey ; they are a 
much better filh than thofe of that river ; pike are alfo 
found there from i lb. to 7 lb« weight ; they are taken with 

PrictSf 6*r.— The price of meal has been from 18 s. to 
L. z the boll (9 done when weighed), for feveral years $ the 
meafure, which is more generally ufed, is equal to ic (lone ; 
i more is given for the lame price of barley-meal ^ pota- 

382 Staiiftkal Account 

toes 6d«. the pedcf ttie peck bdds 6 piots tad a giB» Uac 
brimful of which is half the potato peck ^« 

VtgetBbkz^ Mc^^VL the vegetable prodnfiioDSy there is 
nothing remarkabk or peculiar, but that whins will not 
grow, though broom d^ \ fmall or buib-firuit aofwers weQ, 
and is abundant, but tree-firuit does not, as the late froOs 
generally defiroj the bloflboi. There are fomc naaieral 
fpringi, but of no repute* 

J9f nif.— Of the feathered tribe, the linnet and goldfinch 
feldom appear here, though numerous along the coafl. 
The fwan, a variety of filhbg-ducks or ducken, and the 
woodcock live here in winter, but retire in fuauner. 
The iky and (andy larks, ilMkmifpie, lapwing, flonechatter, 
fwaUow, cuckoo, bat, and night-hawk remain here during 
the warm months, but dilappear in winter \ the 5 laft are 
believed to be fleepers. In winter 1791, a bird appeared, 
of the fixe and make of a linnet, entirely white ; one of the 
fame kind was feen at Fort William in 178a, with a flock 
of linnets. 

Curiqfitim. — ^The only curiofity is an artificial cave up- 
on the elUte of Raits, a miles from Fitmain, and within 

* A farm fervant has from L. 5 to L. 6 a-year of wages ; a maid-fcmat 
from L. 1, lot. to L. 1. When hired by the day, the man-ferrant gets i s. 
without viAuali, or 6 d. with vidtualt; a woman 6 d. without tidnals. 
The price of wool wa(hed is about I3s. unwaflied, 8 s. tarred, 5 s. the 
•ftone (24 Ibv EiigUlh). The country flieep are of the whitefaced kind, 
weighing about 8 lb. the quarter, and fell at 7 s. or 8 s. ; by the iotro- 
dudlion of the blackfaced tups, the breed is greatly meliorated of late 
yean, but the wool is much coarfer. Moft part of the inferior tenants 
ftill hottfe tham for the benefit of tSieir manure, whence diey fofier ft. 
irciely in fpring. They wean their lambs early, and milk the flieep, to 
the great prejudice of both, 


a few yards of the high-road ; it is 60 feet long, 9 broad, 
and 7 high, the fides built with ftones ; it b covered* with 
large flags or flat ^nes, over wi|idi has lieeo built an houfe \ 
the entry to the cave, is faid to have been in the centre of 
the hoofej by raifing a flag. There is a number of tu- 
muli on each fide t)ie bi^-road, nearly oppofite to the 
manfe ; curiofity prompted fome of the neighbouring gentle- 
men to open the moil confpicuous one, where were found 
the bones of a human body entire, and in order, with two 
large hart-horos aoro6. 

DifadvatUages. — ^The grcateft bar to the improvement 
of the country is the fmallneis of the holdings, the (hort- 
neis of the leafes, and not having melioration for their 
houfes, or other improvements ; at prefent, the inferior te- 
nanu confider their meliorating their houfes or lands, as 
tl^e fure means of having an overbidder next leafe* 

NU M^ 

3^4 SiaiifHcalJccomt 


(CoaKTT or BxRwicK, 8nro0 mw Merbs and Tmor- 
PALE, Prxsittbrt or Laodxr.) 

By thi Rev. Mr Tbomas Murrat. 

Name, Exteteif Surface, Cti$nate, ite. 

THIS parifh does not fomUh much room for ftatifikal 
inveftigatiofiy and the ob&rvations which occur re- 
fpefting ity may be comprehended within narrow, bounds. 
Xhe prefent name of the pariih is evidently modem, and 
is happily defcriptive of the nature of the foil, which is in 
general a light thin earth, on a deep bed of fimdy gravcL 
In our records, which are preferved as far back as 1650, 
the name of the pariih is fpelled CbingelkirL Cbingie, I 
prefume, is the old Scotch word, fynonimous to the mo- 
dem term Channel *• The extent of this parifh is confi- 


^ Dr FoKD, in his account of the pariih of Lander, has (iven an ttj- 
nologj different from this. He fays, that the ancient name of the pariih 
was Children'i kirk, becanfe dedicated to the children of Bethlehem, or the 
Holy Innocents. As the Dodtor^ however, has given vs no anthoritj in 


^ Cbannelkirk. 385 

deniblcy being fall 6 miles in length, and pearl j 5i in 

breadth. Its figure is nearly circular. The furface of the 

country .is in . general hill/, . particularly to the W, and N. 

i?7liere th? pariih is bounded by a high ridge of hills, which 

divides the counties of Haft and Mid Lothian from Ber« 

ivickiJiire. The hiUs are covered with heath, and all pa« 

ilured with, the old) Scotch breed of, black-faced (heep^ 

The pariib is wcU watQf^H by a variety of ftreamlets, 

-which fall from our mountains, the imion of which forms 

the rircr Leader^ pr X^uder. From the hei^ght of the fitu- 

atioDy and the light ^ dry nature pjF,the foil, tjie climate is 

remarkably be^tby« Epide^c. and cbropic difeafi^s are 

unknown. As a propf of the lalubrity of the cliinate, the 

lafi incumbent hdd the ^en^g^e 42 years« aiid his prede- 

cefibr for no lels a perio^.^bjin $%* Th^ climate, for 6 

mooths of the year, is how,ever extreme ly,coldj fubjeft t^ 

fevere frofis, and great falls of ihow. 

SqU^. Cultivation f Produce^ l^c. — Ther«^are in the parlfli 
from 1500 to aQOO su^res of land in tillag^e*' Tbe foil, as 1 
have already faid, is in general a light dry earth, on a deep 
bed of (a^dy gravel. It is well adap^d .to the culture of tur- 
nip, potatoes and clover. The folio wiijg is ^hc^ ufual rota- 
tion pf crops on the beA land: i. pats ^,2«. turnips j 3, bar- 
ley or oats \ 4. clover, i^d Agriculture hos^^made a won- 
derful progrefs within thefe lall %o years , in this pari/|)« 
This, like moft other foci^tj^^ h^s been 
chiefly o^iog to the ikill .and attention of an individual. 
The gentleman to whom I allude is Mr.Hobert Uogar(h» 

Vot. XIIL 3 C ^ ^ . ^ tenaaif 

fttpport of thn opinion, ind an I find no fuch t^iQg is qaentioned in Spot- 
tif^ood's appbndix to Hope*s Minor Pradicks, lam difpofcd to confider 
It at a mere conjedlure, and am of opinion that the obvioui ctyrnology 
fidt mentioned ii the beA. 

fi6 Stati/Haa AccoBfit 

tenant a Carfrae*. It u about 35 ytan 
came to thb part of the countrjr, from the eafteni 
dary of Berwicklhure. At that period, oat fimneA 
total ftraogen to the cnltnit of tnmip, and very little sc- 
quaioted with the modem and new approved method of 
nddiorating land by lime and fown graffes, C/r* He in- 
ttoduoed die cohnre of turnip and clover; and bj the 
fiicceft which attended his cxertioosy the neighbomuig &r« 
me^ were fixm convoKed of the fuperiority of thb new 
method of managing land, to the old firfhionwl prafiaoe of 
exhaufiing and raining the feB, bj a mnhipKcity of white 
etops in ihoDeflieii. The coltnre of tnmip and dorcr is 
now accordingly become very general, and in no pbce of 
Berwfekfhire is that ufefiil plant produced in greater qoan* 
tity, or of better quality, on the Ikme extent of land. Mr 
Hogarth has alfo lately introduced the white &ced long 
wooUed iheep, from Northufmberiand ; and notwithftand- 
ing the coldneis of the climate, they promiie, from the 
trials already made» to anfwer extremely welL It mufi, 
however, be obferved, that they are not paftured on the 
heath- covered hilh; where, from experiments in fimilar 
latitudes, they are not found to thrive. In fummer, they 
are fed within endofurca, where the foH has been h^hly 
improved) and in winter, are prepared by turnip, for the 
inarket. The introdudion of the potatoes was ftill later 
tiian that of turnipsk I aim aflured, it it not above 14 
years fince they were planted in the ficldii. They ure 
found to fuit the nature of our foif remarkably wett; no 
where are they produced of better quality, and in feafon^ 
when the corn is high priced, coniHtute fuBy the half of 
the food of our cotti^gers. There are about 30 &rmers is 
the pariih. Hie farms are in general (ioudl, excepting 


* This beloogi to the Mtiquis of Tweeddale. 

^ CbannelHrk. 387 

thofe bekmgiflg to the Marquis of Tweeddale, which are 
pretty extenfive. This NoblemAn is bj much the great- 
eft proprietor in the parifli ; his property being equal to 
one-ficmrth of the whole. The number of ploughs in the 
parifli is about 50. They are all of the Englifb conflruc- 
tion, or what are known by the name of Smalts ploughs t. 

Nmmierof Black Caiik^ Sbeep^ (/#./»-The number of 
young cattle annually reared, I hairc not been able to af* 
certain, but I am well informed, that not fewer than xoo 
bullocks and cows are yearly fed on turnip for the butcher^ 
Of the black-faoed flieep, which pafture on heath, there 
may be from 6000 to 7000. The number of black cattle 
is from 400 to joo. 


« With reipcdi to tbe tgricalture of the parifli, it may be in general 
obfeffcd, that the quantity of grain produced, in good yean, is confider- 
ably moie than fufficient to fupport the inhabitants; but in cpid apd wet 
leaibns, oar oats and barley do not ripen properly, and are often very ill 
got. In harve^ 1781 and 1783, the fituation of the farmers, and in- 
habitants in general, was truly deplorable. It was the end of December 
before the harveft was finiflied, after the greateft part of the crop had 
been dellroyed by froft and fnow. Without a fupply from other ^Mat- 
ters, a real Csmine would have taken place ; oar ftmers were obliged to 
bay the whole of their fee^-corn for crop 1783, from the cad parts of 
the county, and from tbe Lothians. Some Dutch oats were alfo brought 
from Leith, at an exorbitant price. The red 9at$, io called, I prefume, 
from their colour, prevail very much in the parifli at preient. They are 
fotend to fuft the foil and climate, better than any early fpecies that has 
hitherto been tried. They ripep u loon as the Dutch and Polifli ; are 
more luxuriant on the ground ; and not fo apt to fall by the wind. The 
principal crops in this parifli are oats and rough bear ; peafe grow very 
readily on our light foil, but from the celdnefs of the climate, very fiel- 
dom attain complete maturity ; oati are fown aa early in March as die 
froft will allow ; bear from the middle of April to the end of May. The 
time of harveft is very uncertain ; it is very feldom general, however, be- 
fyrt the end of September. 

388 Statf/iical Aixouns 

Population. — According to Dr Wcbfter*s report, the 
number of fouls, in 17559 was 531. The population, a& 
appears from the records of the pariihy is much the £une 
that it has been for loc years pad, and amounts to about 
6co fouls. The annual number o£ births, for 50 ^can 
pad, is 18 ; of deaths, 13 ; <^ marriages, 6. Wc have no 
inilances on record of remarkable longevity. Many, bow- 
ever, have reached their 90th year, and there aie foqic 
perfons now living, of that age. 

The tradefmen and mechanicks are, 

Weaver, - i Wright, ., . j 

Tailors, . - 6 Mafons, . - 3 

Shoemakers, - a Millers, . . 3 

Smiths, . - a Gardener, . • i 

Rent^ Heritors^ &c. — ^The land-rent of the parifh is at 
prefent about L. aoco a-year \ but as the moft extenfive 
farms are at prefent low rented, it might eafily rife to 
L. 3000 a year. There arc 12 heritors, 3 of whom onlj 
are refident ; George Somerville, £fq; of Airhoufe, Hen- 
ry Torrans of Kirktonhill, James Juftice of JufiicehalL 

Mijcettantous Ohfervatio»s,^^Vt9t and turf, of which 
there is plenty in the parifh, was formerly the only fuel 
ufed by the inhabitants. But fince the public roads were 
made, and kept in good repair, coal, although brought 
from a diftance of la miles, is found by our proprietors 
and fiirmers, to be on the whole the cheapcft fucL iTiis 
change is to be attributed to the advanced price of labour, 
Tvhich makes the expenfe of procuring peat and turf, when 
every thing is confidered, greater than that of coal *• 


* The wages of hoafchold femnts, employed in hulbaiidry. are from 
L. 7 to L. 8 Steriio; tnoutllji bcfides Tifdltuili; female fierva&tt receive 


« of Cbanndkirk. 389 

Siipmid^ PaoTy ISc. — The Earl of Marchmont is patron 
of the parifh. The living coniifts of L. 600 Scots, and 3 
cbalders of vifhial, half oats, half barlej. The glebe coniifts 
of nearlj 9 Englilh acres of land, but the one half Ijing de- 
Csbched almoft a mile from the other, and the whole being 
ixnenclofed, it b of very inconliderable value to the mini- 
fter. The living, glebe included, is not worth more than 
X«. 84 Sterling a-year y as the incumbent intend to raife a 
proceis for an augmentation of ftipend, he wifhes tbefe 
fads to be generally known. The church is built in the 
old Popifh form of a crofk. When it was ereded is un- 
certain. It underwent a thorough repair in the year 1702. 
Thp manfe and offices were rebuilt 7 years ago, and are at 
pre&nt in good repair.-— The number of poor on the pa« 
rifh roll b at prefent la. The annual expenfe of fuppor. 
ting them amounts to L. 30 a-year, which fiim is raifed 
by colledions in the church, and by affelTments on the 


from L.3, xos. to L. 4 yearly. Day4abouren get from io<L a- 
day* with visuals ; carpenten, i s. ; mafons, i s. s d. ; tailors, 8 d. Dal- 
keith it the market-town to which our farmera carry their grain ; it 11 
diftant aboat 14 mites. Their carts retom loaded with coal or lime. 
We have butcher meat of all kinds from Dalkeith ; and in iomt feafont 
of the year, are tolerably well Terved from Lauder, which is not above 
6 miles diftant from us. The prices vary at different feafons, according 
as the markets are fupplied. Beef, was lad Chriflroas as high as 6 d. the 
lb. Morton, 4*.d Lamb has not been below/4d. the lb. all this feafon. 
The want of fea and river fiUi is much felt io this part of the country. 
The ftreamlets which fall from our mountains, indeed, abound with very 
fine trout; but the infamous pra<flices of taking them with nets, and de- 
ftroying them with lime, which have for fome years pail been very pre- 
valent, have greatly diminilhed the different ^ecies of this .excellent 

390 Stati/Rcal Mccmt 

MoMMert aad Morals of tie PiofU.^^The pvefent is- 
dtmbent having been but a few mootht refidcot in cbe 
parilht has ooc yet bad time to be individually aoqnainted 
with all bis bearen; bat Cram the genenl aoqnaintanoe 
he has obtained of them, be has no hefitation to pronoonce 
them a frugal, induftrious, and happy let of people. They 
live harmoDioofly with each other, and fupport their fami- 
lies decently on the fruits of honeft iodnfiry. One fieatme 
in their charaAer, which, in an i^e of kvity and irreEgum 
like the prefent, deterves to be particolariy remarked, is the 
regular attendance of all ranks on poUic worfliip, and their 
decent behaviour when thus employed. Will the writer 
of this paper be fufpefted of entfanfiafin, when he affigns 
this as one caufe of the induftry and comfort which prevail 
among the people at large ? 

Jntiqutim^^lt is probable that Channelkiri^ when 
Popery was the Eflabliihed Religion of the country, was a 
place of coofiderable note. The memorials hoiwever, are 
few; a perennial fprtng of excellent (oft Water, about a 
quarter of a mile W» from the kirk, is called the well of 
the Holy Water Cleugh, a name which ancient fiiperfii- 
tion had conferred* The Girthgate, that is> the road which 
the monks kept in their way friom Melrofe Abbey to Edin- 
burgh, pailes through the weftera boundary of the parifh. 
It is a broad green path, on which the furrounding heath 
never grows. On thb road, a few miles due W of the 
church, are to be feen the ruins of an qI4 building, com- 
monly known by the name of the Refli Law, or Rcftlaw 
Haw. Tradition tells us, that this was the place where 
the monks and pilgrims flopped, or refted for refreflimeot, 
it being about halfway between Melrofe and Edinburgh. 
A great many Pi£tifh and Scottiih encampments' are to be 
feen in this parifh and the neighbourhood ; they are all of 


Of Channelkirh ' 391 

a round or oval figure* aad are called rings by the com- 
moii people. The Roman encampments were fquare or 
reAangular, but there is noDc of them in this part of the 

Adnamagts and Difadvantagii^^^Tht chief advantage of 

this fituation is a contiguity to the public road, which leads 

from Edinburgh to London. It i» kept in excellent repair 

bj the money colleded at the toUbars, and by the fiatute* 

labour commuted into money, according to the number of 

fervants and horfes kept by the farmers ; without this, 

improvement of every kind would have been impradicable. 

The diiadvantag^ of our fituation are, the coldneis of our 

climate, and confiequently our frequent cold and wet har- 

vefls. Were the pradice of enclofing land and planting 

more general, the climate would be confiderably improved. 

Clumps of fir and white wood, judicioufly difpofed on the 

heights, would ihelter our flocks from the (lorms of winter, 

and defend our habitations from the N* and N. W. winds, 

to which they are at'prefent much ezpofed. Our landed 

gentlemen are beginning to fee the advantages of enclofing 

and planting; about 500 acres are already encloled, and I 

doubt not but thb improvement will advance with confide* 

rable rapidity. This part of the county of Berwick, from 

the number of iheep which it fupports, and its vicinity to 

the public rood, fisems well calculated for the eftablifliment 

of an woollen manufa£hire ; and from the prefent flou- 

riihing (late of that which was eftabliflied many years ago 

at Gala£biels, the Noblemen and gentlemen of Lauderdale 

might promife themfelves the higheft advantages from a 

fiiQilar ere&ioa in the neighbourhood of Lauder. 


392- StatifHcal Accoum 



(CouKTT oT BANrrr, Synod or AsERBEsy, Pkes- 


By the Rev. Mr George Dokaldsok. 

RATHVEN 18 faid, by thofe converfiiat ia the Godk 
language, to be derived from two original words, the 
one fignif jing brake, or fern, and the other, rock, eminence, 
or hillock. In fupport of this derivation, it may be.obfier* 
Ted, that there is a ^ot in the neighbous^ood of the churchy 
called Brakenhaugh *, and a farm named Rannachie, i. e, the 
Brakenfield. This parilh is fitoated in that diftriA of 
Banffihii^e, named Enzie. It is zo miles long from £« to 
W. ; and from 3 to 5 miles broad from N. to S. On the N. 
It 18 bounded bj the Moraj Frith. CuUen is the neareft poft- 
town to the eaftem end of the pariib -, and Fochabers to the 
weftero, from which it is fcarce 4 miles diftant. The church 
and manfe arc on the N. lide of the poft-road, and at the 


ofJRatbwfu 393 

liiifatoce of 3^ miles fipom GnUeo. The wh6le of the pariik 
has never been furveyed; aail therefore the number of 
acres cannot be precifelj afcertained. Partly, however, 
fix>m pbmsy and paidj from computation, it may be fiated 
at 27,000 aeres Scotch meafure, and in the following pro- 
portions nearly : 

Arable, .... 4700 

Meadow and pailure, • « 1600 . 

Hills, moors, and mofles, - - i6,aoo 

Plantations, - • • 4500 

SoUf Surface^ and CUmatt^^^ln a pariih of focb extent 
there is generally a great variety of foil ; and this pariih 
-affords no exception to the general mle. In one comer the 
foil is a light loam, extremely rich, on a bottom of clay ; in 
another it is th n, but abundantly fertile, on a red mud. 
Some places are very iSmdy, and others clayey ; and, in 
general, with the exception of what is iandy, an amazing 
number of fmall roundifli fiones cover the ground. The 
furface is variegated with hills and eminences, ftreams of 
water, and fiertile plains. The Binhiil, in the S. £• end of 
the pariih, is moilly planted with trees. It is covered with 
heath, and of fo confiderable an altitude as to ferve as a land- 
mark to the fiihers, being perceived by them, according to 
their way of reckoning, at fall 15 leagues diftance. The hilla 
of Maud and Adie, alfo covered with heath to the top, are 
contiguous to it, but of leis elevation, and proceed in a 
we^rly dire&ioB to the confines of the pariih. The 
greatcfi part of the pariih has a N. W. expofure, and fuf- 
£ers from the llorms which blow from that point ; but this 
inconvenience is greatly over-balanced by a fea-coaft, in- 
cluding its windings, of la miles. The vicinity of the fea, in* 
dependent of all its othfer advantages, ferves in fome meafure 
t0 mitigate the heats in fummer, and to leffen, both in point 

vpt. nail 3 p of 

3^4 Statical Accouni 

of feverify wd duracioiiy cbe oold in wiater; The f*- 
rfQiionere, being fobjed to no epidesMcal di£Mfi»» n» ia 
gcilcra] healthy, and many attain to oU age. In proof of 
the fthibfity of the ait » and goodneis of their eonftktttioaa, 
it may be remarked, that aotwithftanduig the popQloi»(ae& 
pf the pariih, no man bred to phyfic or forgery has eirer 
thought it worth hu while to fettle in it. 

Number o/Proprietors.^Thtk are 8 : The Duke of Gor- 
4on, the Earl of Findlater, Mr Baron Gordon, Mr Gordon 
of Lettefcourie, Mr Gordon of Caimfield, Mr Dunbar of 
Nethef Buckie, Mr Stuart of Tanachy, and Mr Stuart of 
OxhilL Only a of them, the proprietors of Letceficoiuie 
atid Caimfield, refide in the parifli. The former of thcfe 
gentlemen has laid out a part of his fortune in embellifk* 
ing his paternal property, and in building elegant hoofes on 
his different eftates ; and the latter direds his attention to 
the improvement of his eftatOi and the cultivation of his 

Modi ofCuhivatkn.'^'Tht climate is early « and the foil 
in general good, and fufceptible of the higheft cultivation. 
Some of the heritors have availed themfelves of all the 
modem improvements in agriculture ; and of late the te- 
nants have begun to improve their fyftem of farming. In 
their feafons, one fees fields properly cleaned, ridges 
ftraighted, fmall ftones removed, and luxuriant crops of 
grain and of graft growing. By means of planting, noi- 
fances are converting into beauties, and the country is gra- 
. dually afluming a pleafanter appearance. In (hort, as a fpi« 
|:it of induftry and of imitation is becoming prevalent a- 
mong the tenants, with, a proper degree of encourageineiit, 
the face of the country would, in a ihort time, be mightily 
improved. Wheat, barley, oatSi and peafe are the grains 


tfRaibvin. 395 

tsfiutUy culdvated. A fummer fallow is the ordliiaty pre* 
p^^nuion ibr w^eac ; and after the field is thorcmghtj^ clean* 
ed, and voeU manured wilih dung from the fiiher- towns, if it 
can be procured, the crop is laid down in Odober. Barley 
ia fowo withont manure, after oats from a ley-furrow, and 
with manure ofcer peaf<p or turnip. The turnip £eld is ^e« 
aevaUj .ploughed once, and the peafe twice, before laying 
op the^ung for the ieed-furrow. Oats are town on ley 
ploughed in Ecbruary, and frequently after barley. WhiO 
the oats after barley are reaped, the field gctsa ploughmg 
in autumn, and remains in that ftate till fpring, when it re- 
ceives the feed furrow, and is fown with peate. On the S. 
fide of the poft^oad, towards the hills, the acre fows irom 
from M to 14 pecks ; on Ae N. fide, towards the coaft; 
from v6 to 18 ; of gray peafe the fame quantity is allowed 5 
but of the late kind, which is feldom ufcd, as they do not 
ripen infeafon, andfo prove unprodudive, 13 or 14 fufBce. 
About a peck lefs of barley, than of the above kinds of 
grainj 13 allowed to the acre, and of wheat the ufual allow- 
ance is a boll. Of wheat the average produce is 10 returns 5 
barley 7 ; oats 4 ; and p6rfe 3. On many places peafe do 
not thrive ; and oats, on a field that has been manured with 
dung from the fifter-towns, generally fails, and on that ac- 
count they are feldom a lucrative crop, except after ley. 
As a common tenant does not often lay down his beflf 
ground with graft feeds, many excellent fields have been 
u&der a regular courfe of cropping time immemorial. A 
fmallfpot of about \ of an acre, in Mr Baron Gordon's eflate, 
has produced barley -croj)s for 47 years, without any luj^ 
of fertility. It is fitu^ited pear the beach at Buckie; has 
been uniformly twice ploughed, and gotten fome loadb of 
fea-weed, or other manure annually. It fows i': pecks, 
and has produced from 4 to j bolls. Turnips and potato^ 
are cultivated for home-confumptioo > and flax is pretty 


396 Staii/Hcdl AccQunt 

' facce&fbllj raifed for family porpoCb otif. The 
tion between infield and outfield it fcaroelj known lieie. 
Ground lately improved out of moors, or fiieh like, w4uclft 
win not bear the fiune rotation of crops as the fiatn^ it 
called oatfield. Land near the hills gives from 8 a. to 15 s. 
and on the coofl from 15 s. to L. i, los. an acre. In ge- 
neral the ftrms are imall, and cottagers almoft nnknown. 
Two tenants pay from L. 80 to L. 100 \ a few firom 1^ 40 
to L. 60 ; and all the reft from L. xo, or even lowov ^ 

Jfaiiirr#^.— Different tenants employ different maownes. 
Some are fatisfied with what their cattle prodnoe. Thole 
on the coaft are exceedingly attentive to procure fea-weed. 
In fummer they fpread it on ley to the extent irf 300 fingle 
cart-loads an acre \ of x6o after the crop is cot down, 
and daring winter ; and of xoo in April and May, when it 
is ftrongeft. llib procefs is renewed every (ecood year. 
The weed is loofed from the rocks by a northrcafterlj ftona, 
and driven aihore in great quantities. In a imaH bay, called 
the hoU of Gollachie, io,o9o cart-loads have been aoco- 
mulated by the tide in the coitffe of a week. Sea fliells 
purchaled at any of the fi(her-towns for a d* the cart Joadi 
are fpread on the fields as a manure, and like fea-weed left 
to the influence of the weather. It would be a better plan 
to bum them, as it is done at a fmall txpenfe, and they 


« ImpUmenU •f liti/ban^ry, ^^Tht ploughs are well adapted to the ftate 
of the country ; as the foil is light, they are of a flender but neat make. 
A hw of them are drawn by a horfes, many by 4, and mil more by 2 fiiitll 
horfes and 4 black cattle, either oxen or cows. Carts are in uniTerial ufe; 
fome of them are neatly and iubfiantially made; but far the greater nom- 
ber are of fo bad materials, fo unartificially put together, tod of to dm^ 
autin a fise, as hardly to defenre the naioe. 

ytodoce a moierate qaantiij of ezcfcUent Ikne* A fpmey 

€»f limefione, called by Ibme fiooe-marl, is dug oot of a . 

quarry at Guttlcbrae, in the Duke of Gordon's land% 

iprcsd on the fidd» and left to the operation of the ieafinns 

to pnlvesize it. This is reckoned an ezpenfive, but vain* 

aUe manure* As. moll people have accdb to one or other 

of the above manures^ recourfe is leldomliad to Hme» though 

it can he procured in fiiflBdent quMtity £m: the purpofes of 


Seed Timi ^mdHarvefi.^^AA the kil is early, iced time 
for peale (eldom commences be£ore the middle of March ; 
fior oats it begins about the 26th, and continues to the end 
ci April or middle of May % and for barley thence to the 
middle or end of June. Harveft begins about the middle 
or end of Augufi, and is finiihed in Odober «. 

CrofSf ProdttCi, and Renir^lt is no eaiy matter to flate 
with any kind of precifion, what proportion of the farm is 
allotted to each kind of grain. Here no uniformity can be 
ezpefted, becanfe the leafl alteration in circumftances may 
introduce deviations from efiablifhed rules. The following 
however, is the moft (atisf a£h>ry ftate oi the general pradice 
that I have been able to obtain. One fourth of the £um 
is laid down with peaie and barley i icarce one fourth in ' 
graft ; and the other two fourths in oats, fallow, flax, tur- 
nipsi and potatoes. Wheat is feldom fown by the tenants^ 

e In i782rfccorded in Scodmd for die ftilnre of the crop, iStu$ puiXk 
had the good foftone to efcape the f enertl ctUmtty. Sctrcely hod they 
ever s better crop, or more to fpare. The great demand for meal and 
feed^ and the high prices which diey brought^ bettered their circnm* 
fauces. Sced.oats and meal fold at L.i, and barley at In I, 5 1. tbn 

39$ Stti^Heal Jluount 

AS A»j4q net wckiNi k « lacnmrre crop ; tsd ^icfidss 4ie 
4praiit of winter-hef ding difeooniges theoi from any n tt empto 
to ratfe it. Some offbeat begin to sidke bftjt as t^etw is 
a>x«adjriiiaiiket lor it at 6d.fheftone. aooflone, i^ solk 
▲inftevdaiii» it ac^onnlied m good crop« 4uid x6o a ^ 
one, /tlia aci«. Of die diflferent kinds -of ^rain ^riie ' 
has akaady boon Aaied. Tlie parifli ' fervas itfelf witb 
grain, and exports aooo bplls jFearly. Tlie valued vast is 
L. 6395 Scots, and the real rent may be from 'L. 4000 la 
L. 5000 Sterling) but, like moft parishes in Scotland, where 
the rvnt is paid in money and viftial, it mail irary witk 
the price of grain *• 


* Prices of Grsfn and J^rwifioiu. ^^Xht grain of crop 1 792, 4lorii|a the 
winter feafon wis very moderate. Since April meal has rifen to 15E. and 
barley to 18 t. the bolK Bee^and mutton ^\ d. the lb. • dack 10 d. a hen 
Sd. a chicken 3d. c]|^ss?f d* the dozen, butter 9 d. the lb. mt 14 ot. 
JE^f IMi; «hQe(e j 1. tlte Aone. at 24 lb. fngliih. 

Wnget ottdPrictrf Xjoifiur.^^tn fenrants amployad in bufliaodry £»t 
from L. 6 to L. 8 ; women from L. 2 to L. 3 ; herds from L. i to L. 2 ^ ' 
a tailor S d. and his meat ; a day-labourer from lo J. to 1 1. ; carpc&tars 
I •. 4 d. to I s. a d. ; and flaters a $• without meat. 

Sirvfcii tmi dtf^«f»/.<*-Xbef«nrices, though not in gnisnl aboliflied^ 
»re, accoiding to my infoni^ation, exadled with fuirh modtratigo, as not ^ 
be cfteemed a grievance by the teiutnts. Cufttim fowls to a ccr|ain extent 
'are payable when required. RellriAion to mills prevail*. Leet-peats, as 
they are called, (mearuring 8 feet in length, 11 broad, and ii high), muft 
be paid in kind when demanded. Long carriages, as they are termed, 
jthat is, carriages to a fpecified diftance from the pr«prittor*8 houfc, arc 
iomettmes exa^ed : Aud in fecd'time and harrcft, as well as at hay- 
jbaking, certain ferviccsare required. For all thtfe the tenants are liable, 
and they.are paid without murmuring, becaufe never ez»Aed to tibe ezteat 
mentioned iu taeir leafe. Still, however, the vecy name implies bondaget 
becaufe fervices, being in foae mcafure arbitrary, muft ever be reckoiMi 


qfRathwn. 399 

Gommrce^—Tivt aad forty yean sgo there was not a 
fingle (bop, nor aaj imported ardde £or £de in the pariih. 
i\.boot the year I750» the firft (bop was" opened iir Bockie, 
at that time known as a fifhing. ftation only ; ^t prefent 
there are 8 merchants or ihof keepers in it who trade to 
the extent of L. 5000, ezcli^ve of graiat annually. Origi- 
nally unbred to bufinels, and poOefted of a fmaU ftock, 
they began their merchandife on a very narrow fcale; aa 
their ftock increafcd, they extended their views, and 
launched out into new branches^ They import coals, {alt» 
iron, and other necefTaries -, and export fiih and grain. 
About 500 bolls of {alt are imported annnally -, and this 
fummer (1793) 2500 bolls of wheat,r barley, oats, and meal^ 
have been exported fiom Buckie. 

ManufaQures. — Two or three weavers manufadure linen 
to the amount of L. 200 yearly \ and fome months ago a 
fmall manufaAure in hemp was eflabliibed at Buckie. A 
man from Dundee is employed to dreis the hemp, and it 
is afterward converted into lines, canvas, and nets. We 
have no flax-drefTer in the parifli, and yet the fpinning of 
flax into yarn is an important article. In 1750, a manu*' 
fadurer * in Cullen introduced this branch here ; and in 
1759* ^ weaver, dill alive, was the firft refiding agent em- 
ployed in this new li^e ; fince the above period, confider- 
able progreis has been made in it. The flax, moftly Dutch, 
is fent drcffed from Aberdeen, Fraferiburgh, Banff, Portfoy, 
Cullen, Huntley, Keith, and Fochabers, to diiFerent agents, 


^evotis. Sound policy recjuires their total abolition; aifd it is to be 
hoped. tbatth« time is faft approaching, when every veftige of the priftioe 
fcrvitode wiU difappear foi ever; and mutual ftipulations, on equal terms, 
properly defined and clearly ezprei&d, will afceitaia what man has a right 
to ezaA from maii< 

• Mr MuDgo Rannfti. 

400 Stati/Kcal Aeeowu 

to the amoQBt of 38,900 cwt.- which is giiFen out to the 
fpinnen at the avenge price of i s. the lb. and brings in 
annually L. 1945* A few tons of kelp are manofeAured 00 
that part of the coaft belonging to the proprietor of Bockie. 

FiJbiT'towm and Fi^iriis^'^TbtTt are 4 fiflier-towns in 
the pariih: Buckie, Port-eafy, Fbdochde, and Port nockie. 
The firfl belongs to two proprietors, and the 3 laft to Lord 

I. Buckie, the moft wefterly of the fiiher-towns, is fitoated 
at the month of the rivulet or bom of Buckie. Mr Boron 
Gordon is proprietor of the lands and houfes on the £• Sdt 
of the bum, and Mr Dunbar on the W. On the W. fide 
there are 102 houfes, and 400 inhabitants; of whom 175 
«re males, and 225 females: And on the £• fide, 63 hoafcSt 
and 303 inhabitants; of whom 136 are males, and 167 
females. The W. fide has been a fiihing fiation for 150 
years, and is, according to my information, the oldeft in the 
parifii. The date of the other fide as a fiihing ftation, I 
have not been able to afcertab. In 1723, a fiihing* boat 
and crew belonging to the Duke of Gordon, removed from 
Gollachie, which lies a mile wefiward, to Buckie, as being 
ft fafer and more commodious ftation. At that period the 
proprietor of Nether Buckie, who held his lands in feu from 
the Duke, had only one boat ; and as he was out of the 
kingdom, and in arrear to his Grace, the defired accommo* 
dation was the more eafily obtained. At prefent, there are 
14 boats and i yawl * employed in the fifheries. The boats 
are about 9 tons, and the yawl 4. Of thefe, 3 boats and I 
yawl belong to his Grace, 3 to Mr Dunbar, and 8 to Mr Ba- 
ron Gordon. The merchants, and others of Buckie, are pro- 

• The yawl's crews we old men, wl^ofifli iietr tlie piore, if pofliblf , 


ofRatbven. 461 

^Hetors of 4 fldops of 18, 25, 30 and 36 tons, and 2 of 66 
tons burden, navigated by 24 ieatnen. 

a. Porteafy is fituajed at the diftance of fcatce 2 miles 
from Buckie. It became a fiibing ftation in 1727, when 
j houfes were built bj the proprietor of Rannes for the 
accommodation of the original fifliers from Findhorn. This 
information was obtained from a man aged 90, iliU alive, 
and a native of this parifli, who helped to man the firft boat* 
At prelent this filhertown contains 44 houfes, and 178 in- 
habitants ; and of thefe 84 are males, and 94 females i 
Thej have 5 large and 7 fmall boats. At the commence- 
ment of this ftation, Buckie had 5 boats, Findochtie 3, and 
Portnockie 5. 

3. Findochtie lies at the diftance of 2 miles from the for- 
mer ftation, and has 45 houfes, and i6a inhabitants ; 74 
males and 88 females. It was fettled in 1716 bj fiibers 
from Frafer(burgh, according to the information of a wo- 
man aged 91, who was married to one of the originiil fifli- 
ers in 172 1. Portnockie, of which ilie is a native, at the 
time of her removal, had 3 boats. There are at prefent 4 
large, and 6 (mall boats in Findochtie. 

4« Portnockie is at the diftance of 2 miles from Findoch- 
tie. The following anecdote afcertains its origin as a fiib- 
ing ftation : About 20 years ago died Kattie Slater, aged 
96. like many old people ftie was unable to tell her age 
precifelj ; but flie recoUe&ed that flie was as old as th6 
houfe of Farlkane, as her father had often told her that he 
built the firft houfe in Portnockie the fame year in which 
the houfe of Farlkane was built, and that flie was brought 
from Cullen to it, and rocked in a fifliet's fcull inftead of a 
cradle. Now bj the date on the houfe of Farfl^ane, it ap- 
pears to have been built in 1677. Thus the origin of 
Portnockie is fixed with fufficient accuracy. At prefent 

Vol. XIII. 3E i it 

402 Statiflical Account 

it omfifli of 80 boofcs, and 143 inhabicaots; aad there are 
7 Ivgei acd 9 fmall boats in it *• 


• The large boats in the time towns lA meadoaed are about 10 torn, 
and the fmaU ones 4. The original coil of one of the foraer, inclndrng 
ftil, mail, oan, and lines, is abont L. 14 » and of the latter, half that iaa. 
In coniidefatioo of receiving a fpedfied rent aanyailjr, the prafinetor al^ 
lows L. II to evcty ocw to puichaie a new boat, which is uaderilood to 
laik 7 years, called here the long nin. Then a matnal contrad is entered 
into between the proprietor and the crew, wherrm he engages to iecvre 
them in the property of the boat ; and they bind dieaielves to ferve in it, 
and pay their rent during the teim of 7 yeark If the boat is jodgcd unfit 
for iea before the end of the leafe, and application b made for a new 
one, a dedndlion is made for every deficient year of the boat's mn to the 
extent of L. 1 , 15 s. which goes in part of the L. 1 1 for another boat. In 
the different towns the rent is different. The average rent of each boat ia 
L. 5 : 3 : 3, and 6 dried cod or ling. ThefnaaU boats are the property of 
the fiihen, and pay no rent. As they have no ijaiall boao at Buckie, the 
large ones are ufed at all fealbns. In the other towns, the large ones are 
nfed from the end of February to the end of Jolj ; and the fmall one* at 
all other times. 

Every large boat has a crew of 6 men and a boy. Each man has a line 
containing from 100 to 120 hooks, at the diitance of 7 fathoms from one 
another. The boy*s line is half the length of a man's. From the end of 
February, when the feafon for grett fiih begins, till the end of April, tbej 
leldom go above 16 leagues from the fhorein queft of cod and ling. From 
the beginning of May they launch out to the diftance of 23 leagues in 
Search of flute. They are foond in gieateft number in a particular place 
of Caithneis, called the Skate-hole. Cod, ling, flcate. halibut, and a few 
toik, are the only g^at filh eanght in the Moray frith. Cod, ling, and 
tnik are failed in pits on the beach, as they are caught and dried on the 
rocks for iale. Skate is dried without (alt, and the halibut is ufed frelh. 
Of thefe, ling and ikate are the moft valuable to the fiibers, becauie their 
liven yield much oil. Cod, ling, and tufli are in feafon from May to Fe- 
bruary ; flute is good through the whole year, and halibut in higheft 
fiate of perfeAion about July. About the end of June, the dry fifli ia 
ilowed in boats, navigated by 4 or 5 men, and carried to market in tihe 
towns along the coaft of Fifii and the ftith of Forth. The large boat wall 

3 * «riy 

ofRatbven. 403 


JKfrrwgf-F|5/6ffy.---Thc boat* s cpbw, after difpofing of 
their great fifh, generally engage in the herring-fifheiy on 
tiie Caithnels coaft for 6 weeks, from the 14th July. The 
fmall boats, having 4 men a-piece, are ufed. Every man 
has at leaft 2 nets, which cod him L. 4. The boats either 
enter mi the boanty, or engage for 10 s. the barrel, and a 
bottle of whiiky a^y, in lieu of all demands. It is cu- 
ftomary to give the crew 2 s. at the time of engaging, and 
as much at the end of the fiihery. Thofe, again, who 
prefer the boanty, receive L. 8 certain, with the nfnal 
quantity of whiiky, 5 s. arrival money, as they call it, 2 s. 
weekly for their Saturday's pint, and 5 s. at the time of 
their departure. When .the fiihery fails, this is the prefer- 
able plan, but when it anfwers tolerably well, the for- 
mer is moft lucrative. In a good feafon, a boat may take 
40 barrels in a night ; however, from 50 to 100 barrels b 
the ufual rate of fiihing in fiivourable feafons. The gene- 

ctrry from L. 60 to L. 70 worth. The great fi(b generally bring froa 
JL. 8 to L. 12 a man, and half that fam for the boy. 

The crew of a (mail boat confifts of 5 men and a boy. In the fame 
fiHiing fiation, every man*s line is of equal length ; but in the different 
lUtions they are of different lengths. It contains from 600 to 900 hooks, 
at the diftance of one fathom from one another; and a boy*s half as many. 
The fmall boats arc ufed for catching hadd-^cks, whitings, flounders, Ice. 
Befides thefe, a good many great fi(h are caught with the fmall lines, and 
pickled for the London market. Haddocks are in prime from Aufuit to 
February; whicing* are worft in Auguft; the gray fluunder is bed ia 
hanreft ; and the fpotted, which is inferior to the gray, is heft in fpriog. 
Mackerels are caught from the beginning of July to the end of Auguft, by 
% line funk with lead. Herrings are fometimcs plentiful on the coai^, and 
tliesr feafoa is the fiune with that of mackerel. Haddocks, 10 yetrs ago* 
were caught within half a mik of the ihore ; for fereral yean none have 
been found nearer than from 7 to 10 leagues off lajni, till of Iate» that they 
have again made their ^^carance hard by tb« fliore. The income of the 
Iknall fi(h ii elUfflated by the fiihers to ^e At leaft equal to that of the 

404 Statijlical Account 

ral coarfe of their fifliiog has been at Scazigo, and in die 
bead of the Moraj frith ; and their engagements with the 
owners of veflels cleared out on the bount j. The herrings 
on this coaft are generally better than thofe caught fiurther 
fouth, and bring a higher price by 2 s. the barrel at leaft 
for home ufe. Montrofe, Dundee, the towns on the frith 
of Forth, and Newc^e, are the beft markets for large her- 
rings ; and Jamaica, and the Weft India iflands, for the 
middle fized and fmall herrings. They are exported froia 
IfOndon, Newca(Ue, Greenock, and a few from Leith. The 
berring-filhery is flu&uating and precarious. When the 
fiihing is fmall, the adventurer lofes \ when a full cargo is 
caught, or nearly fp, the profit may amount to about 4s« 
the barrel ^. 

Cod'Fi/hny.^Thls is fufceptible of confiderable improve- 
ment. From ift Odober to the middle of February, « 
great many cod are caught on the fmall lines, which, if 
they are not loft, are fold for a trifle, as they cannot be 
dried. From 300 to 40c barrels of cod, and from 100 to 
aoo of codlings, a fmaller cod, might be cured annually, 
during the period fpecified above, in the 4 fiiher-towns be- 
longing to the parifli. Two attempts have been made in 


♦ In July 1786 a number of yery Urjc herrings wis difcoTercd, 
phieflybyfome country people, in the Bay of Buckie, and along the coaft. 
In 1 787, Meflf s Falls employed feveral boats on the coaft with great fuc 
cefs. Some of the boats caught in a night 27 falmon crans, i. e. 17,000 
herrings, lliefe gentlemen dropped th^s fifhery after one Uial; and it 
remained negle^ed, except by the country people* who, in fine nightsb 
were very fuccefsful, till 1791 and 1793, when fome boats were employed 
by Mr J. Geddes and fon ; and they fometimes caught from 13 to Xf 
crans the boat in a nigkt But it was foon difcovered, that the want of a 
harbour rendered Buckie unfit for a herriflg.fiflung ftation, u no yeflel 
could repair to it witli material. 

ofRatbven. 4^5 

this line ; bat the want of a harbour to ihip the fiih regu- 
larly to market, and the high price of £adt, rendered them 
unfuccefiiuL Were a proper qua j built, and fait free from 
dutj allowed for curing cod, the above being the befl fea^ 
fon, a large fupply of excellent cod might be fent regularly 
to market. The cod caught at this feafon, after lying as 
long as neceflary in the fait, are generally dried for a few 
days, and even the winter feafon» after (alting, will dry 
them fufficien^tly. The beft markets in Scotland for fsJt 
cod, are Edinburgh, Glafgow, Leith, Borrowftounoefsi 
s^nd all the coaft-towns on the firith of Forth. The prin* 
cipal market for pickled or barrelled cod is London, 

Lobfitr-Fi/bery, — ^In 1 792, all the fiihers on the coaft en- 
tered into a contraft for j years with Meflrs. Selby and 
Company of London, or with the Northumberland Fiihery 
Society, to fiih for lobfiers, when they did not find it pru- 
dent to go in fearch of other fiih. l*he ikiff and tackling 
for this fiihery coil about L. 5, 5 s. The Companies fur« 
oiih the ikifi, and a^e reimburfed by inilalments^ They 
take all their lobilers at %i d. a-piece, provided they mea- 
fare 6 inches from the point of the nofe to the end of the 
bois, and when under that iize, two are efteemed equivalent 
to one. Lobilers are in feafbn from zil February to the 
end of June, and from lil November to Chriihnas. Laft 
year lobilers to a confiderable value were caught on this 
coail ; but leis attention has been paid to them this year, 
owing partly to the great fucceis of the white fiihery, and 
partly to the amazing quantity of lobilers caught on the 
coail of Caithneis, which the Companies have at a cheaper 
rate, vi%. at i4 d. for the largeil fize. I am unable to ilate 
the produA of this fiihery for the lail year in all the 4 towns, 
by reafon of the removal of fome of the Companies agents. 


4o6 Statijlical Account 

The i^ent at ^Mlnockie has fiirniflied me with the fol- 
lowiag aote : 

To 7913 lobften received at Portnockie, for the Nortfanm* 
berhnd Fifliery Society, at i^d. - L. 82 8 6j 

To cafli paid for cork, cords, twine, criU bot- 
toms, iron rims, and other neceflary ex- 
penfes for behoof of the Society, • 135 x xi 

Now, allowing the other 3 towns in this pa- 
rifli to have had fimilar adivity and fnc- 
cefs in this filhery in 1792, the total prodnft 
M» i^s 9 6 

And the total calh paid out by the Company's 

agents for cork, &c. - - - 554 z 5 

To the above let us add an average ftate of 
the 31 boats, ezclufiveof the herring.fiihery, 
reckoning every man's annual income from 
the great and fmall fifli at L. 10, and the 
boys at L. 10, and every boat to have 6 
men and a boy, the total produA is L. 4030 o o 
N B. The average produd of the herring-fifliery is not 

ftated, as it was begun only 3 years ago, and all the filbers 

do not engage in it. 

I have only farther to obferve on the fubjeft o^ the 
filheries, that a few £dmon are caught in the parifli. at the 
mouths of the rivulets or bums of Goilachie and Tynct. 
They are commonly called ftall fifiieries. Of thefe there are 
a at Tynet, belonging to Mr Stuart at Tanachie, and 2 at 
Gollachy, belonging to Mr Baron Gordon and Mr Dunbar. 
The 4 might produce about L. 24 annually to the pro- 

i7oad!r.^The roads in the parifh were originally made, 
and are kept in repair by the Aatute-labour. The poll- 


^f Kathven. 407 

road pafles through the parifli in a weilerly direffion for 
upwards of 8 miles. The firft j from Cullen to the bora 
of Buckie, are almoft equally good in all feafons, and eafil j 
kept in excellent repair. The other 3 miles not having, 
fo good a bottom, are apt to become deep in rainy wea- 
ther ; it is in contemplation to change the diredion of this 
road in part ; and it will require great attention to pre- 
vent the public from fuffering by the alteration, when car- 
ried to the intended extent. On entering the parifli^ the. 
beautiful arch of the bridge over the rivulet at CuUen, 
houfe, ftrikes the eye of the beholder on the left hand. 
After paffing the bridge in the line of the public road, 
which is too narrow and wants parapets, fine fields, and 
thriving plantations adorn the fceneiy for the firft 3 miles, 
and cheer the weary traveller, in fpite of a mois on the 
left, which forces itfelf on hu obfervation, and accompa- 
nies him for more than a miles. A bleak and dreary pro- 
fped fucceeds for % miles through the moor of Ranna- 

^tfr3oi^/.— Nature has formed the only harbours at the 
iiihing ftations. But to render them lafe and commodious, 


* To the right, on thii moor, at the diftance of lOO paces from the 
road, is an eminence evidently artificial, called Tarrieclcrack, and fup- 
pofed by fome to be a burial-place. The yiew is confined, - at before, by 
hills and moors, covered with heath. Hardly does any pleafant obje^ 
appear to break the barren uniformity, and relieve the mind. At length 
a peep of the Moray frith, and of the Caithnels hills, at the diilance of 
99 miles, dii&lves the gloom, and awakens the attention to a fertile 
country, finely variegated with little hills and fertile plains* in a high 
ftate of cultivation. The bum of Tynet, which feparates this parifli 
from Belly, ftands in need of a bridge. Though its courfe be but fliort, 
and- quantity of water trifling in dry weather ; yet in rainy ieafons, it is 
frcqoeotly fwelled into a torrent, which the traTeller ctonot pals with^ 
out fear aad danger. 

408 Stati/lical Account 

quays would be necelTarj. In their prefent ftate, tbe nn!' 
ted exertions of the men and women are employed in 
dragging the boats up the beach, to fecure them from be- 
ing brdcen by the waves, and fimilar efforts mnft be made 
in launching. Thefe daily operations are very hurtful to 
the boats, and fometimes fatal to the men. At Buckie and 
Findochtie only can piers, or quays, be conftrufted. Their 
advantages are many and important, and the want of them 
is feverely felt by people of all defcriptions. The land- 
carriage of heavy goods from Aberdeen, Banff or Portfoj, 
adds confiderably to their price, and operates as a tax oa 
the confumer. Coals, fait and iron are fometimes unload- 
ed in the fummer feafon at Buckie, but at the rilk of lo- 
fing the veffel. With the laudable view of obviating thefe 
inconveniencies, the proprietor of Buckie, not many yean 
ago, caufed a furvey of the harbour, and plan of a pier to 
be made on the eaft fide of the bum ; and languine hopes 
were entertained by the public, of the advanuges that 
would accrue from the execution of a plan which promifed 
fafety, and 14 feet of water at neap tides. But this ufefiil 
and meritorious undertaking has not hitherto been execu- 
ted. It is, however, I would fain hope, only fufpended, 
not abandoned. A pier at Buckie would be a Handing 
monument of the Baron's generofity, and ferve to hand 
him down to future ages as the father of his people, and 
friend of mariners *. Findochtie, though at prefent oe- 


♦ In the metn time, another plan has been adopted on a fmaller 
fdle, and lei's eligible fttuation, at the month of the bum, on the wrft 
fide, belonging to Mr Dunbar. AAive iteps have been taken bf the 
Buckie merchants and fiihers to effedluate it. To render this aadertap 
king fafer and more extenfively ufeful, it was' judged proper to have a 
fmall pier or bulwark on the eaft fide of the burn, which cosld not be 
done without permiffion from Mr Baron Gordon. A petition was therefbie 
made out, and prefented in 1 79a, cnCving leiYe to baild» at their own 


of Raibven. 409 

Itlefied, claims'* the public attention in an eminent degree. 
It as fufceptible of being improved into one of the beft and 
fafeft harbours in Scotland, equal, in erery refpeA, to Cro- 
jnartjy except in extent* It feems to have been moulded 
by the hand of nature, for a fafe and eafy retreat in tern- 
peftuousi weather to veflels in the Moray &ith, that are 
unable, to make Cromarty on tbe oppofite ihore. The di- 
Aance between &em is 60 nules due eaft and weft. It is 
find that Grovernmeot once ordered a furvey of Findochtie 
to be made, but from what motive I never heard. I em- 
ployed one of the fiihers to take the breadth of the en* 
trance into this beautiful bafoo, at a rock called the Bea- 
con, 00 the weft, and low- water foundings at a neap tide, 
in the central point, where the water is moft iballow ; and 
from an.exad menfuration, the entrance was found to be 
90 yard^ v^de, aod the water a.i feet deep* Hence, it is 
capable of receiving a fliip of the line, and .capacious c- 
noogh to contain all the vefTels belonging to the Moray 
frith. Language can hardly paint it in a more advanta- 
geous light than it deferves. It attrads the obfervation, 
and arrefis the attention of every beholder. I am well af- 
fured that it might be made a moft complete harbour, for 
Vol. XIIL 3 F the 

czpenfe, on t rock, part of his property, a bulwark, which they concei* 
Tcd could not hurt his intereft. This petition was unfortunately pre* 
fented at a time, when the Baron, by reafon of a circunnftance in which 
he was deeply interefted, took little or no concern in j^uiinefs of any 
kind. It has therefore, in all probability, efcaped his notice, or it is 
moft likely, that he would have granted a requeil that could not pofll- 
bly be hurtful to him, and might be beneAcial to hi« own people. It b 
imagined, that L. 3^3 would build a tolerably comoiodioos hirbour at 
the bum mouth ; L. 230 would make it a good creek at all fcaTjns ; aa4 
even JU. lO) would make it fafe for fmall craft in fummer only. Buckie 
is adv^aUgeouQy ficuated on a central part of the coaft, near KLeith and 
Fochabers, a id has frequent com.nuaicatioii with the pari.hcs of Mort- 
Uchy Boharm, Botriphnit, Olafs, GlcoUvet and Cabxach. 

4f o Siaii/Hcal jiceouni 

the moderate fism of L. 3000 *. A more iaduftrioiiSy ia* 
trepidy adventnroas nee of mariners than thofe in diss pm- 
rilh, is nowhere to be fobnd in his MajeOy'ii dominions. 
Thej are ezpofed to continnal danger in open boats £rom 
an inconflant climate and a ftormy fea. In clear nights, hj 
the aid of a compafs, the obfervation of certain ftats, aad 
a few land-marks, the j reckon their lives in perfisft firfety. 
Bot when the cloods begin to gather, the winds to rife, the 
waves to heave, and all nature to wear a lowering ooonte* 
nance, they are peiplexed whither to direft their covrie ; 
to attempt the fliore is certain death ; and to Kve at fea 
fcarcely poflibte. In foch dreadfiil alternatives^ tte love of 
life moft frequently faggefls the propriety of Aeering a 
middle conrle ; yet this dangerons navigation often aermi- 
nates in death. Such dire di&ften have given rife to rei- 
terated propofals for building a fmack of about 30 tons, 
and with proper accommodations, to be employed ia the 
white fiflicry. Ft ii the opinion of the moft fldlfid sad ex- 
perienced fifliers, that in fuch a veflel the fiihery augkt be 
carried on with greater fefety, and more benefit to the ua- 
dcrtakers, and with advantage to the country. But the 
want of a fafe harbour has always occafiooed fchemea of 
this nature to prove abortive. A regard therefiire for the 
prefervation of men's lives and the good of fociety (honld 
induce all ranks to join in forwarding fuch plans of pablie 


• Lord nndlftter could not beftow a pait of his princdr lortone to 
Vetter purpofe, thm tn coollniAinf t hartwnr tiMt would pronote his 
own intereft, prote a benefit to thoofinds, und trunfMit his nmme with 
lionour to pofterity. But as his Lordfliip's views are at prefent difoAed 
to other ufefiil objeAs, there is no iamediate profpcA of his cjtociKii^ 
fuch an undertaking. Still, however, a harbour is modi wasted at Fin* 
dochtie, and would be attended with fflany advaoUget to the coantix; 
and confcquently is one of thofe public works which SMrits^e attentioA 
«f Geverament* 

•f Rafbven. 411 

The foOowing ftate of the lob fuftadned by the fiiher* 
lawn ia this parifh, will ikow this matter ia a firooger 
I. In Buekie, fioce 1733, 8 boats, with 1 

llicir crews and paflcngerst have, pe- 

riflied, amonntiag in all to - 60 men and boys^ 

Of that number, 50 have been loft within 

thefe 40 years ; and it is well attefted 

that fo many have not died a natural 

death in the fame period. 
s« Porteafyhas kft fince it became a 

fiihing ftation, • 4 men* 

3* Findochtie, about 38 years ago, loft^ "^ 

I boat, and . «. 7 men. 

4. Portknockie, within thefe 26 years, 

has kA 5 boats and their crews, with 

a yawl and 6 boys, ia all, - 41 men and boys. 

Total, iia men and boys. 
And 14 boats, x yawl"^. 

State cftJn Chutcht^kM the heritors have entered into 
a contraft with an undertaker to build a new church, on 
aa approved {dan, to contain 1000 perfons, it is not ne« 
ceflary to &y much refpeSing the prefent one. It may, 
however, be mentioned, that part of it, according to the 


li» The tWe contains a poweifol claim on the feelings of hnmanity, 
and on the aid of Goveniment for the protedlion and prefenration of bu* 
cnan litcs. In the eftioution of thofe who are beil acquainted with the 
Meray frith, and nraft Ikslfiil in natal affairs, a harbcmr at Findochtie 
would (ave the Uvea of mariners, and prore eztreaKlj beneficial to the 
conntrjr. In iu prefent ftate^ it is of eafy acceft, and the boats when 
overtaken bj a north wefterly itomi, generally dire^ their cootie to it, 
AS so a place of fafetj. 

411 Staiiflical Account 

tradition of the pari(b, is as old as die caflk of Edmlnirgh; 
and that the couples, which are of oak» grew on the cftate 
of Rannes. It is of confiderable length, and has a roof of 
different altitudes. Viewed from the public road, or at a 
diftance, it has a venerable appearance. Next year it b to 
be taken down, and the maleriab employed in buildisg 
die new church. 

Bede-Houfe. — Its origin is mentioned by Sp^ttifwood, in 
his account of religious houfes in Scotland* and is as fol- 
lows : ** Rothfan, John Biflet gives to God, and the church 
** of St Peter's of Rothfan, for fuftaintng feven leprous per- 
*' fons ; the patronage of the kirk of Kyltalargy, to pray for 
^' the fouk of William and Alexander, kings of Scotland, 
'* and the fouls of his anceftors and fucceffors, about the 
^ year iaa6; Chartulary of Moray, f. v* ay. He grants 
^ another donation to the fame purpofe, in the (aid year, 
'' f. ia6." There is a bede»houfe fliU in being, though 
in bad repair ; and fix bede-men on the eftablKhment, but 
none of them live in the houfe. The nomination to a va- 
cancy is in the gift of Lord Findlater, as proprietor of 
Rannes ; and their yearly income is as follows : From the 
lands of Rannes, every bede-man has half an acre of land 
during life, and i boll of oat-meal annually ; from the 
lands of Findochtie, 8 s. i^ d. \ and from Mr Baron Gordon, 
as proprietor of Freuchnie, formerly a part of the lands of 
Rannes, is. 4 jd. making in all 9s, (d. yearly; one of 
the bede-men lately dead, let hb half acre, during his life, 
at L. I, X s. of yearly rent. 

Stipend^ Manft^ Gklt^ Patron, iJc^Tht fiipend is 9 
fhalders of visual, half meal, half bear ; L. x6 ; 13 : 4 of 


of Raibven^ 413 

^ntjf md Ito 5 : XI : Xy for commmlion-elementa *• The 
ananfe and kitchen receiTed a fubfta&tial repair in 179a ; 
and additional offices were buUt, to ninder the' accomai'o- 
dadon more comfortable and commodious. The glebe^ 
indnding garden and graii», is about 7 acres. Colonel Hay 
of Rannes is patron f. 


* The fbllowing .curious pftper, with fe^ertl other uticles of tntelli- 
|rence, was ftirnifhcd by B— p Geddos, at the interceffion of Mr 
Matditfony who has been very friendly in procuring me information. 
'* The rental of ye parfonage of Rathwen, wt. ye annexis yrof, 
** jt diocefis of Aberdein and Murray refpe^ive, (hirefdums of Banff 
•« and Murray refpeAive." 

In the firft; ye tiend fiWer of ye parochin of Rathwen, feven fcore 
mmd fix pounds. 

Ye malles of ye baronie of Rathwen, thirty-one nierks. 

Te fermes of ye Loynbead, akkers and mill-multures^ eztendis to five 
icore bolls of beir. 

Item, ye kirke of Dundurcus, fett for forty pounds. 

Item, ye kirke of Kintalle r^ie, twenty-four pounds. 

Item, ye landis of Muiben, lying in the parochen of Dundnrcus, fiz- 
teen merks. 

Hereof deduct of ordinar charges to fix bed-men, 44 merks. 

Item, to their habits, 7 pounds four (hillings. 

Item, to the ftaller in Aberdein. 

Item, given forth of Dnndurcus to the abbey of Kinlofs, fix pounds. 

Sic fubfcribitor. 
G. HayXi my hand. 

The above rental is copied from an original book of afiumptions of 
the year 1 563, which belonged te the late Mr James Commyng, fecre- 
tary to the Society of Scotch Antiquaries, and which is now probably 
ia the Regifier Office at Edinburgh. This is attefted by me, 

(Signed) John Geddes. 

f There is an Itinerancy, called Enzie Chapel, fituated in the weft 
end of the pariih, at the diftance of 4 miles from the churchy for the 
accommodation of that comer, and part of the parifii of Belly. The 
laifiionaiy is fubfified partly from the Royal Bounty, and partly from a 
fond belonging to the miifioiu This food arofe frrai two coUedliona 


4X4 Staiiftkal Jtc€9unt 

prefent a bad one. But ift«r the ckoith k Iiriihrd, 
i* little doubt if itt being febaik on a phn tcpalljr • 
fisrtaUe and oanTe&iem for naftet afld lUialarf. Tbt 
fiboolmafter's fahrf u ioideqnatt to dfea iiftpotfaiioa of bto 
ftation. It is boUs 9 } 3 : 3 : a4 lippias of «ieal« asd L. I9 
1 1. pii'd. of money. His other emoluments are L» a, for 
officiating as precentor and (effion-derk ; for pnbliiking 
banns of marriage, 1 s. ; for regiitering a baptifm, 6 d. ^ 
writing a certificate, 6 d. ; teaching Latin, as.; arithm^ 
tic, as.; and Englifli and writbg, i s. 6d. ^tttfterly. Aa 
the number of fcholan of late has not been great, his in- 
come may be from L. 15 to L. ao *• 

throogh tbe cbvrcb, with t view to build t chape!. Mid procure accom- 
modationt to the miffiontry. With part of it, a chapel has been boilt. 
end feme acrei of grouod parchafed for a glebe. Aad it it to be hoped, 
that the Royal Bounty will be centiniied, till the food, which is under 
the mioagement cf a committee appointed by the General Aflembly, 
accumulate to|a fum fnllj adequate to the comfortable fupport of a cler- 
gyman, who hat, in the diAri^ of the ptrifli moft cootigaoot to the ckft- 
pel, excluiiTe of the moft adjacent part of Belly, 300 Prefbyteriaoty 71 
Epifcopalians, and 639 Roman Catholics. 

There are other two clergymen in the pariih, Mr Rcid and Mr Skaad. 
lifr Rcid refides at Prefshoroe. where he hat lately built a neat and well 
fintflied chapel, for the accommodation of the Roman Catholici in the pa- 
ridi. Mr Shand lives at Arradool, and has one chapel in his neighbour- 
hood for the Epifcopalians of this parish, and another at f ochaben, 
where he officiates once a fortnight in fommer, and once ia 3 weeks du- 
ring the winter feafon. Both thefe gentlemen conduA themielTet witk 
the greatfft propriety. At they are much refpedlcd by their hearers 
and acquaintance, they are comfortably lodged, and decently fvpported. 
Each of them has a fmall farm, which, by fkiUful management, yields 
pleafure and convenience. 

* The prefent fchoolroafter has been upwards of 40 yean t teacher; 
and from age and infirmities, mult foqn be reduced to a (late tbtt win 
iacapaciute hia for teaching. It is a pity that 00 fcheme has hitherto 


•/ Rathoek. 415 

^•or, md Staif of their Funds. — ^The poor iAAk bjr 
begging, and oocafiootl fopplies from the parochial fiiitd. 
Notwithibmdtng Che extent of the pariA, it does not at 
prefent amount to above L. 50, of which L. 40 is out at 
ifitereft. The above has been ffived froin the weekly col- 
lefttonsi the nfe i>f a pall or mortdoth, and finea fronx de- 
linquentaw Hie weei^iy colie^ons, and other contingen- 
cies for l!he year i79ft« amoiuUed in whole to L. r4» laa. 
The management of it| and of the whole funds; is, as in 
moft parts of Scotland, intrufted to the church fefiion. 
After paying L. 1 to the feffionclerk, and L» t, 1 s. to tlie 
officer, the remainder is divided quarterly among, the moft 
neceflitotts of all deicrtptions. ■ Laft year, 3c poor perfona 
received benefit from this fmall fund* In addition to the 
abore, Lord Findkter orders an annual diftribution of 


been devUed» nor vnf mesfores adopted to prevent men, who have had 
an UnJTeiiity educatiim, md fpent t|icv' ^im^ aod-uleott in teaching our 
chiidrea the elemcnti of literatuw, and principles of religion, from It^ 
vug «he accttmiiiated evils of frailty and p%)verty in their old age. 

The Society for propagating 'Chriftiaa Knowledge, has 2 fchools ift 
die pariAi ; ose at Buckie, with a falary of L. 1 4 to the mailer ; and one 
at Coiifismch« near the Bnsie ChH>el* with a ialary of L. 10 to the m»- 
Aer, and L. 5 to his wife. In the courfe of the year, there are about 
100 fchoUrs at each of tbcie fchools. Their nnmbers fliow the propriety 
of planting and continuing fchools in thefe iUtions, and their imporUoce 
to tbc pablic. The latter fcbool is only of 2 years Handing ; and the 
nafter is in pofleifioa of the accommodations required by the Society's 
repalatioQs. He owes his prefent aomfortable fituation to the bounty of 
his Grace the Duke of Gordon. An ^ I am pruudto add, that above L. 309 
•f the Society's money are annually paid to their choolmalters on the 
Dakc*s diaercnt cftales, all accommodated by his munificence. Such 
diliiiterefted libtrality does honour to his feelings as a man, and is a fnb- 
ihmtial proof of the intercft he takes in promoting the good of fociety^ 
aad Uie caule of religion. 

It is believed, that the Society has ooti in Scotland, t more iaiportaot 
iation than Bnckie. It cootaiot upwards of 730 tohabicaots, who have 


4i6 Statijfical Account 

meal and money among the pons on hit own knds ; wid 
that' the lame beneficent cuftom may obtain in other cor- 
ners of the pariihi I have no reafon to doubt. 

Pp/ifitf^ii*(*— According, to the return made to Dr Web- 
aer, the number of fouls, in 1755, wna, 3898, Bj a mi- 
nute of a vifitation in,the prefbytery records^ dalted at the 
ki^ of Rathven, 30th Augoft ij%Ot the popnlatioo is 
ilated at 1700 catechiiaMe perfon;;; and 600 Fapifts, by a 
modeft computation of thofe above lo-yeais of age, by 
Mr Robert Gordon, the minifter, in prefencc of the beri- 
ton, and in anfwcr to the queries, How many catcchiia- 
ble perfoos m Ac parilh? Whereof, How many Papifls? 
Before flating the population, it may be obferved that part 
of the eaft end of the parilh is annexed to Cullen quoad Ja^ 
era. The date of the annexation I have enquired after in 


130 chUaren under 10 yein of »ge. And by IncWmg a mUe imnid 
the town, their number \% wcretfcd to 190. The SocietyVichool wii 
remoTcd from mother fUtion in the ptriih to Bnckie in 17P ; Md hu 
ever been on a bid footing, the fchoolmtfter having never been poflefied 
of accommoaation to the fame extent with his brethren on that eOnbtifli. 
went. And thii inconveniency has occafioned loft to the natter, mud a 
confiderable advance out of the poor's fund. At prefect the fchool u 
held on fo precarious a tenure, as to endanger its being entirely loll, to 
the great prejudice of the place. It is true, that Dr Kemp, whofc fpi- 
ritcd exertions, as fecretary to the Honourable Society have done i% 
much credit to himfclf. and good to the caufe of virtue and religion, has 
en>l«in«d *« fituation of this fchool to a gentleman of fortune, and of 
polite literature, in an eminent ftation, who has a natural mtcrcft in the 
place. And, as it is pretty generally underftood, that a promife of ic- 
commodatioo had been granted ; thofe who patronifed Ae fbnncr fchool, 
have withdrawn their fupport, and feem refolved not to renew it. Henci, 
the caufe of its prefcnt precarious ftate. At Findochtie, a fchoolmiftrds 
receives a guinea annually from Lord Findlater, as an encouragemeot 
to teach the reading of Englifh, knitting and fewing. She is a cecent 
woman, bellows her time on her ftholan, and fcives latUfadUoa to the 
town and neighboorhood. 

tfRathven. 417 

vain. Exclufive of the annexed part, there were found, 
on an accurate inveftigation, fiaiflied about 3 months ago, 

Perfom, Mshs. Fern, Prtjb, £pifc, R. Catb, Tarn. 
In the PariOi, 3019 1408 161 1 1766 303 953 740 

Anaexedrart, 505 171 234 498 2 5 

Total, 3514 1679 1845 a»64 305 955 7«» 

Of whom there are in the Parilh, 




Under xO yeirs of tge, 




Between 10 & ao» 







'i— 50 u 70, 




70 k 80, 








90 & 100, 








In the annexation to Cnllen, under 7 yean, 57 




The different ages in the whole annexed part could not 
be conveniently obtained. To account fatisfaflorily for fo 
great a difproportion between the males and females is not 
ao eafjr matter. Owing to the difference in our religious 
tenets, no regular regifter of baptifms can be kept. Con- 
fequently there is no means of afcertaining the proportion 
between the males and females bom in the pariih. The 
great difproportion obfervable from the above ftate, may 
be attributed to loffes fuflained at fea, no numbers enga- 
ging in our fleets and armies \ and to an influx of poor 
women from the Highlands, for the convenience of living 
more comfortably. 

Among the inhabitants enumertited above, there are 14 
merchants or fliopkeepers^ 6 millers, i% mafons, 19 tailors. 

Vol. XIII. 3 G 19 

41 8 Siaiiflical AccoufU 

ig (faoetnakeni 70 weavers, xa finldis» %i carpeatersy 6 
ihipmaftersy a tidefmeD, i djcr^ 1 tobaocontfit 2 hatchers^ 
I bakeft 4 gardenen, 6 male domeftick fenraats. Female 
domeflick fervaotiy as well as the £um (etrants of both 
iezes, are extremely floAaadngt except b gentlemen's &- 
mtlies. The common formers are not opulent enoagh 
to afford wages to annual fervants, who(e terml j demands 
are in a ftate of progref&on beyond all precedent. They 
iliuft make their children, to the great prejudice of their 
education, and at too early a period in life, anfwer infiead 
of fiurvanti. 


Hor/tt. BLCmtth. Sheep, Phtighi, Cm^t. V^ttint. Chmfe. 
lathePvifla, $5!^ 1706 2500 187 215 3 i 

Anneied Part, 76 166 aoo itf 47 i o 

Total. 626 1872 S700 S03 26a 4 X 

The cattle are remarkable neither for beauty nor fize ; 
and therefore, at prefent, horfas might give from !«• 3 to 
to L. xa or L. X j ; cows and oxen, from L. a Co L. 5 or 
L 6 ; wethers, and ewes and lambs, from 3 s. to 6 s. As 
the foil is good, and anfwers well with fown grailes, a lar« 
ger and handfomer breed of cattle might be introduced. 
No attention is paid to raifing fwine, except at the 5 meal 
mills in the parifli, where from 30 to 40 aaay be fold an- 
nually, at from L* X to L. 3. 

PigBon-Houfes.i'^^ thcfe, there are 8 in. the pariih, 
ftocked, at an average, with X50 pairs each. As they live 
on the crop, in fpring and harveft, not under 6 months 
yearly, we may fairly calculate their annual confumption 
of grain, from 34 to 30 boUs at leaft, for every pigeon* 


rfRatbven. 419 

^oufe. In ftormy weather, during the wlnter-ieaTon, thej 
nnoft have befides, at the loweft calculation, one peck of 
^rain a-daj, to prefiorve their lives, and keep them at 
liome. Thej begin, and continue to laj and hatch from 
^]ie asiddle of March to the middle or end of June ; and 
fkrom LaMoMS to the ift of November. The annual pro- 
duce of each may be reckoned at i jo pairs, at 2 d. a-pair, 
and 16 8. for the dung; There is a well attefted inftance 
of 160 pairs being taken from the pigcdn-houfe of Nether. 
Buckie, at one harrying ; the ufual run is about 30 pairs. 
Numbers of pigeons come from the inland country in the 
beginnmg of Auguft to the dovecots in this pariih, and 
remain in them till November, when they retire to their 
miginal place of refidence. Jays are the greateft enemies 
to the pigeon-houfes. In times of fcarcity, they enter 
them and deftroy the young *, the old ones are not unfire- 
quently a prey to hawks, and other ravenous birds. 

P/flMV/o^ibii/^-^There have been afaready mentioned, as Iy« 
ing chiefly in the eaft end of the pariih. Lord Findlater 
has paid great attention to planting. His plantations are 
of confiderable extent, and in a thriving ftate. At firft 
they were moftly planted with Scotch firs ; but have fince 
been filled up with oaks, elms, afiies, beeches, birches, 
larches, lie. They beautify and enliven the landfcape ; 
and the annual thinnings foon reimburfe his Lordihip,- and 
ire ferviceable in building cottages, and for fuel. His dif- 
ferent plantations amount to - 4300 acres. 
Mr Gordon's of Letterfourie, - xoo 
Mr Gordon of Caimfield, and Mr Stuart of Ta- 

nachy^ 50 each, - - 100 

Total, 4500 
a Minerals 

420 StatifHcal Account 

Minerals and Mmerat Spri^gu — There are quarries of 
limeftone at Cuttlebrae and Upper Clochin ; of ftones far 
building at Tarwathie ; of flate at Tarriemoot and Upper 
Aldylothy belonging to the Duke%of Gordon ; and of flate 
on the eftate of Letteriourie. Near.litchieftoo, there is a 
beautiful whitifli land in great quantity, and, in point of 
finene&y almoft equal to any Dutch (and *. 

Ftf^/.~-Peat or turf from the hill of Oldmore, and the 
other mofles, is the fuel in common uie* As the mofles 
are at a confiderable diflance, fuel is extremely dear, and 
in winter often very fcarce. The {Jtnall cart4oad of peats 
and turfsy fold lafl winter in Buckie at x s. a d. and fome- 
times higher. To give a clearer idea of the ezpenie of 
fuel, it may be obferved, that when the load b fold at x s. 
the confunier pays at the rate of a halfpenny for 4 peats 
and I turf. Under fuch circumilances, as the few only are 
able to afford this heavy expenfe, it is evident, that Mr 
Dundas has done an eflential fervice to the many, in pro- 
curing a repeal of the duty on coals, and merits well 
of hb country, in general, for contributing to the comfort 
and happineis of a numerous and an ufeful dais of people, 
by redreiling a real grievance. 

Salt. — Thb neceffary article, according to my informa- 
tion, which I have reafon to believe authentic, b pur- 

* A well ft Born of Ozhill is much frequented hj the country people 
with their children in the chincough ; but as nothing ii faid of the be- 
nefit reaped from it, it *s prefumed, that its vogue is owing more to cu- 
|lom than to its medicinal qualities. There are two chalybeate fpringf 
on Mr Baron Gordon's lands ; one at GoUachie. and another at New 
Buckie, (requen*^ed occaiionally in the fumraer-feafon At Findochtie, a 
fpring of a purgative nature, ifTuing out of a rock, far within flood-marlSi 
jfl occaHonally applied to by the neighbourhood. 

ofRathven. 421 

chafed firom the merchants at the pit, at 68. 4 d. the boU, 
containing 4 Engliih bufhek, and weighing aoo lb. Eng- 
liih. The dntj the boll is j 8. 6 d. ; the freight, and other 
duest about i s. i d. ; fait therefore ftands the importer at 
the rate of 12 s. ixd. the boll. To the confumer it is 
fold put bj the merchants at x s. the peck, of 14 lb. £ng- 
liihy which is the loweft price, and frequendj at i d. the 
pound. This high price of {alt b extremely hurtful to the 
filheries, and felt as a ferious grievance by the poor. If 
therefore Mr Dundas, Sir John Sinclair, or any otlier gen- 
tleman diftinguiflied for Patriotifm and Parliamentary in- 
tereft, would procure a revifion of the falt-laws, the aboli- 
don of the duty on fait, and the extenfion of an adequate 
duty to boats, as well as bufles ; he would endear himfelf 
to the prefent generation, and tranfmit his name to the 
future, as the friend and benefador of his country. And 
were an ad of Parliament procured, to enable proprie- 
tors in general, and others, who expend their money in 
making commodious harbours, to impofe a wharfage or 
tax on the trade, propordoned to the fum expended, or the 
advantages fecured \ and the foftering hand of Govern* 
ment ilretched out to aid the public to conftrud harbours, 
build piers, and form quays or whar£i, for lading and un- 
lading veflels, litde more would remain to be done in fa- 
vour of the manufadures and fiiheries. 

^jf^fi^irfinVj— Druidical temples are common* On the 
heights of Corridown, there was a remarkable one called 
the Core Stanes ; the ftones of which were employed in * 
building the new houfe of Letterlburie. Mr Gordon has 
fearched 3 of them to the bottom, and found only char- 
coal, and a whitifh loft fubftance, refembling the aihes of 
wood or of bones. The low grounds in the vicinity of 
his houfei he imagines, muft have formerly abounded in 


422 Siatiftical jfecdunt 

tiroody as he has dug oat of the hoHowSy now ander culture, 
and producing cabbages, and other articles fer kitdKn ote, 
large pieces of oak and fir *• 

CbaraBer of the Peop/e.-^To delineate, in lew woc^ the 
leading feature in the charaAer of a people, different in 
their religious^ tenets, and confiftingof atfdves and ftraa- 
gers, landmen and &amen, is no eafj matter. In geaeral, 
howeveri as far as my obfervacioa and experience go, they 
are fober, frugal and induftrioos i peaceable and frieadlj 
to neighbours and acquaintances ; decent and ezcoiplarj ta 
their attendance on the ordinances of religion A taflc 
for comfortable houfes, both in the fiflier- towns and in the 
coontry, is become prevalent ; and a more fafliionaUe maa- 
aer of dreis is making rapid progrefs. On the whole theo, 
being well clothed, well fed^ and decently lodged, thej 
have, in a compmrative degree, a reafonable fliare oi the 


^ There is t lirge hrap of ftones on an eminence in one of Lord Find- 
later*! enclofurcs, near Woodfide, fouthward of the public read, com- 
lAonly called the King's Calm. And tradition Ayi, that it is the grave 
of Indolphut, the 77th King of Scotland, vho, after obtaining a com- 
pete Yi^ory over the Danes, was onfortunately kiUed ncnr this fpot. 
According to Abercromby, this vidtory was gained A. D. ^i : accord- 
ing to Buchanan, in 967. In this pariih, the above event is diitinguilhed 
by the name of the Battle of the Bauds, then an eitenfive moor^ now a 
plantation belonging to Lord Findlater : and it is believed, erfoneoaily 
indeed, that by it the Danes were finally expelled from Scotlnd. Bu. 
chUian places their final eapulfion in the reign of Duncan L and 84th 
King of Scotland A. D. 1043 ; when, after receiving a great overtbroiv 
in Fife, and refle(5ling on their many unfortunate expeditions to Scotland, 
they bound themfelves by a folemn oath to return to it no more as ene- 
mies. On the moor between Findochtie and the plantation of the Bauds, 
a great number o( fttiall cairns are diflingaifliable, and fuppoTed to be the 
burial places of the Danes, who were flaio in the engagement witli Iq- 
dulphus. About 30 years ago, a country man difcovered, in a tumulus 
kr cairn, on the lands of Raones, which he was removing, a ftone coffin, 


vomfiorty and conveniencies of life. Examples of natural, 
fagacitjy and a talent for information and enterprize, is by 
no Tn^aas nncommqn among tbofe of every defctiption. 
They liave penetration enough to diibover the road which 
\uds faireft to lead tp the accoippliihment of their views, 
and ftcadin^b to purfue it. The intercourfe of the fiQxer* 
towns with thie country is frequent and cafy \ nevertheleis 
the difference in language and in manners is ftriking. 
Here we Cee men judging and a&ing fqr themfelves. £« 
very o^e adopts thofe plans which beft fuit his circum- 
ftaoces and fituation in life. The fiflkers indeed, as indi- 
viduals, are placed more on a footing of equality ; and 
their purfiiita ar^ uniformly fimilar.. Of courfe their lan« 
guage and tranfadioos, are the language and tranfaflions 
of the coipipuni^yy rather than of individuals. All adopt 
the fame meafures, and purfue fimilar plans io executing 
them. The voice of one almoft always puts all in motion ; 


contftining human bones of a large fize. Having obtained permiffion to 
ranfack this grave, I found it covered with a Urge Hone, 4 feet long 

3 broad, and about 14 inches m depth. On removing this, we found 

4 other ftones, fet on their edges, which ferved as a coffin to part of a 
fcull, and jaw-bone, with fevenl teeth, and fonie fragments of a thigh 
bone. The dimenfions of this coffin were 3 feet i inch in length, 2 feet 
wide, and ai inches deep. There was no ftone in the bottom. The 
bones were removed into a fimilar cheft, a few feet northward of this 
one, kt the fame tumuius; this laft one was difcovcred 4 or 5 years ago, 
by a map in the neighbourhood, who was removing a few more of the 
ftones for building a houfe. It is of fmaller dimenfions than the other 
one, and wus originally covered with two ftonei, one cf which was car- 
lied off. No bones were found in it There are many other cairns near 
thu one, bar none of them have been fearched. They are at no great di- 
ftsnce from the hoafe ot Ranres, on a farm, lately improved out of moor, 
cHllcd Wefter-fide. The ruin» of an old chapel* near the hinife of Far- 
(kane, of the hoafe ot' Findochtte, and of fome buildings on the tops of 
two hiUs, on the eaft and weft fide of the harbour of Portnockie, the for- 
mer called the Green callte, and the Utter the Tronach caUlcj are ftill 
td be fee^i 

424 Stati/licat jfccawU 

and the example of one is freqnentlj foQowed by all ; and 
yet, what is iingalar, no one feems to poflcis a charader 
decifive enough to take the lead, and to rife to fupertoritj 
by the ftrength of genius, or the arts of addreis. No mo- 
ral duty is feldomer violated by them than chaftity. Thej 
go to fea as bojs, at 14 years of age, become men at 18, 
and marry foon after ; for it is a maaim with them, appa- 
rently founded in truth, that no man can be a fiiher, and 
want a wife. They generally marry before 14 years at 
fartheft ; and always the daughters of fifliers from 18 to 
12 at moft. The filher-wives lead a moft laborious life* 
They affift in dragging the boats on the beach, and in 
launching them. They fometimes, in Crofty weather, and 
at unfeafonable hours, carry their hulbands on board, and 
alhore again, to keep them dry. They receive^ the fiih 
from the boats, carry them frefh, or, after falting, to their 
cuftomers, and to market, at the diftance, fometimes, of 
many miles, through bad roads, and in a (lormy feafao* 
When northerly winds, or a high fea, prevent the boats 
from going a-fiihing, the men are employed in repairing 
their fails, mending their lines, or making new ones. It 
is the province of the women to bait the lines ; colled 
furze, heath, or the gleanings of the moiTes, which, in fur- 
' prifing quantity, they carry home in their creels for fuel, 
to make the fcanty ilock of peats and tur& prepared in 
fummer, laft till the returning feafon. The men and wo- 
men are in general remarkably ftout and well (hapcd. 
Many of the former are above the common ftature ; and 
of the latter, many are pretty, and dreis to advantage on 
holidays. The fifhers of Findochtie are diftinguifhed for 
decency and decorum, and for curing their fifli, great and 
fmall, fuperlativcly well. In the other towns, the greater 
number are decent and irreproachable ; and according to 
the teftimony of thofe who have known them long, a fen* 


^fRathven. 425 

fible improyemcnt in manners and in morals, begins to 
take place among them. 

Advantages and DiJadvantages.'^^The parifli poflefles all 
the advantages that local fituation can give. ' And ita 
greatcft difadvantages have already in part been mendon-i 
cd. Man J melancholy examples of the fatal confequencea 
arifing from the want of harbours have been ptOi.uced ; 
and extreme inconvenierlcj and frequent dangers are ex* 
pet fenced, from having no cuftom-houfe nearer than In- 
vemelis, which is 50 miles diftant. The failure of the plan 
in agitation, for obtaining a cuftom-houfe at Banff, muft ' 
prove a great iois to the fiiheries and manufadures in this 
comer. Stiort leafes, and what is here termed run rigging, 
are hurtful to the farmer. It has already been oblerved, 
that a great part of the pari(h is expofed to the north- weft- 
erly winds, which are often hurtful to the crop. And 
even this inconveniency is fufceptible, in fome meafure, 
of being rethedied. For proper encouragement, to enclofe, 
and plant hedges, on a judicious plan, would contribute to 
counteract the ill efFefts of thefe wmds, by {heltering the 
fields from their influence. 

Mifcillaneout Obfervations.^^Thtxt is a lint^mill at Gol- 
lachie, built by a manufafturer in Fochabers, for beating 
flax ; which is fnfficient to beat 6 mats aday. He itnporo - 
300 mats yearly from Rotterdam, ot which the prime coft 
is about • - - L. 1000 o o 

To converting the above into yam, • zooo . o o 
To making part of the yam into cloth, 400 o 

The remainder of the yam is fent to market at Glaf- 
gow. A mat, on an average, yields 50 lb. of dreflcd flax, 
fit for fpin*iing into 4 hanks of yarn the lb. A hank of 

VoL.XIiI. 3H yam 

4*6 Statjfifff^ 4^unt 

ihe receives only 3 ^^Tarwatbu ^r^ igi fq^mfi' 4n!9f 
the watch*word for convening the £nzie*nien io times oif 

v?hen afjT of jtbcm hfL^oM t^o fa^^ qwg^ ill a ^j. 

Thereat? 91^194 %siatl«I9liA» lb? WPWWjrS* 
qyttl«» iO^qefif «n4 n^ercbaat gi^g^t and thf /of^jf Se^ 
t9«b^, fflr jbiofifter ««d d^j^. |k)tb ^ n^q^ Vfit^- 
Fair ;<w]yt^ letter l^i;thff|>ifbfit^^|:$i$^ WT F^f 
of 4ilti2i\^99- 

T)|e \ko^it of Bookie waf barm t^ 4i^ civil inM. IJapof 
t^ bt^ginning of ^ ccmtH^Jr tl^e fi^dii^Uflf 9^ Vf^Vr^ 
in )^ \^ 1^0 very coafideralife. («c4 Fi|u^yi|tf£ ^ 
pa]xtL^(ji, ^ di^rcnt tmei^ Caftlcfield fora^ t^e Qu^ 
b^ } Ffrikane ^p|a th^ Q^rdooii ^ Fte^^d^e ^ro^^ tha 
Qrdsi l^^uM^xat s^d Ijlftfiiu^ft fr.oiia the H^jn- ¥^ Pfrcni 
G^^n^n L^ proprietor of Firewhftic^ ^opl^^ fs4 Q^fe^i? i 
the $f A purch^fisd from tbf^ Pijrs j the ifim^ fcw» *§ 
Gordpf^ \ apd tl^ laft ol»tai|i^d frqpi the Qi^e of P$«to, 
in ezpfa^gp for other ]mi^s, ^ir Qordqn of LcsltfiAmt 

from the Gordons of Aberloor. Mr I)})n))m;'9 (B§tf ^ of 
Nether Buckie was lately the property of the Gordons, 
Mr Gpnipn of Cairnfield has acquired Thocajhaiik from 
tfaf: Hs^ js ; Arradflul from the Anderfoas ; BaAer-^ogs 
from, the Stuarts ; and Birkenbuft from the Gordna, Irbe 
Dnke of Giordon has purchafrd Goofittscach \ Be^on hil- 
lock, Litcbieftown and Glaftlrum from the Gordons \ Bo- 
mie from die Paterfons ; and Middle Bogs from the Raids. 
O^hiU is, opiate, in poffieffioa ofithq^HMb-in^boaof the && 
mcr proprietor ♦. 

f k M eyideptj from wfc*t hualrea^x^w olrfpirKA ^ *ftjiirfi»| 

dfRjMhfiht: 427 

.tery of loTerneft; bat I have been able to difcover neither the tSme nor 
%he manner in which thcfe patronages were loft. At prefent they are 
1>oth in the gift of the Crown. 

I ought in yaSddi ttr a^enowl^gi^ fll^e (Ali^tldns I am under to the 
gentlemen, and others who fumiibed me with information for this paper. 

Since writing the above» I have difcovered, that there are many caves 
on thavpfttt 6i the coifty'belongingto Lord Findlater. The moil noted 
nre, ift, Farikane*s Cave, ^ called^ from the propriStdr of FkHk:&ne ha- 
ving, in 1715, retired into it along with two o&er gentlemen, to avoid 
trouble during the Earl of Mar's rebellion. Jbi it they lived very fnugly 
and coiMbrdtil)^ fo^ 5?<^ ^we«ki; and retmrncd to their own houfcf, 
when all «pprehenfion of dttiger was over. i. Janet Corftair's cave, 15 
named, from a mad woman' who took up her refidence in it And 3* 
The Crofi Cave, fo denominated, from its taking a dire^ion to the eaft 
and weft, at fome diilaace from its entrance. The extent of none of 
tfiafti ii khotv^'. 

There is' a well of fre(h water on thC^orth fide of a green hill, fiir- 
rounded by the tide, called Prieft's Crag-well, between Findochtie and 

The fiflicn employ all kin^s of fmall filh as bait for catching the great 
fiOi. And mufcles are pnrchafed at Tain for 15 s. 4 d. ; Little Ferry, at 
23 s.; a'od'at FindhOrn; IVumius. to 15 s. the boat load, as bait for the 
finall filh, in the winter-leafon, and limpets, crabs, and other (hell fi!b, 
worms dug out of the fand, called by the 61hers lugs ; and fandals, a (pe- 
cies of filh found in the fand, are employed in June, July and Anguft. 

Refpe^iog the birds, migratory and indigenous, it may be proper juft 
fo add, that of thVfOrmtr kind; we'hxv^ plovi^i; cdckoos, rails, fnipes, 
\ic, and of the latter, fnch as are conmoo over all the north of Scothipd. 



4iS Staiiftieal Account 



By tit Rrv. Mr Allah MacleaNi mtd the Rto. Air Johv 


Ndmif Extentf Situation^ &ۥ 

DUNFERMLINE is fkxd to derive its name from tlie 
Gaelic, and to fignify in that language '' The hill of 
'* the crooked pool or water */' According to this etj« 
mologjy the name is fufficientlj defcriptive of the prefent 
fituation of the town, which ftiU, for the moft part, ftands 
on a hillf bounded on the weft bj a winding rivulet, run- 

^ Danferiin, from Dmn, a hill, Fiar, crooked* and Um, a pool or water 9 
if we fuppofe the name to be Ounfermlin, the fignificstion will vary a 
little; Dtffffy a hill, and Foitm, a mormttring aeiie, t. «. " The hill of dit 
noifj pool Of water. 












of Dunfermline^ 429 

ning through a deep and narrow glen *• The parilh is ez« 
tenlive ; of an irregular form ; at an average it may be 
reckoned 8 miles in length from S. to N. and 5 in breadth 
firom £. to W; It is bounded by the pariihes of Beath, 
Daigety, and Inverkeithing on the £. ; of Camock aad 
Torryburn on the W; of CUefhaad Saline on the N. ; and 
on the S. by the frith of Forth. The air in general is dry 
and lalubrious, but there is a very perceptible difference as 
to climate in the pariih, being much milder in the fouthem 
party which flopes gently to the fea, than (owards the N. 
where the ground continues to rife, and is more hilly and 
ezpofed. The pariih conuins a variety of foils : In gene- 
ral towards the S. of the town, called the laigh land, the 
foil is fertile, moftly in tillage, and in many places in a 
ftate of high cultivation; towards the N. the foil is greatly 
inferior in quality, in many places covered with heath, and 
containing mofies of coniiderable extent, though many fpots 
are well cultivated, yet the land in general is chiefly adapt- 
ed to pafturage. 

Borough^ ProfpiS, Conjlitutionj C/r.-— Dunfermline is a 
Royal Borough^ the feat of the Prelbytery, and one of the 
mod confiderable manufaduring towns in Fife. It is 3 miles 
from the (ea, and about 190 feet above its level ; the great, 
er part of the town b iituated on a hiU or rifing ground, 
having a pretty bold declivity towards the S. ; the grocmd, 
however, foon flattens, fo that what is called the Nether 


• Tbe Btoatioii mtift have accorded ftill more eziAly witfatbe name, if 
tve fappofe, as feeros highly probable, that Dunfermlioe owes its appella- 
tion to a little peninfnlated hill Iituated in the glen ; from this hill the* 
borongh has borrowed its arms ; it is of finall circomference, but of con- 
ridcrable height, very ragged and fteep towards the N., and appears to 
hare bem anciently a place ofllrenglh; a tower bvUt upon it was tbe 
r<;fidence of Malcolm Canmore. 

4r> ^ SMf^aAcmtfu 

ftmm IliaMii M a phBiL TBr ffnli \\ h flMf iHnTam^r fauj 
C^df^ md tfiepf(%« it oMifitndy fCSMtakf fMoo, 
fieamfifti( ancF extenftre. TIi«i^ k^ all* Al^dlgrt ^le«# cf 
£<nilbiir]gfa; tte Giftle, ArtMr-fcat, and ebtf aferaM 
Iproumfir hrdle yicimt/6f i^ iftMoponrj-b dliav ^ratfid^ 
dMetttn tfives of tffe <9(y cM ht cdtmt«iF inWf iM imiMd 
tft \ immetfiacdy in vfe# art tte oppoflle aUd feltSe bank 
of tHe Vmh, cote^rdkebdUl; ^ pM df tfid Mt W^t Le^ 
tKiaiis, ffifittylaw, dUe^idfirfnrtf-gTOUiHii aoitkfWttd of Hope- 
toon, aiid die IkMttgb of Qteeci^rKriy. TI»iiA«ifta mdk 
pfeafitur obj^, and m itt eotttft flMi ifieiT dfVNditli Fcrr; 
up t^wardd Colmfi, fernietliiiea eoHoMled l^'an ^kfnoei 
i&ore, 6ilt &we and then; brdakidg fitrth iir^^Mrtdtt»opaifags^ 
greaUy eA^Mtt atfd <Birferitte» th« tMMKy of thtf Imk 
From tins chtuth-flfetple therfc i» a gMiidcniiS ^ yf^tktyf aad 
cxttfirof proft^efl; of vnVidb it ir believed- iiew tamm ii 
SbotlaHd'can boafl. Here b ftw- if' pkrt of t^ diluuii 
coumieS'V tlie moft difhmt and remarkabto ptotfiaMSaotia- 
hill in the (hire of Berwick, Unlock b Lamk^ B^. 
lomond in Dunbaxton, Benlady in Petth, Lammennoor 
In Haddttfgtbti, Ccmpfie and* Logi^hUb in StkiiB|^ and 
the Pendandhilk itt SOd-fiotfitaitf-i HdpetiM»lM(Lfe^ tbe 
CaffleofBhcklielBi ¥blftotB^mml^OQttaiA^ tteboroagh 
of Ciilroft, and'the beMtffitl Wilrfbfia of the Fbitk frod^ 
lleitfi i^m- tb' StSrlifig CafUe; The b<imiigh» it- a^ea»} 
teld o^ tfJe nnnncftefy fbr neM t^o^ceatttiiA. It beoaBt 
Rbyal by a charter {rott James VL dlBHed* a^iii Majr 1588I 
In this chartefi called a charter of confirmation, the King 
ratifies fundrj charters, donations, and indentures by John 
and Robert, Abbou of Dunfennline j and pftlticillaHy, an 
laAeMtMe aaade- al DunferaUiae^' lotli Odober 1305^ be- 
tweenr John, AMfOltof tUe^ MoHaikefy^* aad tlM Eidenaen j 
andCbmmntdtyof theB6ri£rtrgh^, I^tHisde^tte AMmk 
and Convent renounce, infa^our of the'Eld^fffiSTsiird^om* 


reypni^p, wi^ ^kp foaU svfiPW^i profit pf conn; {^. r^r 
fcf yjflg. bpwj^y Wi tb<5 y.e*rljr jvpfiws pgyaWc iq the ^ipr 
n^^^ry fi:p|o ^ )^8 pf rbe bprQU|(h« 9a4 Ihie corr^^tiaQ 
cf )tbc ^m\iPh » ^^^ ^ ^^7> pr ^j pf tb«fiw ili«uJ14 be 
g^Ut/ ^f injjpiiUfi? jn tbp c^prcifp of ibck office ♦• By the 
fei; /cy qpia^tui^o, jii« goyenuoiwl qf Uic borov^ is lodpi 
in 9 co^QcjJ pf f^i coagfiing of 19 yiUjjry or lycmhw^r 
copQeii}or?, 8 f}Q9^QQi9 qf injcpr^ora^^oa t» a^ 2 lyade^-ippmt* 
ctttprs; tbf m9^9te$ ?re, « frovoSU % haUiet, f^id deim 
of g^^d• Tb^ tpwppQapjpU sM^^ soouaUy «teded «fiex tbo 
following manner. On the Thurff^y pn^^^dif^K Wf^wl^ 
xnas each incorporation elefis a leet, or lift of four of their 
n^^ipbcHf Pifft *^«^ ^^ px^kol^ |Q th» mmctt ^n 
Fn^aj, vbo el^cwo out of ^9^ )^t pf ^gi^ {^d <fn4 
d^wi^ thia l^f pf two to eacb i«pof BPI^t^op, w^ ff;^^ %^^ 
elp^ one #f tb«m a9 thieir Aea/QQiV Tb^ >^W imwm af# 

p^if nt(B4 ti^. ^a fpm^il pn SaicMr4»ys ^bfOA ibp#l(^ immai^ 
a^ qther fl¥B»b9m pf §pm^ 4oA tw» mnr fniUU i#4 imt 

new tq|Aefrf(9Wcitip9 i ibe pM 4mM1« ar« tb» ff WfTift 
out of cP99l41 &> apil qpoa Mp94a Jt fht eighl dpacpm^ mk 
fp|}r n^w fOjo^^moiKi mi Pth«r PIMlki^lflr d^A ^ tmtf^ 
tw^, hailii^ dmrn (^ giil4» aiid p^V? oStft^brtmnift ppi»» 
ciii ^lAb txpH> of tb<. gluMry^ fjpd l|u» tv» pM t f a d y? i oqi id 
ciUc^fs, ^bp i|pw mc ii9piiMPiiemdc«» aao nentpieodfirpiak 
tbppidipafiy fltmfiy«.^(P«l6B»e ftp ^ aa> ojMraordinaiy 


ID jive, feu ini^^AJM ifOieaia <i|»«l^<IM4% Miaqicmi 

4 SMlthl. ig riA*»- IBflMUrL »ail<irt- flinaiwh— .nk^Citm^ hafc^w, ^lA. 

%f . TllTifll. .Tt^fTTt "■'I'PT ~ *T^T* '"P ' I'^M I" wf^'i ^(^V'^r^ ^^Tmjii ^ * 


43^ StaHJHciU Account 

councillors till the next ele^on. — The armorial-bearing of 
the borough is a tower, or fort, fapported by two lions, en- 
clofed in circles ; round the exterior circle is written, 5f^t/- 
bun Civiiatis Fermfloditm\ and round the interior one, Efi^ 
Rupts Inacceffa ; on the reverfe, is a female figure with a 
iceptre in her hand, and on each fide an invened fword, 
point npwards, and round Margaretta Regina Scotorum. The 
annual revenue of the borough is confiderabi j above L. 500 
Sterling. Eight public fairs are held thfough the year *, 
and two days in the week, Wednefday and 'Friday, are ap- 
pointed for markets ; the maiket on Wednefday has for 
ibme time fallen into difufe. 

JlfAns^0«m.— This town has long been diftingoiihed 
for the manufiaidure of diaper or table linen : For many 
years paft, no other cloth has been woven in the parifli to 
any confiderable extent. In the infancy of the tradte, it was 
the cuflom to weave diaper only during the fuikimcr, the 
winter being employed m weaving ticks and checks. This 
pfaAioe continued till about the year 1749, ^hen the ma* 
niiiifiure of ticks and checks was in a great meafure re- 
lini|aiikedt- Since the above period the diaper trade has 
been gradoaUy increafing; in 1788 there were about 900, 
and laft year (179a) no left than iico looms employed in 
the trade ; ^f this number, above 8co belonged to die pa- 
riih» The value 'of goods annually manufadured has for 


• Janaarf, sd VrcdneTday O. S. ; March, «d Wednefilay; April, 4A 
WedneMay ; July, ift Wednefday ; Aoxuft, lE Tuefday; Septamber, 4tli 
Friday ; Oaober, laft Tharfday ; November, 4th Wedsefday. 

f AboQt'7 or % yean ago when the diaper trade was low, fooie of the 
manafa^uren had recoorfe to the making ticks and checks; but the tradef- 
men being unaccuftomed to the work, engaged in it with diflike, tad it 
was given up as foon as the diaper trade revived. 

tif Dunfermline. 433 

fbme time paft been from L. 50,000 to L. 60,000 Sterliag, 
.and the trade was on the increafe. Aftonifbuig improve- 
ments have been made within lefsthan half a century in the 
art of weaving, and in the manufafture of table-linen : Bjr 
^he introduSion of machinerj labour has been greatly a- 
bridged. Formerly, in weaving diaper, two, and fome- 
times three perfons, were requifite for one w«b ; now, by 
means of the fly-ihuttle, and What is called a frame for rai- 
fing the figure, a fingle weaver can work a web 24- yards 
broad without the leaft ai&ftance. Many of the tradefmen 
in this place difcover confiderable genius in drawing figures 
for the diaper, and feveral of them have obtained premiums 
for their draughts. Table cloths can be fumiihed of any 
defired breadth, length, and fineness ; and noblemen and 
gentlemen may have their coats of arms and mottos 
wrought into any table-linen they choofe to commifSon. 
In the cheft of the incorporation there is preferved a vtrj 
carious fpecimen of the weaving art : It is a man's ihirt 
wrought in the loom about 100 years ago, by a weaver of 
this place of the name of Ingles. The fliirt is without feam, 
and was finiihed by the ingenious artifan without the leaft 
^fiiflance from the needle ; the only necefifary part he could 
not accompltlh was a button for the neck *. 

^own-Improvements. — In fpeaking of thefe, it would be 
injuftice to pafs oyer in filence the name of Mr George Chal- 
mers, late of Pittencrieff. To the enlightened and fpirited 
exertions of this gentleman, in order to promote the feuing 
put of his lands, Dunfermline is indebted for one of its 

Vol. XIIL 3 1 greateft 

* Mr Stark has lately eredled at Bruccfield, near Dunfermline, a mill 
for fpinning yam from flax, hemp, tow, and wool* The yarn fpun from 
jto has gWcn g^at (Idsfadlion* 

434 Statjfikal Account 

greateft improvement! $ we mean the bridge bailc by him 
over the glen, by which an eafj (nd healthful commnnioe* 
tion has been opened up to the town on the W. immediate- 
I7 oppofite to the principal flreet. Formerly, the otilj 
road from the W. was by the bcidge at Makolen's Tower, 
running eaftward, clofe by the Qj^n s Heufe, and then N. 
to the town by a confined narrow koe. The bridge was 
a work of great labour and eapenfe *. Within theie 30 
years the trade and population of this place have rapidly 
increafed. On the S. the Abbey Park has been fcued, 
and feveral ftreets built upon it, and immediately on the 
W. additions are daily making to the eztenfive feus on the 
lands of Pittencrieff: The population on this eilate at pre* 
fent exceeds izco fouls. It is but joftice to obierve, that 
the police of the borough has within thefe few years been 
much improved : A laudable attention has been paid to the 
paving of the ftreets, and fumiihing them vrich additional 
lamps ; and much greater care has of late been uken to 
keep the ftreets clean, a pradice highly worthy of imita- 
tion. Nothing is more necefiary to the health of the in- 
habitants than cleanlineiS) efpecially where the ftreets of a 
town are narrow, which is the cafe with moft of our Scotch 
boroughs : This confideration, and the high price which 


• The briflge is of a peculiar Arudure. An arch 197 feet lonjf, 
I a broad, and 15 feet 5 inches high, was thrown over the bum, in the bof- 
tom of the glrii, and the remaining hollow filled up by a mound of earth 
68 feet 6 inches thick at the centre, having a gradual 6opc on both fidaa 
to the eirremitiet of the ftone arch below. On the top is tbe road now 
almoit completely enclofed en both fides by houfes forming a very ncit 
•ftreet. On the fides or Hopes of the mound, and at the back of the houles, 
are vfry c^^nvenient hanging gardens. The whole was finilhed by Mr 
Chalmers at his own expenfe, the town only allowing a fmall piece of 
ground necefiary for carrying on the undertaking. Mr Chahners fubjeAcd 
|i acres of his eftate to the payment of ceft to the town, and thc^ bur- 
dened 3 of their acies with the payment of x d. to Fittancrieflf. 

rf Dunfermline. 435 

may be ^idAj got for ftrtot^ftfi miift fender the condoft 
of magiflrates idezcufaUe when they do ikot attend to this 
moft neceffiiry branch of p(>lioe *. As another very com- 
metfdaUe improvement, tvemay mention the removal of the 
bttWbers (formerly icattered through different parts of the 
town) into one public flefh-market, and the obligmg theai 
to kiH their cattle in a flaoghter-houfe bnilt for the purpofci 
at ferae diftancefrom the market, and entirely removed out 
of the town. An officer has lately been appiMnted, whofe 
conftant employment b to overfee the pdice of the bo« 
rough : He faperintends the cleaning of the ftreets, attends 
the fifli and butter matkets, and examines the weights, fei- 
zing on what be finds deficient ; thas an immediate and 
confhmt check is given to irapofitions on the public : He 
fikewife difmiflcs all vagrants found begging in the town. 
Formerly the inhabitants were very much harafled with 
ftranger poor, but are now efledually delivered from that 
bufd^n. The oflicer of police has L. 25 a^year ; and from 
hxs>eiW and diligence he weU deferves it. 

jUwntiqget and Oi/advaniaget of the Towii ^— •The great 
abiisdance of coals in the parifli, the ibort carriage, and 
comparatively eafy rate at which they can be purchafed, 
render Dunfermline highly favourable for carrying on ex- 
tei^ive manufa£hires. Coals may be had at half a mile's 
diOance f. Plenty of good water is mot ufually to be got 


• It mf fbrmerly the pniaia« btre ht fh» iMgSfiimt^ to let die ftraet. 
di»«s. imd ilie tidLfoMa cag n^ to dean tke ftreets: As loof as this prac- 
tice coiitiB»ed» the ftreets were (hasDefally dirty, and not above L lo waj 
got fyr tbe doog. The magiftraios now employ afeeMakeri* tec. and Tell 
the dong when colledied, and gain from L. 40 to L. 5^ i-T^^t exdniif^ of 
all DtceiCury expenfes. 

• t The iafaabitantf have Ae privilege of boiag fenred with coals at a hill 
-ftelongiftg to tht toum at a cbcaptr rate, than they ue (old to the country 


43^ StatifticaJ Accoani 

in the neighbonrhood of coals, and the inbaUtaAti of tU^ 
place have but a fcantj fopplj, efpecially in fiumncr. 
Water is brought in pipes from about a mile's diftanrc, but 
the fountain is not fufficientlj abundant. The greateft dif- 
advantage felt by the nlano&Aurers and ibop^keepexs is 
their diftance from the fea \ the land«carriage they are ob- 
liged to employ being ezpenfive« A canal from the Ne- 
^thertown to run §• W. about two miles, and join the Usa 
near Lord Elgin's lime-works at Charleftown is laid to be 
caiily pTa&icable« aad that only a few locks would be ne- 
cefiary. Should fuch a oaaal be fonned, many advantages 
might accrue to Dunfermline as a place of trade, and much 
expenfe be faved in the conveyance of coals for exporta- 
tion : Foreign wood likewiie might be brought at an eafy 
rate to Dunfermline, and the neighbouring parifhesfupplied 
with that commodity at confiderably leis expenfe.- 
Papulation 1791-a. 
FamiUes^ - - - %\yt 
Souls, ... 955<>* 
Males, - - - 4740 
Females, - - « t 4810 
Under 10 years of age, - - ^481 
Between 10 and 20, ^ - aoao 
20 and 50, - . 3951 

50 aad 70, - - 914 

— 70 and 100, - - 284 


at Urge ; tt prefent they may htve 4«oi cwt of coal on tbe bill for 7 d. 
or laid down at their doors for 1 1. the carriage being 5 d. But it is to be 
regretted that the road to this coal is bad^ and that it is worked in fncb a 
wRy that carts are often obliged to wait long on tbe hill before they are 

• The North Perry is legally in thtspariih, but its population is not in. 
eluded. The popnlatiod of the eftates of Urquhart and Logie, near Dnn> 
fermline, but which are legally in die parilh of Inveikeithing^ is iw 


ef DunfermUne. 437 

In tire town and fuburbs, and neighbouring 

fbus, 6"^. of Fittencrieffy - - 5192 

In the village of Limekilns, - - 6 j8 

In the village of Charlefiown, • « 487 

In the prefbyterj records 1713, when it was propofed to 
l^ave a 3d minifter, the pafifliioners are fiated to be 5000. 
.According to the return to Dr Webfter 1755* the popula- 
tion was 8552. There are feveral people in the pariih 
above 80, and a confiderable number above 70 years of 
age. In the town there died lately a woman above 90, 
iffrho was the youngeft of 21 children of the fame parents; 
and there is now living another woman, alfo above 90 
years of age, who is the youngeft of 25 children, all of the 
fame marriage ; ihe has been almoft blind thefe fix years^ 
dnd partly fupports herfelf by fpinning on the rock. / 

AbJlraB ofibe Baptifms and Marriages for the lajl ten yean. 
Yean. Baptifms. Marriages. 































No regifter of burials has been kept for a coniiderable 
period back till within thefe four years. 

Account of Burials for the laft three years. 
Years. Males. Females. Under z2 yean. TotaL 

r790f 47 SS H« ^% 

, 119U 3* 53 9$ 'H 

J791, £• . *^ '®8 *°* .' 



StatiJIical Accent 

From die preceding table die nmnber of boriik ( 
be exafily albertained. as manj of the inhabitanta in 
S. part or the parilh boiy id a cfaiirch-Taid in the poiifli ( 

Dhnjum rfihe Inhatiiants. 
Heritors and feoars liable in Mafons, 

ftipend, • - 78 
Clergj connected with 

the Eftablifliment, 3 

Clergy Seceders* - 5 

Phjficians, • . a 

Sorgeonsy • • 4 

Merchants, - ' '5 

Writers, - - 7 

Manufa£hirers, - ai 

Shop-keepers^ - 43 

Brewers, - - 10 

DlfttUer, - - I 

Officers of Excife, • 7 

Meflengers, - a 

Smiths, . - 40 

Wrights, - - 96 
Weavers, - - 86a 

Tailors, - - 93 

Shoemakers, - 54 












Ale Sellers, 

Belonging to the Relief, 

children inclnded, about 600 
Belonging to the Burgher 

Seccders, - - 4223 
Belonging to the Anti- 

borghers, about - 320 
Epifcopalians, - 44 
Independents, - 7 

Baptifts, . . 6 

CameroniMM about la 

Berean, - i 

Roman Catholic, - t 

Ale^Houfti^'-'^i thele there 'are lox ia the parifli, in- 
cluding a very commodious inn, and two or three of an in- 
ferior kind* There is aUb a number of ihops where Ipi- 
rit»afe fold in fmall quantities. It is not 25 yeaxs ago, 
when almofi nothing but the ale brewed in the town was 
' drunk by the trades people ; not only aC home, hot even 
in the public-houfe, they fought no better cheer : bat this 
:| formerly ' 

of Dunfermline. . 439 

formerly bealthy and invigorating liquor, from additional 
duty, and other caufes, is now iadly degenerated, and be- 
come fo weak and infipid a beverage, that whifkj is too 
often' fubftituted in its place* The general u(e of whilkj is 
arrived at an alarming height among many in the lower 
ranks of life. This is a growing evil, and loudly demands 
the ferions and fpeedy attention of the Legiflature *• 

i>oor.— There b no legal afleiTment for the fupport of the 
poor. Few beg in the pariffa, but the indigent who receive 
charity from different funds are numerous. No vagrants 
have been permitted for fome time paft to aik alms in the 
borough. The poor belonging to the fedaries are not admitted 
on the parifli funds ; the money coUeded at fome of their 
meetings is not, it is iatd, wholly g^ven to their poor, but 
converted to the fupport of their minifters. The number 
of poor on the roll of the kirk-feflion is variable, but for 


* To fumiih the people with good and cheap malt liquor bya redodlion 
of the duty, ieems to be the mod cflTedlual method of preventing the ge- 
neral and pernicious pra^ice of ufing fpirits. It it unqueftionably cri- 
msoat, and a dire^ breach of moraUty, to defraud the revenue; but many 
feem to think that there is nothing very finful in the pra^ice. If the in- 
clination to eT»de taiea be too common, fureiy the opportunities and temp* 
tations to fmnggle ought to be as few as poilible. Were the duty taken 
entirely off the ale, and laid wholly on the malt, this would not only pre- 
▼ent the brewer from defrauding the revenue, but meliorate the quality of 
the ale. In difcnfiing this fubjedl, ** The only people/* fays an intelli. 
gent writer, ** likely to fuffer by the change of fyftem here propofed, are 
thole who brew for their own private ufe. But the exemption which this 
fuperiorraok of people at prefcnt enjoy, from very heavy taxes, which are 
paid by the poor labourer and artificer, is fnrely nioft unjuft and uneqnal, 
and ought to be Uken away, even though this change was never to take 
place. It has probably been the intereft of this fuperior order of people, 
however, which has hitherto prevented a change of fyftem that could not 
v9eU Mi to incieaie the revenue, sad ts reUere th« people.*' Sr Sjcith's 
Wealth ft Kaliow, UI. 3 70. 

44^ Statijlkal Account 

feme time paft has verjr much increafed. In December 
1799 the number was 49 ; at prerent there are 45 on the 
roU. The funds for their fupport are, coUefiions at the 
Church and Chapel of Eafe, monej paid for burying 
grounds, &c. and the intereft of a capital arifing from do- 
nations *9 and former (avings. From the increafed num« 
ber of poor, the kirk-fefBon hare been obliged to encroach 
on their capital.— The following is a ftate of their funds 
from 7th April 1792, to 7th Maj 1793 * 
To interefi of monejy - • L. 15 3 8 

7o coJleAionSy money for burjing-grounds, &c. 51 00 

L.66 J 8 
Difburfements, feflion*cIerk's falarj, &c. in- 
cluded, about L. 30 of principal being up* 
lifted, . . . - L.9fi 5 8 

There b no fcheme refpeding the poor to which objec- 
tions may not be ftated. It is, however, a primary objed, 
and of great importance, to difcourage vagrants, and to 
confine beggars to their refpe&ive pariflies, who ought to 
fupport their own poor ; thus the worthlefs and fturdy beg- 
gar will be difcovered, and the public no longer impofed 
Upon by pretended objeds of charity. With regard to the 
beft mode of fupporting the poor, there is a variety of opi- 
nions. It is no doubt unreafonable that the burden fkould 
fall chiefly on thofe who are leaft able to bear it, and that 
non-refiding heritors, though they draw confiderable rents 
from a parilh, ihould contribute little or nothing towards 
the fupport of its poor \ on the other hand, poors rates are 


» The Rev. Mr Jimef Thomfon, minifter of this parifli« left to the 
poor of the Eftabliflied Ciiurch L. loo Sterlingi the iotereft thereof to be 
<linrihuted yearly on tUe 31ft Oectmber, by the lurk-feiSon, to the poof 
on the weekly roll. 

qf DunfermUne. 441 

iaanA Iro/n experience to be mofi boftile Xo induilry a* 
mong the lower ranks, and to have the moft pernicious 
influence on their morals. One thing however is certain, 
that whatever may be for the public good, it mufi be for 
the intereft of heritors to coquribute volontarily, in order 
to prevent 'kirk-feffioiiB from being obliged to eahauft the 
fands in their hands, and recourfe being had to alTefTaietits* 
Where there are no poors rates eflabliQied, non-refiding 
hetitors may eafily perceive, that it is but reaibnable that 
they flieuM contribute voluntarily, in proportipn to the Tft- 
lue of their eftates. Eirk-feffions, it is well knbwti, have 
a good deal of trouble, but derive no pecuniary advantage 
from the poors funds entrufted to their management *. 


« Cbaritebh Inftttutiegs, '■^The mod ancient of thefe is St Le«xiard*s 
Hofpiul. It is not certainly known who was the original fouoder. The 
accoont-books refpeAing the management of the hofpital from 1 594 to 
the prefeot timCi are Still eitant. The objedl of the inftitution is the 
maintenance of 6 widows, fiaoh widow is entitled to 4 bolls of iQcal* 

4 bolls of malt, 8 loads of coal. 14 loads of turf, 8 lippies of fine wheat* 

5 lippies of groats yearlj, and a chamber in the hofpital, with a fmall 
garden ; and to fome of them 1 s. dWer yearly for pin-money. The a- 
boTC provifion for 8 widows, is payable out of 64 acres of land, lying 
near Dunfermlinei and immediately adjacent to the place where the ho- 
fpital once ftood; the houfes in the vicinity are called the Spittal. The 
patfonage of this hofpital has long been exercifed by the Marqais of 

Pitreavie^s Bo/pital.'-^Jn the year 1676, Sir Henry Wardlaw of Pit- 
nMvkf «* (or implement and fulfilling of fever»l vows, pzonpfes and «n- 
gaf e m en ts made by him before God, after great mercies irceived, an4 
ler eertabi other good canfes, motives and confideratioas/* inftituted ao 
Kefpkalet Maftectown in levoor ef 4 widows, " women of honeft fame. 
eeUAs ef beneft men who live in the ground of Pitreavie, or other lan4 
bclongkg to iilm and bis fucceflbrs,*' who are declared to be patrons ; 
lailittg %#idowsof Ibe above defaiptioa, fuch other honeft women as the 


Vol. Xni. 3 K 

449 Statijlical Account 

Scho0b. — ^There is no parochial fchool. The ori^nal 
foondatioa of the granunar-fchool here is not certainlj 


patron cfaoofies, ire to 1m preferred. Each widow is to liave a i 

pr hoare, and 6 bolls of meal jcarlj ; or 3 bolU of oatp, and 3 bolU o£ 

bear at the option of the patron #. 

Cralmm^s Mortification,^-ln the jear 1710, 600 merka Scots, 0>eui{ 
the money found in the poors boi at the death of the Revcfend Itfr 
Oraham, hft £pifcopal miniiUr of I>unfermline), was by the Jufikcs of 
the Beace, heritors, and town-council* monified in the hands of the town 
for the ufe of the poor. By the bond, the council are obliged to pay 
the intereft of the above fum yearly ; the one half to the poor of the bo- 
rough, conform to a lift, to be yearly fubfcribed by the Magiftraies and 
Town- council, and the other half to the poor of the landward part of 
the pariih, conform to a lift to be yearly fubfcribed by the Jofticcs of 
Peace, and heriton, or a quorum of them. 

RtiJ*s Mortification, — John Reid, a Ihopkceper in Dunfermline^ who* 
from fmall be^.nniugs, had acquired a confi'derable property, mortified 
the whole (a few legacies excepted) to the poor of this pariftu efpecially 
to poor houfeholders, and perfons who have once been in better circnm- 
fiances. He committed the management to the Provoft, two Bailiea, and 
t)ean of Guild of the burgh, the minifters, and two ciders of the £fta- 
bliHied Church, the mi iiier, and three elders of the Relief, and the mi- 
nifter, and three fliers of the Burgher Congregation. By the deed of 
mortification, the managen are accountable to the heriton of the patrifli ; 
and it is proyided, that in the event of a Poor*s Houfe or Orphan's 
Houfe being built in the pariih, the whole of the eftate mortified flxall 
be applied to the fupport of faid Poor*s or Orphan's Houfe. The rrfcnuc 


* In the year 176^ tht Pre/hytery, in eonfeqmente of mn npplicmii^m 
from the heritors, min'jteri.kirkfeffiony and Magi/krattt of Dtmftrm' 
line, inquired into the management of Pitreafiie Ho^ital, Thtpmtrom. 
diiputed the jurifdi&ion of the Prejbytery. The eanft came mt tafi he- 
fore the Court of Seffl^n ; and that Court, (notwithfianding' in the deed 
of mortifieation, ail judges or minifters, cintil or eeekfiaftie, are dif 
charged fHm meddling tberetvilh in any fort), founds that the patram 
nvat account^le to the Prejhytery for the management of the morttfiea-- 
tion^ and oriUned him to account /ffr 40 years hackward* 

of Dunfermline* 443 

known *-; it appears, however, that Queen Anne of Den- 
xnark mortified L« 2000 Scots in the bands of the town, 
chiefly for fettling an yearly falary to the fchoolmafier of 
the borough. The re£lor, on the recotnmendation of the 
Town-council, is prefented by the Marquis of Tweeddale,' 
as heritable bailie of regality. His falary, arifing from 
the Queen's mortification, and what is paid him by the 
town, (part of which Is voluntary), amounts to L. 17, 7 s. 


srifing from faid mortification amounts to L. 70 Sterling a-year. The 
namberof poor at laft diftribntton was 151. Befides the poor's funds 
belonging to the feveral incorporatibos ; to the Society of Gardeners, and 
to the Guildry, who have conliderable property, there are 12 Friendly 
Societies in the parilh. Thefe have difierent defignations, but their rules 
refpedling the admifBon of members, entry-money, quarterly payments, 
8cc. are on the whole pretty iimilar. The objed of all them, u oioft 
laudable, to afford relief and affiftance to the members, when by fick- 
nefs or accident, difabled from purfuing their ordinary occupations ; a 
certain allowance when death happens in their families, and a weekly 
penfion, when unable to work, through infirmities or old age. Upon the 
death of any of the members, their widows, and aUb their children be. 
low 11 years of age, hare a certain allowance. All thefe focieties hare 
been inftituted within thefe 11 yean, except that of the Weaver Ladsf, 
which began about the year 1739 or 1740. 

• The entry-money to thiifociety it %s,6d, tvitb 64, to the clerk, md 
the fUMrterly payment i j. When difabitdfrom •wtrkittg^ eaeh member ie 
entitled to 2 s, bd.v/eekhf, J(f through old age er infirmities, nnable to 
follottf his employment as formerly, i /. 6i.; and if through eld age or 
infirmities, totally unfit for bis bufineft, 2 s, 6 d, a-rveek. On the death 
of his "wife, $0 s, and of a child under 11 years, 10 s. Bis toidono t9 
ha^e 20 s. a-year^ and if in di/trefs^ z /. a*week, nod is,^d. for every 
child heUvf 9 yeers. Children, "when their parents are both dead, to bane 
6 d, Mteekly, till they are 12 years of age i 30/, alloved for the funeral 
charges of members, 

f The prefent fchool and fbhoolhonfe are (kid to be a donation by a 
Mr Ged, a Romifb clergyman, to the mafters of the grammar-fchoolf and 
by which doiuition they were obliged to put ttp> prayers for an eafy paT** 
fage through purgatery to their bentffa^or. 

444 Statijlical Account 

6d. Sterling. The doAor, or uflier to the grammar- 
fchoolt is eledcd by the towncouncil and kirk-fefSon« and 
has a falary of L. la : 7 : 6 Sterling. The mailer of the 
Song, (an office inftituted by Qneen Anne), is prelented 
by the Marquis of Tweeddale, on the recommendaticin of 
the town-council. He officiates as precentor in the church, 
receives the dues for baptilbis and marriages, and keeps a 
ichool for mufic, Englilh, and arithmetic. His lajary is 
L. 5 Sterling, There are a number of private fchools in 
the pariih. 

EcdefiaJHcal StaU^r^VL this parifli, there ai« 8 dergy- 
men, two on the Eftabliihment, one who officiates in a 
Chapel of Eafe, one of the Relief, three of the Burgher, 
and one of the Antiborgher periiiafion. The Chapel of 
Eafe being in the town, doea not contribute in the iimaikft 
degree to the accommodation of the pariihtoners at a di- 
ftance from the church. The minifter is ordained, but has 
no particular diAriA of the pariih affiled him. He is 
chofen by popular eleftion, and has a bond for L* 50 Stcr- 
fing of ftipend. Upon the death of Mr GiBefpie, (who, 
after his depofitioo in 1752, fet up a Relief meeting in 
Suo£ermline), his congregation fplit into two parties *,, the 
party moft mimerons were for continuing in Gonnezion 
with the Relief, the other, though &w in number, but to 
whom the greatcft ihare of the property of the meeting- 
boulie belonged, applied by petition to the pre&ytery for 
having their houie converted into a Chapel of Eaie. This 
was oppofed by the minifters of the parifli -, the chapel how- 
ever, after 5 years ' litigation, was at laft granted by the 
General Aflembly in 1779* The congregation is not nu* 
merous, it coafifla of Ibmc who were Mr Gillefpie's hear- 
ers, and people who formerly attended the pariflichucch ; 
feveral likewife from neighbouring parifhes have feats, 


9f BunfermUne. 445 

and attend woHhip in the chapel. There are two Bnrgher 
meeting-hoiires, one in the town, and the other in the vil- 
lage of Limekilns. The meeting hoofe in the towffivas 
built in 174O9 for Mr Ralph Erikine, and is one of the 
largeft in Scotland, and has for a confiderable time been a 
oolkgiate charge,. Their fenior minifier's flipend is L. 80, 
with a honfe and garden, and that of his colleague, L. 70 
Sterling. The prefent Relief meeting houfe waa built in 
1775. Their minifter has L.6o, and L. 5 for a houfe. 
The Antiburgber houTe was eredled in 1790. Their mi- 
niiler's flipend is faud to be L. 43 or L. 50 Sterling. The 
prefent eftabliihed minifters are two in number. The 
firft minifter's ftipend confifts of 8 chalders of vidual, half 
meal and half bear, and L. 50 Sterling. He has alTo by 
decreet, L, 3 : 6 : 8 for raanfe-rrent, L. i : 13 : 4 for fog- 
gage, and L. 10 Sterling for communion-elements. His 
glebe is arable, and confiRs of 4 acres, which are let at pre- 
fent for L. 14 Steiling a-;ear. The fecond minifler has 
at prefeat a procefe of augmentation of Qipend before the 
Court of Teinds. He has neither manfe nor glebe *. 


• The PrdbyterUa nuniden of this parifli, fince the Revolation, were 
Mefljrs Kemp, BucbanAn, £rikine, Wardlaw, ThorafoD and Fernie. The 
lail incambcnts, McfTrs Thqinlon and Fernica were colleagues for very 
near 44 yean. Mr Fernie died 5tk April 1788, in the 74th jear of his 
Age, and 44th of his roiniiiry. He publiflsed a volume of fernont in X786. 
Mr Thoafon died x9th Odloher 1 790, in the pad year of bis age» and 
5a d of his miniftry. Before his fettlement in this patilh. he had been 
14 years a minifter in the army. Within 3 years of his death, he preach* 
•d regularly in his turn, and in his 90th year, adminiftred the Sacrament 
of the Lord*s Supper, pceaching an a A ion fermon of 1 hoars. There is 
preferved in th« Advocates Libcary, " Ane Sermon Preitbit hefoir the 
Kcgent and Nobilitte» upon a part of the third chapter of the Prophet 
iVIalacbi, in the Kirk of Leith, at the tyme of the Generall Afl«mblie on 
Sonday the 13- of Januarle. Anno Du. 1571- Be David FergulT ne, tnu 
niiter of the £vangeU at Dunfermline. In this difcourfe, Mr Ferguffoa 


448 fUatifikal Aenunt 

tick 4kiia(iflli»-cl«re oa the vtrgt of tht ^on, bnt ^it what 
paiticttkr period k aoI «ow kaowiu The S. W. wall of 
(he palace flUl remains a monament of the magnificent fa^ 
brie, of which it is a part, and tradition coatinaes to point 
craft tfie ehimney of the apartmtat where that «afiBctaiiate 
monarch Charles I, was bom. The palace » iacA to have 
been rebuilt * bj Queen Anne of Denmark, but of this 
there is no tradition in this place* «or as £ur as we know 
anj atxthentic proof whatever, it appears to be a niftake, 
• arifing from the words of an infcriptioo fbnnd on a lioofe 
built for Queen Anne of Denmark, and adjoining to the pa- 
lace. The Queen's houiie continued in good repair long after 
the palace was in niins. About 40 years ago, it waa occu- 
pied as an accademy by a Mr Moir, now a teadier in £- 
^tnburgh. Within thefe 15 years, part of it was inhabit- 
itif but no aMeotioa being paid to keep it in repair, it 
gradnaBj became niiaoas, and was latefy fold* aud made a 
quarry for ftones, and is to be entirely removed f. With- 
ia thcfe 30 years^ there was to be feen in the bed-chamber 
of an ion at Dnofermli^, the nuptial t^ of Queen Anne, 
^^svbidi fte is &id to haiw broo|^ along with her from 
Denmark. For this piece of royal famiture, die inakeep- 
jer, Mrs Walker, a zealous Jacobite, entertained a very high 
vaneration. Kibop Pocock of Ireland, happening to be in 
ber houfe, and having ieea the bed, ofierod hor f o goineas 
for it, which fbe refbfed, telling him, *' that 4be iliU re- 
'" tained fo great reverence for the two royal perfanages 

•• whofe 

# Olroic*s AilCiquttiAS. 

f On thfe firoiit of (his honfo was fbe following lBfev9|aioa^^ ^M*!^* 
bBum et foperftruAas, «dcs vetullate et injuriii ttmpofom eolliyfat, 41- 
rotafque 1 fundameotis in banc ampliorem forouun, reftitnit et iafiaoniTit 
Anna Kagiaa Frederici Daa«nMa Rcfii Aayniiifiais fUia, alxna Stiotis, 

of Dunfermline. 449 

** whofe property it was, aad who flept in it when they 
** refided here, and to their pofteritj, all the gold and lil- 
*^ ver in Ireland was not fit to buj it." Some time before 
her death, Mrs Walker made a prefent of the Queen's bed 
to the Earl of Elgin, an heritor in this parifh. The bed 
13 of walnut-tree, of curious workmanfliip, and ornamented 
with feveral very antique figures neatly carved. Another 
piece of furniture which belonged to Queen Anne is at 
prefent in the pofifeflion of a private family of this place* 
It is a kind of cabinet, what the people ufed to call the 
Queen's ambrie, of very curious workmanihip, finely po- 
liihed and ornamented with a variety of figures, fome of 
which indicate a very ftrange fancy. One figure has the 
head and neck of a man, the wings of an eagle, and the 
body of a lion ; from the profiifion of ornament, it muft 
have coft the artift much time and labour. This cabinet, 
like the bed, is of the walnut*tree, , and is f ^id likewile to 
have been brought by the Queen from Denmark. It is 
fiill perfe£tly entire, excepting only the original feet on 
which it flood, which have been lofl. 

The Mottajlery was one of the mofl ancient in Scotland, 
founded by Malcolm Canmore for the Monks of the order 
of St Benedidt ; the building being left unfintfhed by Mal- 
cobn, was completed by his fon Alexander I. The mo- 
naflery and its church were dedicated to the Holy Trinity, 
and St Margaret, Malcolm's Queen. In fome old mana^ 
ficripts, it is called Monafterium de monte infirmommj 
hence fome have conjeftured, that it was originally intend- 
ed for an hofpital or firmary. It continued to be go-* 
Tcmed by a prior till the reign of David I. who raifed it 
to the dignity of an abbej, and in 11 24 tranflated thither 
13 monks from Canterbury ; before the diflblntion, however 
Vol. XIII. 3 L the 

450 Statijlical Account 

the fraternity had increafed tft 26 *. Some of the grants 
to the ahbej were of a fingular natnre,*and on that ac- 
count may not be unworthy of particular notice. David 
I. \ grants to the abbey, omnem decimam de auro quod 
mihi eveniet de Fif et Fothrif, /. e. the tenth part of aO 
the gold he ihould derive from Fife and Fothrif |. By m 


* The a1)bef wm richly endowedi avf d dcrircd part of its «Ktenfi»e rr- 

▼enue from pUcet at 1 conikicnble diilajicc. Karkaldy* ICin^hom, and 
Burntiiland, called of old Wefter ICinghorn ; likewife Muflclburgh and 
Invereik belonged to this abbey. According to a rental given up at tJke 
time of the Reformation by Allin Couts, in name of George Ottrie Abbot, 
the yearly revenue wat u folloiin .—Money, L. 1519:10:! Scots; 
wheat, 28 c. IX b. I f. — bear, loa c. 15 b. i f. 3 p.— meal» 15 c— oau, 
$\ c. 6 b. a f. — hurfe-corn, 29 c. i b. i f. 2^ p. — ^butter, 34 ft.— lime, 

ip c. 15 b.— fait, II c, 8 b, According to another renul by the ftime 

perfoD ;— Money, L. 24o4i 4 ». — ^whcat, 17 c. 4 b. 3 f,— bear, 83 c. 11 b- 
s f a p —oats, 158 c. 5 b. if. whereof 84 c. white oats. — ^iuDe» 20 c.~ 
iUt, II c. 8 b.— caponi, 374.— poultry 746. 

t James I. is reported to have faid of David. •• He was an foir SauA 
for the Croun.** Had Jaraes I. (fiys Lord Hailes), been pofTrfied of the 
revenues which his predecel&rs bellowed on the clergy, he would have 
employed them in augmenting the influence of ^e Crotvn, and to ipeak 
in the diale<^ of Bellendin, haxe k^tbcd an fair Kin^ f$r the Lsr^r 
Hailes's Ann. 

* t Fetbrrf is called Fotthnck, in Chart. Cambujkenneth. Sir Robert 
SIbbald, Hificrf offtfe, c. a. fays, that Mr Robert Made, the antlquanr, 
jierived Fothrick from Vtfichric, i. t, •« the painted kingdom/* or " the 
kingdom of the Pi<fls.** Lord Hailcs fays, that Fotbrick is compounded of 
Forth and rick, i. c. the kingdom or territory at the Forth ; and fuppofci 
that it means that ccuntry on the northern bank of the Forth, from thc 
neighboorhood of Stirling to where the river is loft m the fait water. 
Hailes's Ann. In Hay's Scotia Sacra, the monaftery of Dunfennltiie is 
iaid to be in Fothrick moor^ and on the nor^ fide of this parifli there is 
a moor which ftill retains the name of Patrick moor. Lord Hailes's de- 
rivation of the word Fothrick appears extremely natural ; but it (honld 
feem that the country U> denominated, extended farther caft thaa he fup- 

of Dunfermline. 45 1 

charter of confirmation, the fame monarch grants to the 
abbey the feventh, (after the tithe,) of all the feals caught 
at Kinghom *. Baflards, it would appear, were in gene- 
ral excluded from monafteries ; Pope Innocent f, at the re- 
queft^ of the abbot of Dunfermline, grants him permiilion 
to admit one baftard into the number of his monks with 
this exception, *' dummodo non fit de adulterio, vel in- 
cefluofo coitu procreatus." The firft abbot of this mona- 
fiery was Gosfridus, formerly prior of Canterbury, ordain- 
ed in the year 1 128. The laft abbot was George Durie, 
commendator and arch-dean of St Andrew's. The ab- 
bey was a magnificent and very extenfive building, but 
fell an early facrifice to the barbarous policy of the £ng- 
liih, being almoft entirely burnt down by them, in the be- 
ginning of the 14th century. Edward I. of England win« 
tered at Dunfermline in 1303. '* In that place there was 
an abbey of the Benedifiine order, a building fo fpacious, 
that according to an Engliih hiilorian, three fovereign 
princes, with all their retinue, might have been lodged 


• Male Im IV. grants to the a^bot and monks the heads, (the tongues 
excepted), of certain fiHies, fuppo'ld tu be a fraall kind of whales caught 
in fomc particaiar diftrt(fl of the Forth, near the abbey church. The 
words of the grant are, " Pro falute aninis predecelToris mei Davidii 
Regis, capita pifcium qui dicuntur crefpeis praetcr linguam, qui in meo 
Dominio ez ilia parte Scottwater appUcuerint, in qua parte illorum £c- 
clcfia fita eft.*' Malcolm IV. likewife gave them a grant of the half of 
the blubber (dimidium fagiminis) of the crefpeis, or fmall whales, whiclx 
fliould be taken between the Tay and Foith for the ufe of the church, 
<* ad luminaria coram altaribns prenominatse Ecclefiae '*— Several indul- 
gences granted by different pontiffs arc recorded in the chartnlary of this 
abbey. As oil of cli?et could not be procured within the diocefe of St 
Andrew's, Pope Nicholas, by bull id 1459, grants a free indulgence to 
make ufe of butter, (et aliis la<5liciniis) during Lent, and on ail other 
days when animal food was forbidden. 

f It does not appear which ol the pontiffs of that name. 

45^ SiatiJUcal jfccouni 

conveniently within its precin£b« Here the Scottilk N<k 
bles fometimes held their aflemblies. The Englifli fddicrs 
Qtterlj deftrojed this magnificent fabrick* M. Weilminfter 
jafii6es this brutal extravagance. The Scots, (fays be,) 
had converted the Houfe of the Lord into a den of rhievesi 
by holding their rebellious parliaments thtre. The church, 
however, and a few manfions Jit fir moniu were gra- 
cioufly fpared by the Englilh reformers »." The cells be- 
longing to the abbey, which were fpared by the Engliib, 
and likewife, it is probable, the principal part of the church, 
were demoliihcd at the Reformation in 1 560 f . The nuns 
of the abbey are now but inconfiderable. There ftill re- 
mains a window which belonged to the Frater-hall, re- 
markable for its fize and beauty J. At the general diffo 
lution of monafteries in i j6o, Mr Robert Pitcaim was ap- 
pointed commendator of Dunfermline. The abbey was 
ereded into a temporal Lordihip in 15931 and beftowed 
on Queen Anne of Denmark, James VPs Queen. This 
Lordfliip included all the lands which belonged to the mo- 
nafiery on this fide the Forth, except the barony of Burnt- 
ifland and New Bime, in which Sir Robert Melvil of 
Murdocamy, and Andrew Wood of Largo were infeft. 
Muflelburgh, which alfo belonged to this monafiery, was 


* Hailct^ Annals. 

t Robert Lindfay, in his Hiftory of Scotland, fays, that the tjbhty ot 
Dunfermline was dcflroyed by the Reformers on the aSth March 15^- 

i In the May gate, immediately adjacent to the monaftery, is a houie 
which belonged to the laft commendator, and which tradition iayt »m 
inhabited by his miftrefs. Over the ftreet door of this houfe is the fcj- 
lowing curious infcription. 

Sen Vord is Ibrall and Ibat u Fre 
Keep Vtiil 7by 7onge I coin/cU Tie, 

of Dunfermline. 453 

erefied into a temporal LorcUliip» and given to Lord Chan- 
cellor Thirleftone. In 1641, Charles I. granted a leafe of 
the Lordihip for three 19 years, to Charles Seton, Earl of 
Dunfermline. To this leafe the Marquis of Tweeddale 
obtained a Tight in payment of a debt due to him by the 
Earl of Dunfermline, and afterward got the leafe renew- 
ed in his own name. The laft grant to the Tweeddale 
family havbg expired in 1780, the Countels of Rothe^ 
Lord Elgin, and others, obtained a tack of the teinds of the 
Lordihip, for behoof of the heritors of the pariih, for pay- 
ment of L. 100 Sterling yearly *. 

In the middle of the church-yard, there was, till with- 
in thefe 3 years, a moil venerable thorn, (aid to have been 
400 years old ; at the foot of this tree, in Popilh times, 
the people are (aid to have held a market on Sabbath, be« 
fore afiembling for public worfliip f. 

Church and Tom^i.— The church is of great antiquity, 
being a part of that large and magnificent edifice bu3t by 


* Tbere b to be fecn in the Advocate's Libnry tt EdiDbargb, i very 
elegtat co|>y of St Jerom's Latin Bible in MS. beautiftilly illominated. 
This Bible, (according to a note annexed), is faid to have been afed in 
the great church at Dunfermline in the reign of David L ; and at the 
tijne of the Reformation, to have been carried over to France, (along 
ydth many other things belonging to the church and abbacy), where it 
became the property of the famous Monf. Foucault, as appears from hit 
coat of arms affixed, at the iale of whofe bodies^ it was pnrchaied by • 
Seotc^ gentleman, by whom it wu brought back to this country. 

f On a piece of level ground, a little fonth of the monafteiy, is a hil» 
lock about 15 feet high, and 300 in circumference, which, according to 
tradition, was formed of fand, brought by people on their backs from 
the fca, as a penance enjoined by the church in the dap of Popery. The 
flame of the hiUock* Pardieus, t'. e. Par Diea, feems to ftvonr the ftory of 
its origin, at leaft to prove its being fomebow conneAcd with religioo. 
pa Gr^gliifcar-hill, in this parifli» there are the remfuns of an ancient 
fottificttioD, laid to be PiAiflb 


454 Stati^icmi Acamnt 

Ifaloolm Ganmofe. In its ftrnftorc h is find to refembl^ 
Ac cflthedril at Dnrham. It is verj capacious, and £j 
for containing fe nttmerons an anditory, as few cu-dinz^ 
ij voices can readi, fo as to be difiindlj beard ; ikifcep* 
tibie of much improvement, and of being made, if not a 
neat and comfortable, at leaft a dignified looking place oi 
worfliip. It is much to be regretted, that br from any at- 
tempts being made to beautify fo venerable a ftmdurc, 
very little attention has been paid to have it feated, and 
fitted up with becoming decency ; the whole is coid and 
dirty, and wears rather a gloomy appearance* A flranger 
tnay well be forprifed, to find the church of a town fo po- 
pulous and thriving, and which eictemaily has fo grand an 
appearance, fo miferably fitted up within. Thb may be 
accounted for, from the church having never been legally 
divided among the heritors, the non-refidence of fome of 
the mofl confiderable property, and feveral of them being 
of the SecefBon principles ; from the inattention of the 
town-council, and from the difpofition %*ery prevalent a- 
mong heritors, to be at as little expsnfe as poffible, in what 
regards either churches, or thofe who officiate in them. 
To thefe caufes may be added the want of the interference 
of fome fpirited and generous individual, from whofe ex- 
ertions, improvements in general are often found to ori- 

After the famous looa or Icolmkill, in the Hebrides, 
the chnrdi of Dunfermline became the common cemete- 
ry of the kings of Scotland. Here Malcolm Canmore, and 
his Qjjeen St Margaret, and other 7 of our Scottifli kings 
were interred *• The reader, fond of antiquities, might 


^ According to Sir Robert Sibbald, in his Hiftory of Fife, tliere were 

interred it Danfermline, Malcolm III. with St Margiret his Queen, and 

Eing Edgar their fon. Alexander I. with SibiUa his Qneea. Dvrid 1. 

3 with 

(^ Dunfermline. 45^ 

naturallj expe£):» that the royal tombs would famifli us 
with fomething worthy ,of his attention ; but it is little in 
our power to gratify the antiquary 9 were it not that the 
page of hiftory afliires us, that with us are the fepulchres 
of kings^ it could not now be otherwife diiibovcred* The 
principal part of the church appears to have beeli demo- 
lifhed at the time of the Reformation, and to have buried 
the royal monuments in its ruins. The area of this part 
of the church is covered with rubbi& to the deptb of 3 or 
4 feet ; it has long been tifed as burying ground, and on 
that account cannot now be explored. In digging a grave 
lately, there was difcovered a iSone-coffin 6 feet in length, 
containing human bones ; at the iasxe tione were fio)ind fe- 
veral fragments of a marble monument, which had been 
finely carved and gilt. Here is fhown what is iaid to have 
been the tomb-ftone of St Margaret, and 6 flat (tones, each 
9 feet m length, where as many lyings are faid to lie «• 


with his two wries. Malcolm IV. Alexander ]^L tnd his Qaeen Msr- 
garet. Robert I. and Ifobel his (^cen. Edoiond II. fon to King Mal- 
colm III. and his brother Etheldrade, Earl of Fife. Macduf, EarlN>f 
Fife. Conftantine, Earl of Fife. William Ram&y, Earl of Fife. Th^ 
mas Randel, Earl of Murray, Governor of Scotland. 

* In this church-jard, a handfome monament has been ere^ed to the 
n^craory of the late Earl of Elgin, a Nobleman whofe mefflory^is dear 
to thofe who had the happineis of being known to him. Seldom bat a 
perfon in any rank of life been more generally beloved, feldom has high 
rank been diftingniflicd for fo many virtues, fuch amiable and conde- 
fcending manners. Refpedled and beloved in life, his desith was the 
caufe of fincere and general forrow and regret in this pariib. We iball 
tranicribe the following elejaot tribute to his memory. 


45^ StatiJHcal Account 

Sacred to tbe memory of 
Ckarlet Earl of Elfia and KincardiBC, 
wio died the X4th of May 1771, aged 39 years. 
By the goadncfi of his heart, and the virtnes of his life» 
He adoniM the high rank which be poflefled ; 
In his ounnera amiable and gentle, 
In his aflieAioos warm and glowing ; 
In his temper, modeft, candid and chcarfiil. 
In his condod, manly, and truly honourable. 
In his cha ra fl cr of huiband, ftther, friend and midler, 
Aa ftr as human imperfeAion admin, 
Pious without fupeiftitiott. 
Charitable without oftentation. 
While he lived. 
The bleiBng of them that were ready to perifli came upoo Kim. 
Heir tean embalm his memory. 

Beholding here laid io dud 
Che remains, 
MThich once fo much virtue animated. 
Think of the vanity of life, 
Look forward to its end. 
And prepare as he did for eternity. 

In the prefent church are the tombs of Mr Robert Pttcaim, CoaflKfi- 
dator of Dunfermline, and of Mr William Shaw, ArchiteA to King 
James VL King Robert the Bruce is Ihid to lie here| His intenDeat 
at Dunfermline is thus defcribed by one of our ancient Scottifli Bards : 

They have him had to Domfermline, 
And him folcmnly erded fyne. 
In a fair tomb into die Quire. 
Btlhops and Prelate that there were, 
Aflbilzied him, when the fcrvice 
Was done, as they beft could devifo. 
And fyne, upon the other day. 
Sorry and wo they went their way. 
And he debowelled was cleanly. 
And als balmed fyne full richly. 


x>f Dunfermline* 457 

And the worthy Lord of Dowglas 
His heart, as it f<n«rpokcn was. 
Received has in great daintie, 
With great and fair folemnitio'*. 

In the porch of the chnrch, is t neat Moniunenty ere^d to the me- 
mory of Mr Rolland, latp of Galk, father of Adam RoUand, Efq; Ad- 
vocate, with the following excellent chicaner of htm, written in ele- 
gant Latin. 

M. S. 

Adami RoUand de Oaik, 

Viri non uno nomine celebrandi, 

Utpote non paucis yirtntibus ocnati» 

Ob pieutem erga Deum, 

Amorem in patriam, • 

Benevolentiam in genoi hamanum« 
Amabilia ; 
Ob vitsB integritatem, 
Morani comiutem, 
Afie^luum temperantiam» 
Speaabilis ; 
Quifvos patemo, probos quofvis fratemo 
Omnetbenignoanimo amplezns; , ' 

In publicts, privatifque offictis 
Prudens, fidus, diligens ; 
Mente et manu monificus, 
Fntnrorum providus, 
Fortnnv lemper fecnms : 
Iti volente 
D. O. M. 

XII. Calend. Auguft M.DCC,XUn. 

JEmu LVII, - »? f 

Animam Creator!, ezavias teme» 
Reddidit ; 
Trifle fui defideriom, amicis relinqoent. 

^ Life and \€t% of Robert Bmce by John Barbour, 

Vol. XIII. 3 M Emimnt 

458 Statifiical Account 

Eminent Per fans. — Dunfermline was the birth place of 
the Princefs Elizabeth from whom hk prefcot Majeily is 
defcended. As Dunfermline was the ufoal refidence of 
Malcolm Canmore and his illuftrious Queen, fome (hort 
notice of* thefe perfonages will not, it is prefumed, be ixn- 
proper. Malcolm Canmore was the eldeft fon of Duncmo, 
King of Scotland, who was aflaiUnatcd by Macbeth. Upon 
the ofurpation of Macbeth, Malcolm fled into Engknd, 
and during his exile in that country, reiided a confiderable 
time at the court of Edward the Gonfeflbr ; throu;;h the 
exertions of Macduff, Thane of Fife, and Siward, Earl of 
Northumberland, the ufurper was flain, and Malcolm af- 
cended the throne of his father in 1037. About 1070 
Malcolm efpoufed the celebrated Margaret *. Malcolm, 
(fays Lord Hailes), " was a prince utterly illiterate, of in- 
trepid courage, but of no diftinguiflied abilities/' With 
refped to the internal polity of Lis kingdom, he appears 
to have been guided by Queen Margaret. An incident 
is related of Malcolm, which is highly defcriptive of his 
charaSer. Having received intelligence that one of his 


* Margaret was the daughter of Edward, fon of Edmund Iron- 
fide, King of England. Upon William the Conqueror afcending the 
Engliih throne, Edgar, fon of Edward, with his mother Agatha, and 
two fillers, Margaret and Chriflian, retired into Scotland. Sume authors 
fay that being on a voyage to Hungary, they were accidentally driven 
thither by a ilorm. The place in the Frith where the ftiip anchored is 
a fmall bay, abonl a mile N, W. of the N. (Jueensferry. near the pre- 
fent toIUbar. This bay is called St Margaret's Hope. On a ftair-cafe ia 
the houfe of Pennycutk, in Mid Lothian, there is a painting which rc[>ie. 
ients the landing of Margaret at the Hope, the proceflk>n from thence 

^to Dunfermline, and the King and Q^cen. the day after their marriage, 
entertaining a number of mendicants^ The proceflion is faid to have 
been on foot. On the fide of the prefent road, near Pitrtaviey about two 

miles from Dunfermline, is a large ftone called St l^Iargaret's ftone. 

Here fiie is faid to have rcfted. leaning on this ftone. N. and S. Queens- 

ferry derive their name from St Margaret. 

of Dunfermlint. 459 

nobles had formed a defign agdinfl hn life, he fought aa 
opportunity of meeting the traitor in a folitary place.* 
'* Now, faid he, unfheathing his fword, we are all alone) 
and armed alike, jou feek my life, take it." The peni- 
tent threw himfelf at the King's feet, implored forgiveneiSy 
and obtained it. At the earned requeft of Margaret, 
Malcolm is faid to have aboliihed an abominable law of 
King Evenus or Eugenius. " Uxoris eriam precibus de- 
diffe fertur, ut primam nova nnptae nodem, qu« proceri- 
bus per gradus quofdam lege Regis Eugenii deUeb^tur; 
fponfus dimidinta argenti marca redimeri pofTet : quam 
penfionem adhuc Marchetaa mulierum vocant." Buch. 
lib. 7* 21. 

Malcolm was flain at the fiege of Alnwick in Northum- 
berland 13th September 1093, his bodj was depofited at 
Tin mouth, and afterward brought to Dunfermline. 

The charader of Queen Margaret is fully and elegantly 
delineated by Lord Hailes in his Annals. " She reft^red 
(fays he) the religious obfervance of Sunday, an inftitu- 
tion no lefs admirable in a political than in a religious 
light. In the adminiilration of her houfehold, ihe fo 
blended fevcrity of manners with complacency, that (he 
was equally revered and loved by all who approached her. 
She entertained many ladies about her perfon, employed 
their leifure hours in the amufensents ot the needle, and 
gave iiri£^ attention to the decency of their condud. la 
her prefence, fays Turgot, nothing luifeemly was ever done 
or uttered. On the education of her children, (he beftow- 
cd the moft confcientious care. She enjoined their pre- 
ceptors to chaftife thtm ;ts oft as they needed chsflifement. 
On them flie bellowed her tendered thoughts in her dying 
moments. Turgot pathetically defcribes his lad interview 
with this afFe£tionate mother. After long difctmrfe on her 
fpiritual ftate, (he thus addrefled him, " Farewell, n^y life 


460 Statijiical Account 

draws to a clofe, bat 70a may farvive me long. To 700 
I commit the charge of my children, teach them above all 
things to love and fear God ; and whenever yon £Sre any 
of them attain to the height of earthly grandeor, Ob \ 
then, in an efpecial manner be to them as a father aad a 
guide. Admonifliy and if need be, reprove them, left they 
be fwelled with the pride of momentary glory, through 
avarice offend God, or by reafon of the profperity of this 
world, become careleis of eternal life. This in the pre* 
fence of /TirVir, who is now our only witnefs, I befeech yoa 
to promife and to perfonn *«" 

* Bf a tedioot and paioful indifpofltieti, endured with exemplary pa- 
tience, (he was brought very low. During a (hort iotrrval of eafe, ihe 
devoutly recerred .the communion ; foon after her angoiOi of body re- 
turned with redoubled violence, (he ftretched faerfelf on her couch, and 
calmly waited for the moment of her diflblution. Cold, and in the ago- 
nies of death, (he ceafed not to put up lier fupplicattont to bearen. 
Thefe were fome of her words : ** Have mercy upon me. O God ; accord- 
ing to the multitude of thy tender mercies, blot out my iniquities, make 
me to hea& joy and gladnefs, that the bones which thou hail broken maf 
rejoice. CAft me not away from thy prcfence, and uke not thy holy Spiri: 
from me, reftore unto me the joy of thy falvatioo. The facrificcs of God 
are a broken fpirit ; a broken and a contrite fpirit. O God. thou wilt 
not defpife. Do good, in thy good pleafare, onto Zion, build the wall< 
of Jerufalem." At thgt moment, her fon Edgar, returning from the 
army, approached her couch. *< How far^s it with the King and my 
Edward ?'* The vouth ftood (ileut, " I know all,'* cried (he, I know 
all : By this holy crofs, by your filial affcrtion, I adjure you, tell me the 
truth. •• He anfwer^d, your huiband and your fon are both flain." 
Lifting her eyes and hands towards heaven, (he fai4» " Praiie and bleC- 
(ing be to thee, Almighty God, that thou haft been pleafed to make mc 
endure fo bitter angui(h iti the hour of my departure, thereby, as I troit 
to purily me m fome meafure from the corruption of my (ins ; and iboa 
Lord Jefus ChriA, who, through the will of the Father,, haft enlirened 


of Dunfermline. 461 

SpringSy Ltths^ Coqfls^ &9^r.— Some fprings are mineral, 
and fuppofed to be medicinal. The fprings from which 
the water is conveyed to the town, in lead pipes, are ra« 
ther inferior to fome others, and infufficient for fapplying 
the inhabitants ; but it is believed, that endeavours will 
foon be ufed for meliorating the quality, and increaiing 
the quantity of this necedary article. The Lyne is the 
only brook deferving attention in the parifli. Its fource 
is near the eafiem extremity of it. Having received va- 
rious acceffions, it becomes confiderable below the town, 
frequently overflows its banks, and lays the rich fields of 
Fittencrieff, Loggie, Cavil, and Pitliver under water. Af- 
ter running towards the wefiem extremity of the pariih. 
It unites with another fmall brook, and takes a fouthern 
diredion towards the frith of Forth. There are feveral 
lakes of confiderable depth and extent, in which perch, 
pike, and eel are found. Two of them may be drained at 
no great expenfe. — The fouthern extremity of the parifli 
extends about a mile and a half along the coaft of the frith 


the world by thy death, Oh ! deliver me.** While pronouncing deUvtr 
m4^ (he expired *. 

♦ Sht died i6tb Nb^mler 1093. and wwi htried ai Bunfermiime, 
In tbt 125P or ii5f, btr bones "were removed, and flaeed in a more ho* 
nourabU place in the Cbitrcb of the Trinity of Dunfermline^ H«iles*t 
Ann. " Alexander 111, caufed ber bones to be put into a cbe/l ofjitver, 
enriched mnth precious Jiones, after many prayers andfolemn procefions, 
and placed it in the uoblejl part of the church. During the troubles of 
the /Reformation, the coffer wherein her head and hair were inchfed, 
^as carried to the cafile of Edinburgh, and from thence tranfported to 
the manor-houfe of tbt Laird of Durj, ivbo was a Reverend Father, Priefi 
and Monk of Dunfermline. After he had kept this religious pledge 
fome years, it vras in 1597 delivered into the hands of the fe fusts, mif 
fonaries in Scotland, who feeing it was in danger to be loft or propbom 
ned, tranfported it to Antwerp* Her relics are kept in the Scots College 
ft Dov/ay in a hufi offtlwry Hiy*» Scotia Sacri, 

462 StatiJHcal Account 

of Forth. The coaft here is partlj flat* and pirdy high 
and bold. The fiih found on the other cotfls of Scotland 
are fometimes caught. No rocks, banks, nor iflan<fa, with* 
in the Frith, are off this part of the coaft. The fea-weed 
is ufed as manure. Kelp is occaOonallj made in Dnull 
quantities. Salt is alfo made, which is reckoned of an cs* 
celltnt quality. Soap is mann&Anred in fmaller qnanti- 
tics than formerly. There are two ezceDent harbours. 
The one is (ituated at the village of LiAiekihs, and the o- 
ther at Charleftown. They admit vefiels at ftream tides, 
from 260 to 300 tons. Many of the articles imported in- 
to the country are conveyed to thefc harbours ; and from 
them, a great deal of its valuable prodnfllions are exported 
to other parts. 

Agriculture^ 6^. — The foil is various. The low ground 
is a deep, ftrong, black loam, which gradually becomes 
lighter towards the N. Clay is found in ev^ery field, at no 
great diftance from the furface. In fome places it b cover- 
ed with earth that is brown and gravelly, and in other places 
with what is dark, extremely rich, and fertile. Above 
the town, the foil is much inferior to the foil below it. 
Though greatly improved of late years, yet many acres of 
moor and morafs fiill remain in a wild and uncultivated 
ftate, of which the one half is improvable. In this, as in 
the other diflridb of Scotland, hufbandry was in a languid 
ftate till about the middle of this century. Inattention, in- 
dolence, fervitudes, bad roads, the want of wheel carriages, 
and other neceflary implements of hufbandry, prevented all 
improvements. The land is divided among 80 proprietors, 
of whom the Earl of Elgin is the principal. His Lordfliip 
lately gave new leafes of moll of his farms, and buik excel- 
lent farmhoufes and offices upon them. His lands are 
fuISciently enclofed, and regularly fubdivided, with fences 


of Dunfermline. 463 

of (lone and lime, or ditches and hedge-rows of various 
kinds, in a profperous condition. His Lordfhip i» alfo 
planting all the uncultivated fpots, and confpicuous place? 
of his eftate, with belts and clumps of trees, which, in a few 
years hence, will \izve a fine effect in ornamenting this part 
of the cquntrj. George Chalmers, £fq; late of Pitten- 
crieff, about 1760, begai) improving his lands after the 
EngliOi mode. Regajrdlels of the ancient cufioms and 
prejudices of the people, he perfevered in hisexpeniive im- 
provements, which for many ages will probably remain as 
monuments of his ingenuity. Much about the above men- 
tioned period, or foon after it, the late Sir John Halket of 
Pitferran began his judicious improvements. Unlike many 
thoughtlels landholders, who repair to populous cities to 
fpend their time, health, and fortunes in falhionable amufe- 
ments, extravagance, and folly, this Honourable Baronet re- 
fided on his eftate, infpeded his operations, and influ^aced 
his neighbours to cultivate the ground. Accordingly, it 
foon aflumed a new appearance. Agriculture became an 
objed of importance. Every landholder began to ftudy 
what kind of culture might ultimately become moil bene- 
ficial. A great deal of wafle land was drained, levelled, 
and enclofed. In fome places, the fences confift of (lone 
aad lime, and in other pUces, of fingle or double ditches, 
hedges, and plantation. On the barren and unimproveable 
parts of the country, many hundred thoufand trees are 
planted, which are profpering, enriching the foil, and be- 
coming a fource of wealth to the proprietors. The mod 
numerous and thriving are, the Scotch fir, beech, elm, 
plane, larix, fpruce, aih, and oak- AVith thefe, the town of 
Dunfermline lately planted 170 acres of its wafte land, 
which was not worth 6 d. the acre, but in jo years hence 
may bring L. 200 Sterling the acre. The climate and foil 
in the fouthem parts, of the pariib, being extremdy dif- 


464 Statijiical Account 

ferent from the northern, the mode of cultivating and crop- 
ping is alfo different. The arable land on the S. is ploughed 
with Small's chain-plongh, drawn by two horfcs. In feme 
places on the N. the Scotch plough, drawn by four horfes, 
is ufed, and the ancient diftinftioa between croft and oaN 
field preferved. The whole manure is laid upon the cro&) 
which is conilahtlj in tillage, while the outfield is occa- 
fionally ploughed, and afterwards left to reft. But tiiii 
mode of culture prevails only in a very few places, where 
manure cannot be obtained without great expenfe. On the 
S. of the town, the land is highly cultivated, and produces 
as luxuriant crops as any in the kingdom. Farms are ufu* 
ally divided into different portions, and the crops are in the 
following order : After fummer fallow, wheat is fown, the 
next year, barley, the following year, grais, and laft of all^ 
oats^ fome, after fummer-fallow or potatoes, fow wheat, 
peafe and beans, barley, grafs, and oats, in thdr order. 
Wheat is generally fown in September and Odober \ peafe, 
beans, and oats, from the middle of February to the end of 
April \ and barley, from the middle of March to the end 
of May. Potatoes are planted after the plough, about the 
beginning or middle of April. Hay is made from the 
middle of June to the end of July. The other crops are 
ufually reaped from the middle of Auguft to the middle of 
Oftober ; fometimes the harveft is earlier, and fometimes ic 
is later. Flour, oats, oatmeal, and barley, are imported ; 
wheat b exported. 

Rent. — ^The valued rent of the pariih is L. 22,127 Scotch. 
It is difficult to afcertain the real rent, as many of the land- 
holders poffefs their own lands. In general, it b valued 
according to its quality, and diftance from the town of I>an- 
ferroline. In the immediate vicinity, it is feued from L. I 
to L. 20 ; and lets annually ft'om L. 3 to L. 5 Sterling the 
a acre 

Qf DunfermUne. 465 

acre. On the S. of the town, it lets annually from L. 1 to 
L. 3, and pn the N. from j s. to L. 1 Sterling the acre. 
One-third of the furface would let at L« if 5 8. and two- 
thirds at 10 s. Sterling the acre. Valuing the land in this 
xnanner, the whole furface, confifUng of 36 fquare miles, or 
23«040 fquare acres, would let at L. 17,280 Sterling a-year. 
Of this yearly rent, the fourth part may perhaps be fpent 
in the pariih. The value of farms is various. Many have 
fjoaall portions of land. About 50 &nners pay annually 
from L. 50 to L. 100 } 30 from L. 100 to L. aoo ; 10 from 
L. aoo to L. 300 ) and 6 from L. 300 to L. 400 Sterling. 
A farm which prefently lets at L. 320 annually wa^ lately 
bought for L. 17,500 Sterling. 

Value of Stock. 

1000 draught-horfes, valued at L. la each, L.«xa,ooo 

64 (addle and carriage horfes, at L. 20, 1280 

800 beft cattle, at L. 8, - - - 6400 

x6oo inferior ditto, at L. 4, * - 6400 

2000 beft (heep, at L. i, - - - aooo 

xooo inferior ditto, at 10 s. - - - 500 

200 fwine, at L« I, I OS. - - 300 

Total value of flock, - L. 28,880 



Statijlical Account 

I M. B 

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(y\ u oout V tn OaO« 000»><^*^^ 

O OUU«l,r»Cf» 0O»*00000-*'O 

o ooo^oo UOOOOOOOOO 

O OOOnOO oooooooooo 

o OOMOO oooooooooo 

fif DunfermUne. 467 

. JKfhvfr^.r— This parifli ^bounds with^ valuable mines and 
miiierals. In naanj places .there are prodigious rocks of 
frecAoney extremelj white, durable, and fiifceptible of a.fine 
palifl)' Granite, or blue whin, is alfo found in great quan- 
tities, and (of an excellent quality for paving fireets, making 
roads, and other u&ful purpofes. Limeftone is found in 
various parts of the pariih, near the furface. This valuable 
foflil has lately been wrought to a great extent. Several 
{earns are quarried, and Aianufadured in the lands of Craig- 
lufcar, belonging to Charks Dury, Efq; and alfo in the 
lands of South Fod, belonging to Mr John Stenhoufe. Be« 
fides fupplyi^g the interior parts of the country in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood, the lime is carried to a confider- 
able diftance for manure and building. But the moil ex- 
t^ttfive Umeworks in this parilbi or even in Britain, be- 
l^cHiging to any par^c^lar perfon, are thofe of the Earl of 
Elgin, (ituated on the coaft of the frith of Forth. From 
the veiUgies oS limekilas along the fhore, the village of 
Limekilns derives its name ; and it appears from thefe 
ancient rains, that the limeworks were carried on at 
s very remote period. The f<^am of limeftone is op- 
pofite to the Forth. It is a mile long fcom £. to W. from 
so to 50 feet thick, and dips to the £. and W. from about 
the centre. The late Earl, his Lordfiiip's father, who was 
no le& diftinguiflied for his intelledual than his moral qua- 
lities, conceived the idea of extending his limeworks on a 
larger fcale th^n had ever been .a|ten^ted by any of his 
anceftor$. Accordingly, in the years 1777 and 1778, his 
Lordihip began to build nine large draw-kilns, a harbour, 
waggon- ways, for drawing the ftone from the quarry to the 
kilnheads, and a village for accommodating his wo]:k people, 
which, after himfelf, was called Charleilown. As the 
works were great, the expenfe was proportionable \ before 
they were finiflied, the neceflary utenGb for quarrying pro- 
cured, and the difficulties infeparable from new and great 


468 Staii/lical Account 

undertakings fnrmoiQnted, it is &id tbey coft mbove 
L. 14,000 Sterling. But great as thb expeafe was, it has 
been repaid. By prudent arFangements, and conflant at- 
tention, the works have fucceeded beyond ezpe£ladrsu 
Their fuocels was partly owing to the fidelity and difere^ 
tion of the managers, and party to the valuable qualities of 
the lime, which fccured for it a ready and an exf enfive 
fale. Ever fince their commencement, the public has pro« 
greffively increafed its demands. From 80,000 to 90,000 
tons of limeftone are quarried annually. It b partly mana- 
faftured into lime at the works ; and partly fold in the nn- 
burnt ftone. Of the manufadured lime, about aoo,300 
bolb of iheUs, or unflocked lime; and from 30,000 to 
40,00c chalders, at 18 bolb the chalder. of flocked lime, 
are annually fold in 1300 feparate cargoes. The total aa* 
nual value b above L. 10,000 Sterling. Lime Ihelb, in- 
cluding all expenfe at (hipping, are fold at L. 4 Sterling the 
hundred boUs ; flacked lime at 5 s. 3 d. the chalder, or 3-r d. 
the boll; and limeftone at x s. 8 d. the ton. The principal 
market for the lime b along the coafts of the frith of Forth 
and Tay, and the N. of Scotland. From 30 to 50 vefieb 
are ufually Ijing at Charl^ftown, waiting their turns of 
loading limeflielb during the fummer months *^.— From the 
very liberal credit that has always been given at thefe 
works, it is obvious, that a large capital is necefiary for 
carrying them on. But neither the money funk in ereAing 
nor conducing them has been \tA. While they have am- 
ply rewarded their noble proprietor, they have oocafioned 
an extenfive circulation of money *, retained in their native 


* Above 30O inen ut employed iq quariTing, and other ncccfluy ope- 
rationt. They work moiUy by the piece, aud during the limebuminf 
iDonths, cam from it. 6 d. to % i. the day. Abont 4^00 chalden, Of 
;2,c33 tons of coal, are annually confumed in burning the lime. 

fjf Dunfermline. 469 

land, «nd fupported many thoabnd people ; greadj pro- 
moted improvements in agriculture; and may beconiider« 
ed among the moft laudable, important, and beneficial 
'^vorks for the good of the country, that have ever been un- 
dertaken in this part of the kingdom^— Ironfione is found 
in, the lands belonging to Sir Charles Halket, Baronet. Of 
this mineral there are two fcams at a fmall diftance from 
each other. The uppermoft is 4 inches, and the lowermoft 
24 inches thick. Being above a feam of coal, they are 
wrought along with it. They are of an excellent quality 
for making cannon/ and have been exported to the Carron 
Company for that purpofe. The ironflone began to be 
iTvrought by that Company in 1771, and in 1773 ^^ 1774» 
there were 60 miners, and as many bearers employed in 
the mines. Since that period, the ironftone has been 
ivrought by the tackfimen of the coaL — Coal is alfo found 
in great abundance in almoft every part of this pariih. The 
coal mines of this parifli are the moft ancient in Scotland. 
The earlieft account of coal ufed as fuel, is a charter of 
William de Oberwill, in which he granted liberty to the 
Abbot and Convent of Dunfermline to open a coal-pit 
wherever they inclined, excepting on his arable land, and 
permitted them to take as much as was neceflary for their 
own ufe, and to open a new mine whenever the old was 
exhaufted ; but not to fell any part of it to others. The 
charter is dated at Dunfermline, on the Tuefday immedi- 
atoly before the feaft of St Ambrpfe xapi*. But at that early 


# Carta de Pethyncreffde dono Willielmi de Oberwill, 1291. 
Omnibtts bas literas vifiiris vel andtturis Willielmns de Oberwill, domi- 
SOS de PethyncreS', etemam in Domino falatem ; noveriti« me, ex mera 
rraria niza et propria volantate, conceflifie religiofit viris Abbatti et Con- 
jventui de DunfermlTn, nnan carbonariam in terra nixa de PetbyncrelF abi. 
coiiqae voloerint, excepta terra ar^btli, iu quod /ufficientiam ad oAis 


470 Staii/Hcal Accouni 

period it does not afipear thatcoal was wranj^ to « gnemt 
extent, it was onlj uted ]n the abbej, and by perCons of 
diftindion in the conntrj. In progrels of time it was moce 
generally n(ed as fiiel; and when trade began to flomiihy it 
was exported to foreign parts. Although it waa worked 
by crop levels ever fince the above motioned period, there 
was little exported till about the middle of this centary. 
Even fo late as X763« the annnal value of exported coal 
was only L. 200 ; and in 1771, it did not exceed L. 500 
Sterling. The coal-mines, fince 1771, have been ibarces 
id great wealth to many of the proprietors. 

Defcription of ibe Suhterramout Coal Straia.-'^The fixil 
appearance of coal on the S. W» extremity of the pariih« 
is a feam about 2 feet thick, fituated under the £arl of 
Elgin's lime-rock at Charlefiown. Northward, near broad- 
hills, there is another feam, from 4 to 6 feet thick, which 
dips very rapidly towards the N. £. the crop of which 
has been wrought by a level in the fame diredion. Ad- 
vancing flill northward, about 3 miles from the Frith, 
through a fine level country, we again find various feams 
of excellent coal in the lands of Sir Charles Halket of Pit- 
ferran, immediately above the village of Crosford. From 
a remote period, the family of PitCerran, obtained from 
Government, the privilege of exporting thefe coak to fo- 
reign parts, free of all duty whatever. The original pri- 
vilege was renewed by Queen Anne on December ai. 


fuos inde percipiAot, et al&t verdere noo pr^mant utu vtro deficiente 
aUam pro volunttte ftia fackntes qootles viderint expediri Shi, Sec. &c. 
Ill cojus rei teftiqsoniuin prefentibus ftgilluin m«um appofiii, una cum 
ligiUo oflicuUs domini EpiCcOpi San^i Andrae^ ct figillo Robcni de Mi. 
lavilla, qui figilla fiui ad ioftantiam meam preferitibiis appofuecupc. . 
Datum apud Danfermlf n die Martis proxima ante feftaoi Sandi Ambroili 
Eptfcopi et Coofiqflbris, anno Gratisc millio ducentelimo nonagefimoprimo. 

' cf Duf{fermUne. 471 

1706, and rarificd in Parliament on March 21. 1707, 
The femily contmucd to enjoy the privilege till 1788; 
-when it was purchafed by Government for L.' 40,000 Ster- 
ling, when the property that could injure the revenue was 
nearly exhaufied. 

The mod remarkable,^ in thefe lands, are the (earns, con- 
fifting of 5 feet, 2 feet^ and 4 feet each. They are all 
found within the fpaCe of 14 yards, at the diftance of 3 
fathoms and a half from each other, and in their natural 
Hate, they dip from one foot in four, to one in fix towards 
the N. £. Immediately above the two feet feam, are the 
firata of iron-fione already mentioned. The furface being 
irregular, the pits are from 10 to 80 yards in depth. £aft- 
ward from the mines of Pitferran, are thofe of Urquhart 
and Pittencrieff, which are nearly exhanfied, untir deeper 
leveb are made or engines ereded. 

Northward from thefe are the numerous feams of coal 
that appear above each other, (as per fe£tion), fituatea un- 
der the lands of Weft and M idbalbridge, Clune, Lufcar, 
and Rofebank. They arc the property of the Earl of El- 
gin *. They contain immenfe quantities of coal, of vari- 
ous qualities, within 30 fathoms from the furface of the 


• The diffictilty of finding a regvlftr fa^ply of cosh to bnm bis lime, 
Utelf indvced hisLord(bip topuichafe thi$ extenfive field of coaL It coiv. 
fills of more than 900 fquare acres, And contains valisable ficamt of all the 
rari .ui kinds that are found in the countf7. From thefe coal-mince, his 
LordHiip is making a wagp.on way, of 4 miles extent;* to his lime works* 
It IS CM he intends to make a new harbour, a littie weft from his har- 
bour at Charleftown, for exporting his coals, which will have fto feet 
of water at dream tides, and be one of the beft in Scotland. A havboar 
fo fafc and convenient will be extremely advantageous for the town of 
Dunfermline, whenever the canal, which has been propofed, fliall be 
made from the town to the Frith. Nor will it be lefs adrantagcous for 
the counlry in general than for his Lordfhip. 

472 Statiftical Acctmni 

uppermoft feain, which is covered with other 4 fathoms of 
earth. None of them are at a greater diftaoce from each 
other than 3 fathoms. 

Feet. Inch. 

The ift feam sear the fiirface, is 4 thick. 

ad, - - 7 

3d, . . 6i 

-i— 4th, - - % 6 

5th, - . a 

*— 6th, . . 5 
7th, . . 3 

Thefe 7 (earns contain ap 9 inch, of excellent coal. 

The next colliery deferving attention is Rofebank : It 
contains the following feams : 

• Feet Inch. 
The id feam is, 4 6 thick* 

id, - 3 4 

3d, . 4 

4th, - 4 

5th, - 3 

Making altogether, 18 10 of coal under thofe lands. 
There are found in thefe collieries belonging to the £arl 
of Elgin, a kind of allum rock, and alfo iToft fulphar, 
which would make green vitriol. Detached pieced of 
ironftone fometimes appear. This b the only colliery in 
the parifli in which inflammable air is found. 

The next in the fame direction is the colliery of Bal- 

mule, \\hich comprehends the coal lying under the lands 

of Lochhead, Coalton, Locbend, and Balmule. In num- 

2 bcr 

of Dunfermline. 47 3 

ber of feamsi thkknefs, depths and quality, it refembks 

Having mentioned the collieries in the northern direc* 
tion, it may be proper to return to thoft in the middle of 
the parifh. Of thefe middle, Baldridge colliery, the pro> 
perty of Robert Wellwood, £fq; of Garvoch, deferves at- 
tention. It 18 in many refpeds fimilar to that of Pitten- 
crieS, and the other mines in the fame direfiion. The • 
lowed feam is a fine fplint coal. This colliery has been 
worked for many years, and been extremdy advantageous 
to the proprietor. Eafiward, in the fame line, are the 
collieries of Venterfair, Dunfermline town coal, and White- 
field. They ^re worked level free, and contain an im* 
menfe quantity of excellent coal, which is moftly fold in 
the country. The town fupplies its inhabitants with this ' 
important article at a reduced price, which makes the fuel 
cheaper than in any other town in Scotland. 

To the eaft of thefe is the colliery of Halbeaith. It 
contains £ or 9 feams of good workable coal,' amounting 
in all to upwards of 30 feet. The loweft or fplint feanx 
is the fame as in the other collieries, and is in high repute. 
Some of the other feams on the north of a large dike *, 

Vou XIIL 3 O which 

• Dtkes are confufed auflet of metob, that in fome places feem to 
interred the earth from the farface to the centre. They are of different 
thicknefi. They generally alter the iituation of the fttata, by cutting 
Attn off entirely, and fnbftituting other ftrata in the place of them, or 
-hy devating -or deprefltng theoi beyond their natural fitoation. Some* 
timet they «aiie the coal to the very furface, and at other timet, fink it to 
as nnapproachable depth. Befides throwing op the coal, they are often 
of great ufe in keeping off the water from the neighbouring mines. The 
dikes with which the coal of this parifli is troubled run in diiierent dir 
feAions, but moft generally towards the S. £. and N. W.f. Their 
conrfe Is however very uncertain Their elevation ji generally from 49 
to So degrees, and they are compolbd of every kind of iiibflance, fnm 
bard green whin and white fpar, to blue clay. 

^ (See the aaaexcd iketth). 

^74 StatyiicaUccmuu 

wbich has ft S. E. dirc^on, hftve been wroDjbt manj 
years ago, bj crop levek. The coal dips nearly in tbe 
jiame manner and direSion as in the weft of the pariih« 
but is frper of dikes. This collierj was purchafed in fom- 
mer 1783 bjMeffirs Campbell, Morilbn and Cooipanj. 
They have built two large engines. Tbe one is ereded 
on ftone, and the other on a frame of wood. From this 
cdliery vaft quantities of coal are at prefect escported. 
The fame £eams are found in the lands of Praithoufe, and 
run eaftward to the croflgates into the neighbouring pa- 

Sinking pits ia not difficult in this pariih. The cover 
generally confifis of a few fathoms of earth, and afterward 
iireeftone and blue metals. 

Explanation of tbe Eyi Sketch. -^VT tit the Teams of coal 
and dikes in the pariih of Dunfermline vifible, they would 
appear a« they are exhibited on the annexed iketch. 

The letters a. b. c. denote the three feams of coal in 
the eftate of Pitferran, ISc. 

D. The two bands of iron-ftone, above the two feet or fe- 

cond feam. 

E. E. £• The loweft level mine driven from the fodth of 

Pitferran, to the face where it is (landing in 
Lord Elgin's property. 
E* E. E. In dotted lines, ihow how the faid level, if con- 
tinued, would interfed and drain the upper- - 
moft feams of coal to the depth of the level. 

A. A. A crofi level, by which the crop of all the north 

fe. ms have been workcd- 

B. B. B. A level brought up from the lower grounds, 

£Eu^er fouth, which is a few fkthoms deeper 
than the one above. 


f^ Dunfermline. 475 

^ M. iy?9 An upcaft dike to the noctb. 
a. b. c. D (between two dikes). The three feams of 
coaly and two of iron-iloney reprefented on the 
fonth of faid dike, which are call up by it into 
the north, all above, aad drained by the lowed 
Q^ Q^ A coal pit, by which the faid three feams are . 

wrought and raifed level free, 
e* e. A kind of dike, or rather ftage, which is fometime4< 
met with in the level courfe of the coal«' nearly 
perpendicular, without calling the coal up or dowd 
on either fide of it. 
M. M. 2//, Another large dik^ which throws up. the 
feams of coal* confiderably to the north, and 
in fome parts they dip more rapidly after* 
G. G. An edgine pit on the fouth fide of the firft dike^ 
to. drain the coaft from x. to z. that is below the 
H« H. Another engine pit to the north of all the dikes, . 
to drain the coal from N. to N. in all the feams 
below the level. 
P. E. A level free pit, on the four lotveft feams on the 
north fide of the north dike. 

I. a. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.^9. Nine feams of coal on the 
north fide of the iiecond dike, from two to five feet thick 
eaoh, making in all, upwards of 30 feet of coal under the 
forface, in fome parts of this parifli. The three loweft of 
thole nine feams are fiippofed to be the three feams a. b. c 
on the fouth. The other fix appear to be upper feams 
that come on from the north. Thofe nine feams are mark- 
ed where they are interfered by the north engine pit, and* 
are continued down\^ard, to fhow, that if there were no 


47 6 Statiftkal Accomt 

dikes to caft np the coal to the norths it would fixm get 
below the farface level, and be loft without the affiifauice 
of the engine, which wins from N. to N. ia all the feams 
to the fouth of it. 

> K a level mine were driven from the bottom of the pit, 
at H. to L. it would win the upper feams tb the north of 
it, between the levek £. JE. and H. It alfo fiiows, that 
if it were not for fuch dikes, the coal would foon run too 
deep to be raifed to any advantage. Suppofing the lowed 
lieam to be lOO fathoms deep at the north engine pit, then 
the uppermoft feam will be xoo fathoms deep at L, and 
confequently the loweft feam wiU be 2co fathoms deep at 
that point. 

The proportion will alv^ys be, according to the dip of 
the coal, and the elevation of the fiirface towards the 

The level E. E. £. would be about 40 jkthoms iron^ 
the furface at the north engine pit, fo that the engine 
. would have to lift the water about 60 fathoms, and deli- 
ver it into the faid level, where it would difcharge itfelf 
at the loweft fouth point. 

Numbers , employed.'^ At the above mentioned coal mines 
of this parifh, there ace about^ 
f 8b colliers. 
140 bearers. 

300 perfons above ground employed at, 
repairing roads, driving and (hipping coals, 

400 women and children, who occafionally work, 
and are fupported by the mines* 

Total, 1020 employed and fupported. Befides, there are 
aUb lao horfies employed above and below the fur* 
&ce^ in performing various operations* There are abouc 


of Dunfrnnline^ 477 

50 waggons conllantly employed in carryiiig coal from 
the mines to the ihips. Having excellent waggon ways^ . 
the waggons contain from two to three tons each. 

Annual product and value of Coal. — The annual quanti- 
ty of coal raifed from the various mines of the parifh a- 
xnounts to 90,000 tons. Of tliefe, 60,000 tons are export- 
ed from lime-kilns, Brucehaven, and Inverkeithing. The 
remaining 30,000 tons are confumed in the. town and pa* 
xifh of Dunfermline, and the immediate neighbourhood. 
The great coal is fold at from 6 s. to 7 s. the ton ^ the 
diows from 5 s. to 6 8. ; and the (mall at 3 s. the ton ; va* 
luing the whole at 5 s. the ton, the total annual value of 
eoal amounts to L. a2,6j0 Steiitng. Of this fum, there 
axe L. 3000 annually expended on timber, ironi ropes^ in- 
cidents, If Cm Ifc, and L» 13,000 for labour. 

Price of Labour and ProviJlons.'-^The miners .in the 
borfe-pits, without bearers, make about from i s. 6 d. ta 
2S. ^d. a-day *, with bearers, from 2 s. 6 d. to 3 s. 6 d. ; and 
the people above ground, from 1 s. 4d. to i s. 6d. aday *• 

Villages. — ^There are 8 villages in the parifli. The po- 
pulous villages of Lime- kilns and Charlefiown are p)ea* 
fcntly fituated on the coaft of the frith of Forth. 


• TBe wtges of men ftrvsnts employed in hnibandrj, are from L. ^ 
to L. 9, apd women from L. 3 to L. 4 Sterling »-year. Oentlemem do- 
mrftick men-fervints, get from L. 1 2 to L. 20, and women from L. 4 to 
JL 6 Sterling a- year. A day-labourer, in bu(bandry, and other work^ 
gets IS ad.; a carpenter, is. 6 d. ; a mafon, x s. 8 d. ; and a tailor* 
10 d. with hit meat a-day. 

As the price of labour it domble of what it was 30 yean ago, fo the 
price of protifions is alTo double. Beef, veal, mutton, lamb, and pocfc^ 
are from 3 d. to 5 d. the lb. ; a pig is 6 d. ; a duck, I s. ; a ben, from i i. 
to IS. 6d. ; a chicken, from 3d. to|d.; eggs, from4d. to 6d.tha 
dof • ; btttter» 1 1 d. ; and cheefe from 3 d. to $ d, the lb. 

47^ StatyHcal Aacomt 


Crofiferd, Halbeath, and CroflgateSy are ftnated on tte 
great turnpike road, which pafles through the towa and 
parifli of Duiifcrmline, from the weftcm to the eaftem ex- 
tremitj. Maftertown, Petimuir, and Pitliveri are fitua- 
ted on the fouthem divifion of the parilh. 

MifceUaneaus Ob/ervations.^Tht advantages of this pa- 
rilh are various. It abounds with lime. Coal i^ compa- 
rativelj cheap. Houfe rents are moderate. There is a 
regular poft-^office, which annually brings to the revenue 
Inwards of L. 400 Sterling. There is a readj market for 
the various produdions of the land ; and tlKre are fea* 
portSy with convenient harbours, for exporting or import* 
ing hj water, all the neceflaries of lifo. 

In this, as in every other parilh, there are fome dilad* 
vantages. Owing to the numerous mines and fubterrane- 
ons levels which have lately been opened, the water is 
greatly drained from the furfisure, and in fome places it is 
foarce, and but indifierent. The roads are often in difire- 
pair. Within thefe few years, fince turnpikes were rai- 
fed, they are however greatly improved, and it is exped- 
ed they will be flill better, when the ftatute-laboor fliaU 
be paid in money, and properly expended. The removal 
of the SherifT-fubftltute from this, diflrid is another difad- 
vantage deferving attention. Being near 30 miles from 
Cupar, the inhabitants are expofed to much trouble and 
e3q;>enle, before they obtain dedfions in litigated quefiions. 

Tbe language is a mixture of Scotch and Englifh* The 
voice is radfed, and the emphafis frequently laid on the 
laft word of the fentence. Many of the names of places 
are derived from the Celtic. 

There are about aoo ploughs, almoft all of the Engliih 
or lately improved kind ; about 300 carts i 8 gentlemens 


qf Dunfermline. 479 

wheel-carriages, 400 male-fenrants, dnd 300 female-fei> 
vants emplojed in huibandrj. From 6000 to 10,000 bolls 
of barley are annuallj manafadured into fpirits, porter, 
ftrongi and fmall beer. 

In general, the people are ftrong, and abundantlj quick 
in learning mechanical employments. Many are remarluu 
bly ingenious, induftrious, and frugal. Such perlbns en« 
joy the neceflaries and comforts of life, and are happy ia 
their prefent fituation. It mud be acknowledged, that 
there are alfo many idle, fa£Uous, difcontented perfons, 
ivho are greatly divided in their political, moral, and re« 
ligious fentiments. In gratifying their aq>ricious humours^ 
and fupporting their refpedHve parties, they fometimes in* 
yolve themfelves in unnecefiary expenfe, and defraud their 
juft creditors* * Their expenfe in dreis, furniture, and li- 
ving, too often exceeds their income. Increafing trade»^ 
manufa£hires, and the rapid circulation of money, have 
had an unhappy influence on their morals. — ^At public 
works, nothing is required but labour. Education is too 
pften neglefted. Many cannot read. Proprietors are not 
fui&ciently attentive to the inftrudion of youth, and pro- 
viding them with teachers. Many come to the pariihy 
and go from it, whofe chara^rs are never attefted* The 
profligate repair to thefe works, where they are under no 
reflraint, and their infedious example is as hurtful to the 
morals of unguarded youth, as their unfeafonable labour is 
hurtful 10 their conllitutions. Being too early removed 
from the watchful eye, and faithful admonitions of their 
parents and teachers, the young and the thoughtlels fre- 
quently become groisly ignorant, and openly profane. 
With regard to the religious fentiments of the people, it 
may be obferved, that m general, they are more mild than 
they were about the middle of this century. The rigid 


4^0 StaH/Kcal Accwnt 

feverkj, thst tbea generally prerailedy is now found only 
vmongft a few. The violence of partj fpirit feldom ap- 
pears. The feftaries have fobdivided, weakened their 
cwn influence, and feen the folly of their former difputes. 
Many of them are now peaceable, focial, and friendly in 
their difpofitions. Various denominations of Chriftians 
converfe 'freely with each other, enjoy mutual intercourie 
in bnfineis, as well as in aU the focial, relative, and donic- 
flic walks of life. Upon the whole, the people are in 
general fober, induftrious, and religious. They have juil 
views of religion and morality. All attend public wor- 
fliip, and are apparently decent and devout, excepting a 
few of the wealthy, and a few of the ignorant and the 
profligate, who neglcA the ordinances of religion. 

%* SitKt the greater pari of this jtccowu was frinui^ the fbl- 
hwiag Particulars were tranfmittei by the Minifiers of the 

Mr Chftlmcn'f bridge wm bcgtni in 1767, aniflied In 1770^ and coft 
about L. 5000 Sterling.-- The value of tbc eloth annaaUy maan&Aored 
when trade was flourifliing, amounted to between L. 60,000 and L 70,00^ 
Sterling.^Mr Femie*f ftipend is L. 71 Sterling, and 5 chalders of grain; 
vis. 1 of bear, 2 of raeal, and i of Mts,— Mr Chiifiie's fidary aaMHintf to 
ImII: j:4Staliag. 




(GouNTT at FoRTAity Stkob or Angus and Mca&ks, 


Bjr Wr Jamm RobER, Preacher of the Gojpd, 

I I i ii t ' i ' i J i< .11 II. I I ' 1 ' 1 1 I . I 

Situation an(i Extent, 

»T^HIS parifh is pleafantly fitoated 00 the S. border rf 
-*• the comity of Anjpis, The S. £• point of the pa- 
ri(h,i? about a 9iile weft from the light-houfe, built in the 
y^9Xf.TS3f which ftands befide the narrow, vftriable, and 
diffictilt entrance into the aifiuary of the Tay, formed by 
a fatd-bank, feen at low water, ftretching from the coaft 
of Fife in a N. £. direfUon, and lies about 9^ miles S. 
W. from Arbroathf about 7 miles N. E. from St Au- 
drew'^t ?bout ji miles caft from Dundee, 56^ 27' N. lat. 
and 2^ 55'. W. long, from Greenwich. From the S. JE. 
point of thp pafiih, along the a^ftuary, about the difiance 
of $i miles, is its S. W. boundary. From the aeftuary, it 
ftretches N. W. to the difiance of about 6 miles, decrea- 
fing irregularly to a point, in form of a wedge, inferted 
Vol. XIII. 3 P • between 

482 ' Stati/ticat Aceoimt 

between the parifhes of Dundee and Morroet, on the 8. 
W. tnd W. -, that of Barry on the S. £. and of Ifonikie 
on the £. N. E. N. and N. W. No adual forvey has 
been made of the parifh ; but he who fuppofes it to coo- 
tain 3710 Scotch acres, will not be &r from the tnitlu 
The parifli feems anciently to have been of left extent 
than at prefent. Its proportion of the links which flLirt 
the coaft, may be fafely fuppofed above 400 acres, and 
ieem all once to have been covered widi water. Ad}oin* 
ing to thefe Ibks in this pariih, tradition relates that fome 
part belonged to the parilh of Ferry-Port-on«Craig cm the 
oppofite fide of the seftnary ; but what that part was, or 
when the feparation was madci it might be vain» at this 
diflance of time, to enquire* 

Swfaet^ RivMfeisi f^r.— From the N. W. point o£ the 
parifli, out of a weU at the foot of the hill of Dodd, in 
that low range, reaching thence to the Knockbills near 
Arbroath, and about 4 miles £• from the hiH of Lorn, in 
that high ridge of hills called Sidla, which extend from 
Perth to Redhead, and are the fouthern boundary of Strath- 
more, there iflites a rivulet which waters for about a mile 
the S. W. border of the parifh, crofTes it in an eaftem di- 
reftion, and after meandring through the parilh of Moni« 
kie, returns, and dividing this parilh for about { mile 
from that of Barrie, and receiving the name of the Bucf- 
don Burn, lofes itfelf in the aeftuary. About ij- mile S. 
W. from the Buddon Bum, and about f mile in the £une 
diredion from the village of Monifieth, the river Dighty 
falls into the aeftuary, after a S. £. courfe of about ri 
miles from its rife in the fake of Lundie, and about i4 
mile from its entrance into this parifh. Where the Dighty 
enters the parifli, it is joined by the Bum of Murroes, 
which, ri&Dg in the weflern part of the parilh of that 


vf.Momfieib. 483 

vmmei runs eafiwardy and at kft walhes for a mUe, the S. 
W. boundary of this pariih. From the N. W. point of 
the pariihy about the diftance of 2 miles, the road from 
Dundee to Brechin crofles the rivulet, wbidi, near its ef- 
flux into the seftuary is called Buddon, in a northern di« 
refiioo. About 4 miles from the N« W. point of the pa- 
rifli, the old road bem Dundee to Arbroath crofles the 
Bum of Murroes, in an eaftem diredion. About 5 miles 
from the N. W. point of the pariih, the new turnpike- 
road from Dundee to Arbroath crofles the Digbty in a 
N. E^ direftioa^ 

jBiocift.— i-Widun water-marki on the bounds of this pa^ 
fiih, a very &w rocks oi^ly are fieen ; the far greater part 
is iahdy and leveL The Ibks which ikirt the coaft, and 
firetch from the village of the £aft Ferry, fo called, in 
contradiftindion to that of the Weft Ferry, in the parifli 
#f Dundee, to which it joins, rife in a few places, into 
(mall knolls, but oftener approach to a plain. 

Jof/...From the links on die W. of the Dighty, the 
ground fuddenly riles, and then gently declines towards 
that river ; and the foil is generally an excellent loamy 
black. From the links on the E. of the Dighty, there 
fpreads for more than a mile almoft a level plain ; and the 
foil is at firft light and fandy, but extremely fertile, and 
then afTumes a rich blackneis of colour* Black and ex- 
cellent, the ground^ now gradually fweUs towards certain 
hilk of inconiiderable heMht, which at large intermediate 
fpaces traverfe the parifli from N. to S. from the village 
of Dromfturday-moor, built on the fides of the old road 
from Dundee to Arbroath, to the vicinity of the village 
of the Eaft Ferry, near Brougbty caiUe. From thefe hills 
the ground again delcends towards the Bum, near its ter- 
2 minafrott 

484 Siaii/HcalJc€(nmi 

minatioo, caHed Bnddon, and ini m dcfaentt by degreest 
lofes Its excellenoe. It again rifcs fomtwhot towsnb tke 
N. W. potfltof the parifli^ aid iheiH to the eyeof tbe 
traveller ipota yet moorifli arid wiflie« 

£U!fr.— Of theiib fotte may deferve notice. The high- 
(tft and noft remarkable, 19 the moft fimtbcni of thnt 
coBedion of bills called Xaimf, io ihe tieimty of the vil* 
lage of Drumfliirdy-moor. Its height haa not beeti aCwr« 
tained by dieafttremettt j but is fufpoM not madi td es« 
ceed 530 feet above the level of the fea. It lies from £. 
to W. is of an oval figure, and is covered with a pleafant 
verdvre ; iu finomit is 133 yards in kngtb, 66 yands in 
breadth, and 316 yards in circnmfereiice. From thb hill 
iveftward, may be fieen the coaft of Fife, the level and 
pkflrfant country, which ftietcbcs to the rieh and popalooa 
city Dimdee, part of the fertile carfs of Gowrie, and al« 
moft all the siftuary^ as it beantifiilly winds to Perth, and 
the diftant profped is bounded by tiie mountains in the 
(hire of Argyle. South and ^aft ward may be feen the bay 
of St Andrew*s, the hiUs ofLothian, the agreeably varied 
eoontry to Arbroath, and the Grerman Ocean to die nt« 
moft extent of the horizon. Around the fnmmit of dns 
hilli are to be feen the broad foundations df an ancient 
fortrefe i and oh the E. end of it. feveral large vitrifica* 
tions^ or^mafles of landy and whin-ftones firmly united, 
by means of the fbfion of tertttn parts of the whin-ft6nes *• 


* Tbcic yitrifioitiQW b»ve pUinly been cmiicdt by the ippkicatioa of 
external fire ) as £aiall pieces of burnt wood are the heart of the 
maffes when they ar/e broken. But the queftion occurs, how was thii 
fire applied, fo as to ViCnTy thefe maflei ? — One ingenious gentleman has 
cofijeAured, that before the ufe of lime, as a cement, was imiodaced 
^7 the Romana into the lOtBd* whoerer wilhcd to ftrengthea their forts^ 


•f Mofdfietb. 485 

From tkif Ulf of Laws, at a Utde diftaoce S. W« k the 
GrsUsw^faill of Ethiebeatoo, on which, it is faid, the Barons 
who were the proprietora of the adjoining farms of Ethie-^ 
beatoii, Laws aald Omochie, were wont to fit in judgment 
OK their vaflabi and to hang fncb as were convided t^ 
th«ft. Farther to the S» is the hill of BalgiUo, which will 
bd incloAed in the accoont of Brooghty caftle, in its im« 
mediate neigkboairfaood. 

Brwgi$y rtf^/p^-^Brooghtj caftle * is fituated on the moft 
footbem point of this,pari(h| whence to the coaft of Fife, 

made a wooden fnme, of the fame dtmenfions they wiihed their defence 
to be, filled it with fitfidy, and whin or plum podding ftones, fet fire to 
the finme, nd Iff the entenfeoels of the heat, vitrified the tadofed inais, 
and prodaced a ftroog munition. (See WiUtam's treatife on vitrified 
forU.) A fecond agrees to the conje^hine of the firft in every thing 
tnit this, thtt fire was tpplied to the fhmie, not by friends who wiihed 
to ftrengthen the tort, bat by enemies who wiihed to derooli(h it. (See 
EiTay on Vitrified Forts in Phil. Tranf. Ed. Vol. IT.) But by whatever 
proceis the vitrifications on other hiUs have been effedled, it appears pro- 
bable, that the vitrifications on this hill have been effe^ed, neither at 
the conftruAion nor demolition of itsfortrefs,! but at a different period. 
When that period was, it is not eafy with precifion to tell ; but furely a 
fuppofition which occupies little time, vrhere fuppofition only is to be 
had, can do no htrm. In A. D. 838, the Pldla had been finally expel« 
l^d by Kenneth II. whofe- father King Alpin, in a battle fought on a. 
plain K. W. from Dundee, they had taken prifoner, and with barbarous 
cruelty flain. Moft of the Pi^ at their expulfion fought Ipr flielter in 
Denmark, whence, it is faid, their anceftors fprung. Incited by them, 
the Danes rofe far revenge, and frequently invaded the eaftem cotft of 
Scotland. From thefe waftinjr invaders, the fortrefs on this hQl might 
afford a temporary refuge. On the £. end of it, which is moft confpi. 
cuous, fires might be kindled to alarm the more diftant parts of the coun- 
try, when thefe incurfions happened in the night ; and the frequent firet 
might at laft vitrify the ftones which they touched. 

• The following note, the fubftance of which baa been eztiaded from 
ibe Kirk^feffion records^ will afford a proof that there is po reafon to qve- 


486 StiUiJHcal Account 

is not above a mile diflant. It might tbiis» it is aoc unlike- 
ly, be originally fpelled Bwrgbtey^ from Borgfa, a fiecnritj, 
and Tay \ or, the fecurity of the Tay. When it was biult 
will not, perhaps, be eafily afcertained. It ctnnat be one 
of the caftella, or forts, which Tacitus, in his life of Agri- 
cola, fays that general ereded, in the third year of his ex- 
pedition, when he came to the Kftoary of the Tay ; for 
thefe forts, we are informed by Boece, in the fourth boc^ 
of his Hiftory, were ere&ed not on the north, but on the 
fouth fide of the aeftuary ; not in the county of Angvis, but 
in the county of Fife. Dr Macpherf<m feems to be ri^t, 
who fuppofes that the fquare towers, like Broughty, were 
built at a much later period. The earlieft mention of it 
with which I have met, is in the year 1492, when, accordimg 
to the credulous Boece, in the Delineation of the Scottilh 
Kingdom, prefixed to hi? Hiiloly, it witnefled a foolilh pro- 

ftion, BS fomedoi whether Broughty belongs lo this paurilh. Towards the 
end of hit century, a own committed a trefpafi within the bcnuMls of 
Broughty, for which he was fommoned to appear at the tribunal of the 
Kirk-feflion. He refufed obediepce» under pretence that Broughty be- 
longed not to this parifli, hot to that of Caputh, in the neighbourhood of 
Dunkeld, about a6 miles N. W. To afcertain the Uue fituatioa of 
Broughty, the mioiiter wrote to a Mr Webfler, then its proprietor; who 
replied, that it lay neither in the pariAi of Monifieth nor of Capnth, but 
in that of Kirriemuir, about 16 miles N. On this the minifter qiplied to 
the prelbytery, who by their deed annexed Broughty and its pertinents 
for ever, quoad facra^ to the parifli of Monifieth. Had the Kirk*feiBcn 
records been fully confulted, it would have been found that Bronghty 
was already annexed, not only quoad faerat but quoad temporalia^ to tbas 
pariih ; for there it is exprefsly faid, that on December i%, 1658, Broughty 
among othen paid for the reparation of the church. It follows not in- 
deed always, that a place belongs to that pariih for the reparation of 
whofe church it pays. It feems, however, an acknowledgment of Brough- 
ty 's belonging to Monifieth pariih, that it paid for the reparation of the 
church there. For had there been any evidence that Bronghty belonged 
not to this pariih, Mr Webiler, its proprietor, when caUed on, would 
furely have been able to produce it, and not have founded his opinion 
wholly on tradition. 

cf. Monijietb:^ 487 

Aigf. From the year 1547 to 1550, it was the fcene of 
it€ds not unworthy to mention, and which are connefted 
ndth events that form a ftriking sera in hiftory. 

On the death of James V. of Scotland, Henry VIIL of 
England, to fave that hlood and treafure which were ex* 
pended in defence of either nation, fought to unite the two 
neighboQiing kingdoms, by the marriage of his young foft 
Edward, to Mary, the infant Queen of Scots. To thu 
mealbre^ all that nation bad fwom agreement : But, in^ 
ciced bjr Cardinal Beaton and the Queen Dowager, who 
dreaded the downfal of the Popiih religion, by an union 
with a heretical nation, they were prevailed on bafely to 
break dieir oath. To enforce acquiefcence, Henry arofe in 
his might, and at his death the caufe was efpoufed by Ed- 
ward Seymour, Duke of Somerfet, who was ele&ed Pro- 
testor of the kingdom during the minority of Edward his 
nephew. Moving along, the eaftem coaft of Scotland with 
a numerous army, which was feconded by a powerful 
fleet, on Saturday, September 10. 1547, he met the 
30,000 Scots under the conduA of the Earl of Arran, Re- 
gent of the kingdom, on the weft of the river Eik, near 
Mnflelbnrgh, and difcomfited them with great daughter ; , 
but was foon after, by reafon of the advanced feafon of the 
year, and intelligence he received of defigns forming againft 
him in England, forced to return thither, without cont- 
pletely profecuting his vidory. Immediately on this his 
fleet, befides the fortrefles on the ifles in the seftuary of the 
Forth, feized this of Brougbty, and filled it with an Eng- 
lifh for^ *• 


« As the Duke of Somerfet departed with his army by the ctft of Scot* 
land, the Earl uf Lemiox, who had received a dtfgud in the court of that 
kingdom, aad had been honoured with tlic alliance of Henry \IIL eii- 
tered by the wtft. Hit prefence ^read terror and dkmay, and none met 


488 Stst0kal Account 

imxneroorial the rivulets md met tbort mentioned have 
run in their prefent chanacb ; bvt of kte the mris in thi» 
parifli have tmdergone confidecable akeratioa. Wkhio the 
laft twelve years, the road firom Dondee to fircchia has 
been made wider and flraa^ter. Witihin twice tb«t imoi- 
ber of yeazB. the old road firom Dimdee to Arbreeih wa» 
formed ; and the new turnpike road k jet Ibarceljr fimfli- 
ed. Within the kft 50 jears, no tseca ihaded aaj hUl m 

bat to do liioi homage. The heart of Arran, the regeat, which was never 
intivpid, now Ihrank withla him. To cofictiA liis fear, faowcrer, W «»l- 
Icdcd the fcattered MmiiBt of hii odiebltd lioft, aad» horn %he weftciv 
paits of Scotland, where he bad taken rcAtgt after ik^ nnlbrtoaau a£bfln 
at MuflTelburgh, marched by Perth and Oandee to blockade the caftle 
of Broughty. After haTing lain before it from the ill of 0^h>ber 1 54? 
to the ift of January I54S» be departed from the fiege with the lofe 
of one of hit beft gcnerafa, nd wicb that of aU hhordaaacc, \fmen»g 
h» doom to peipctual miifortuae. In^irited with thia &iCoc&, ihe 
EogliHi fortified the hill of Balgillo^ about half a mile northward, and, 
DOtwithftanding the aOive exertioni of James Haliborton, provoft of 
Dundee, with 'a hnndred horfe, and of Sir Robert Maide, in bis 
caftle of Pamnnre, about fix miles nosdAeaftwaid, and abont bidf a 
mile eaft from the pre(ent beaatilul feat of that fami^, in the pa- 
rifli of Paobride, laid wafte Dundee, and moft of the coanty of Aoguv. 
With rage the Earl of Argyll heard the report. He colle^ed bis valiant 
clans, and, indignant, marched to Broughty ; but felt the mortification 
of rcpalfe. Not long after, a fimilar fair «waitf d three fegiaenu of 
French, commanded by D*£ie, and as many c^f imaots of Gecfuma, 00a- 
maaded by one of their own princes. At laft diiTentions at boioc, and 
war with the French abroad, engaged the whole attention of the £lng- 
Itfli. Proviiions, arms and ammunition, ceafed- to be regulaily fcnt to 
their garrifons in Broughty, and the fort of Balgillo ; and thW| en Fe- 
bruary 20, 1550, they fell an esfy prey into the hands of the allied 
army of Scots, Germans, and French, commanded by Des Thermes, the 
fucceflbr of D*£fle. Both forti'eiTes were then difiaantled ; aad thoagh 
tliey have been more than once repaired and fortified, yet hiftory defcribas 
them as the fceoe of no acliou which merits record. At prefent, theie 
are only a few vefliges of fortification to be feen on the hiU of Balgillo ; 
an3 Broughty cafile is faft wafting down to ruin. 

of Momjtttb^ 4S9 

die pariih, as at prefent they ihade feveral ; and with* 
in the fiune period, the ezleDfiye and beautiful plantations 
around the two feats Fintrj and Grange were reared. Hie 
hoole of Fintry ftands where the Dighty enters the parifli, 
and is a mpdem elegant manfion. Nearly where the Dighty 
&lk into the seftuary, ftands die honfe of Grange, which 
dlfplays marks of ancient magnificence. 

Po/«£i#ioi«.— Accordmg to Dr Webfter's report, the 
oumber of fouls in 1755 was 1421. In this parifli there 
are at prefent iai8 perfons of aU ages. Of thefe 6ao are 
males, and 598 females. There are 246 fiunilies, of which 
233 belong to perfons who have been married, and 13 to 
peribns who were never married. Below the age of five^ 
there ace 136; between 5 and I3, 183; between 10 and 
30, 223*, between 20 and 30, 251 i between 30 and 40, 
132 ; between 40 and 50, 136 ; between 50 and 60, 86 i 
between 60 and 70, 53 ; between 70 and 80, 15 ; between 
80 and 9c, 3« The three viUages of the parifli are thus 
peofrfcd; In the village of Drumfturdj-moor, there are 
Z32, «flB. 70 males and 62 females; in that of Monifieth, 
I75» tnss. 84 males and 91 females; and in that of the £aft 
Ferry, 23c, vist. 114 males and 116 fbmales. Of late years 
there have been annually married 12, been bom 39, and 
died 18. Hie great inequality of deaths to births, leems 
to arife from this : Many inhabitants of this parifli early in 
life fettle in Dundee ; many go aboard merchantmen, may 
perifli by the dangers of the fea, or be imprefled into fliips 
of war, and perifli by the hands of the enemy *• 

Vol. XIII. 3 Q^ jigricuUure. 

e Tbe parifli tppetn at no fonser period to have been much more po* 
pnlotts than at picient Abottt the year 1660, the anonal aTcrage of mar- 
riages was 5 ; of births a6 ; and of deaths I4 : So that whether a calcvlatioo 
ht nade from the marriages, births, or deaths, the iocreafe in popola- 


49« StatiJHcal Account 

ifyricmktffi^^^Tht fobfitteiioe of the people is dtitAj b^ 
agriculture. Of the 3710 acres of which the pariBi nmy 
oonfiftf 140 ma J be fappoled in ptantadon, 400 ni lnrics» 
and 170 otlierwife nnarable. Of the itmainmg 3000 acresi 
the one half may be fappofed in £dloWy paftnrt, and green 
crops. Of the other half, nearly tod SMty be fappofed m 
wheat, and the reft equally divided into oats and barky. 
Here the farms are generally eztenfive. There are ten 
larms that rent between L. 99 and L. 100 ; two between 
l4. 100 and L. 300 ; one between L. 300 and L. 400 ; one 
between L. 400 and L. 500 ; and one between L. 600 and 
L. 700. Below L. 99 of rent, there is no ground poilefled 
}ij any farmer, properly fo called. The other poflTefibrs of 
land are the 46 pendiclers, who are generally tradelinen, 
and hold a few ^pres of a proprietor ; and the forty-two 
pottagers, who have each a bottife an4 im acre 6t two from 
a tenant. Here the means of improving Iftnd are embraoed| 
and their good efiefts are vifible. Sea-weed cannot be 
found in fuffident quantity on that part of the coalft which 
belongs to this parifii, to be of ole as a manure. Mad 
alfo lies at too great a diftance, as well as the dang of Dna- 
dee, much to profit the farmer. There is, however, a- 
btmdance of lime brought from the fouth of Fife, and from 
north and fbuth Sunderland, in Engttpd^ which b landed 

3 « 

^«n tnuft hftye been c«afider«ble. If • c«lc«ihition b^ itadt iroai «bc 
births, the pftrifh irill be foOiid to have ihcreafed in aumbcr 4^ which 
is precifely oue-third of its prcfent inhabitants. From the period now- 
mentioned to the prefent time, the increafe in population has been gra- 
dual. Abontthe jrear 17^, indeed, the annual average of births was 44; 
)>at that of marritges was only 9 ; and ot deaths 15. Some yean before 
ilSO, a malignant fever had raged, which font laaayto their graves. 
The extraordinary number of births in die years which imnedialely fol- 
lowed, only filled np the breaches the fever had made. About the yen 
1760, the annual average of births was only $f, tad that of deaths w|s 
l|. The marriages are omitted ia the record* 

i^ ttie villagci of Monifieth aii4 the Eaft Fextj i and «f 
vfluch a^out 6coQ bolls of Winchefier ipeafure maj be an- 
nuallj ul!ed ia tt^s parifli as a mannre. Jbe £rops in the 
lower pf^t of the parilh are very liberal^ but thole in the 
upper part are If is prod^^ve. The time of fpwing and 
reapbg in the lower part^ is roach the fame as in the eaft 
of the Carfe of Gowrie, or the centre of Strathmore ; but 
in the upper part is latter. Though a confiderable quao* 
tit; of grain be yearlj exported from the villagea of Mo* 
^ifieth and tlie £ail Ferrji jet its price is regulated bf 
the marl^t at Dundee. 

C!ar//r.-r-Befides a confiderable number of cattle fed on 
common paflure, there are between 300 and 400 fattened 
ererj iummer in grab enclofures, and about a fifth pare of 
that number fattened hj turnips in winter. A few fheep 
paftuTie part of die links. 

Witiun the laft jO years, the agriculture of the pariih 
has been much improved. It ought not to be omitted, 
that this was entirely owing to Mr Hunter, then proprie- 
tor of Grange, a gentleman whofe name deferves to be re- 
corded. Some years before 1750, he, firft of this parifli, be- 
gan to enclofe land, and between the years 1750 and 1752, 
to ufe lime as a manure. In the year 17531 he introduced 
the culture of turnips, and in the year following, that of 
potatoes. By fallow, dung and lime he prepared his grounds 
for the crop, and he fowed them at the proper feafon with 
grals-feeds. Now had his fields begun to afiume a fairer 
furface and a taker ipaould.; but ftUl their upleafing fionrm 
Bcnsttoed. The ridges were wide at one end, narrow at 
the other, and .bent in various curvatures. They were 
foon rendered regular and. flraight. His fields lay befide 
the road to the pariih-church^ and' the pariihioners, as they 
pa&d, UbM th^ bfan^.ttfld £srtiljUj wich wonder« 


49^ StatyHcal Account 

What they beheld they imitatedy and many £mb fiw widi 
fittis&Abn their own fields covered with a fimilar beautj 
and fartility. The old Scotdih pkmgha were dilmifled 
apace ; and at prefent there is not one in the parifli. The 
old Scotdih plough improved, howeveti continues in ge- 
neral ofe. A^few of Small'lB newly invented make, have 
been introduced, hot are fonnd to focoeed only in lands 
that are level and £rec^£rom inc umb rance* TThcre is but 
one thrafliing machine in the parilh, nfed on die htrgeSk 
ftrm. The other fiirmers employ men to tfarafli out their 
grain, called lot-men, who generally refide in the neigh- 
bourhood, and receive as wages the twenty-fifth boD of 
grain they thrafh out, with breakfaft, and a finall allow- 
^mce for dinner. 

None can ever hope to fee the agriculture of this pa- 
riih increafed, but by a very (mall part of the links. Thej 
muft either be aUowed to remain, as at prefent, in paftnre ; 
or be planted with trees. If they were planted, the roots 
of the trees would harden the foil, and prevent the en- 
croachment of the fea. An eztenfive clump of firs plant- 
ed in the links of the neighbouring parilh of Barrie baa 
thriven well. If fome plan of this fort be not adopted, 
the period perhaps, is not diftant, when they will all be a- 
gain completely inundated. From the links between the 
light-honfe and the village of Monifieth, (a fpace of abont 
2 miles,) within the laft 40 yean, the fea has plundered up- 
wards of jo acres. 

Fijberies. — The filheries of this parilh are iaconfideraUe. 
The (almon fifliings pay a yearly rent of no more than 
L. 130. Fifteen years ago, before any were fent firom thia 
parilh to London, they were fold in the adjacent villages, 
and in Dundee at i| d. the lb. Since that period, a pound 
•f almon has not been fold uder 4 d. At fitft fight, it 


of Manifietb. 493 

"Virould be thonght beneficial to the ialmoii fiflung* if a lae- 
thod could be invented, bj which the porpoifes, or Gacr 
J!/b as they are called, which devour fo many (almoo, 
might be deftroyed. But it is to be confidered, that the 
fear of the porpoifes forces the Cidmon nearer to land thaa 
the J would otherwiie be willing to come. If the porpoi- 
fes were defiroyed, the ialmon would be iaCer i but the 
fiflier would catch left in his net. 

About 10 years ago, the white fiihing bn this coail be* 
gan to decline. Soon after, the haddocks, which wero 
caught in the greateft abundance, totally left the cqafi. 
While they remained, they chiefly had given conftant em- 
ployment to 3 large boats belonging to this parifh, which 
earned annually, at an average, L. zoo each. The 3 boats 
are ftill retained, aikd frequent their old fiihing grounds $ 
but as they fddom catch any other kinds of fiih than fome 
eod and ling, or when any other kinds chance to b^ 
caught, as it is in fmall quantity, they afford a very lieanty 
and precarious fubfiftence. Whether the haddocks were 
baniihed by lack of proper food, or purfued by Ibme vo- 
racious enemy, it is the left important to inquire ; as they 
have now begun, in fmall quantities, to revifit our coafls. 
A few fmaU (hell fi(h might be found within the bounds 
of this pariih, if one were at pains to gather them. LoU 
iters and crabs are caught in their greateft perfeftion on 
this coaft, in the pari(hes of Panbride and St Vigeans. 

ManufoBuris.'^^ThtTt is little in this pariih which de- 
ferves the name of manu&Aure. There are only 38 wea* 
vers, who^ as they at one time weave oinaburghs, and at 
another time houiehold doth, and are fcattered over the 
pariih, the^quantity of cloth which they weave cannot ea- 
illy be afcextained. But it muft be very incoofiderable, 
as feverai of them occupy a few acres of land, which re- 

4f 4 StiUiftkal Accmmi 

^vet a portioD of ihcdrdmc. Thert ia tn oil mil) qq ^ 
Dightyt whidi annual] j cxtraSs oil from 800 bolls of lint. 
Seed. A finall qaandtj of oil 0QI7 is ofed in the neigh- 
bourhood, and is kid at 1 s. 3 d« a Scotch pint. The reft 
is font to London* A Dmall qoantitj of oil dnft aUb ia fiold 
in the neighbourhood between 6 d. and 8d« aftone A- 
Yotrdupoisy aad is n&d in Ipring^ before the rijing of the 
gnis, to increafe the milk of covs, and to affiit in fofier- 
ittg cahres. The reft made op ia cakes about t9 inches 
long, 5 broad, and li inch tkickf are put iatoj^aflu and 
fent to England, «p the river Homber in Yorkihirc, to 
fiitten cattle. But though there be little in this parift 
which delertres the name of manuiadure, yet it is well 
ftored with thofe who fumiib the oeeeiTaries and conveni- 
eacics of li£e. Befides the 58 weavers and a oil-miUerS| 
there are 3 com and 7 flax miUers» 1 fuller, 3 flax-<dreirerS| 
4 gardeners, xo tailoi% ao ftoemakers, 9 Uackfrnitfas. 8 
mafdns, 13 Wrights, a bakers, 3 bnswers of ale, 9 felleis 
of drink, and 5 fellem of finall wares. Befide the oil mill, 
Acre b on the Digbt^ a com and fulling mill, tog^her 
with a thread mill belonging to a manuMlorj in Dundee. 
The Dighty, in its progrefi through this pariih, aSbcds many 
foe &lls of water, on which machinery might be ereAed, 
and by which mann&finres might be greatly improved* 

RiMi^ i/r.— The prefent rent of the parifli may be efii- 
mated at L. 3831 : 1 : 9. In the year 1656, during the 
nfurpation of Cromwell, when the lands of the diflerent 
ooonties in Scotland were vahxed for the pnrpole of taxa- 
tion, the rent of this parifli was preciiely L 457 : ig : 9^; 
whidh is lels than an eighth part of the prefient rent *• 


* Ths jprtces of ptovillQos, of ths imi^ements of hafiyaodry, and of la- 
boar are hifh. The price of x lib. batter, xo d« ; x lib. cheefe, 3 d. ; 


^ciitr -^The duurtty which this parifli givci td itht poor^ 

is « branch of expenduure which does it honoor. There m 

eoVktSbtd in the chorch every Sabbath throughout the year at 

an aTerage 7 a. | d. eschifive of the larger fums colkded at 

tlie time of the celebration of the facrament. Thefe cok 

leAioBS, and a confidermble fum arifing from money at m* 

tierefty with the lending of a hearfe and mortclotha, and th# 

letting fome feats in die church, more than amply fupfdy 

l3ie acoeflties of the 1% poor of kte years commonly oft 

the lift, and of the two which the general dearth of laft 

year has added *• Before the year 1678, fevend fiims bad 

I lib. Mmmi, 6 d. ; t ben, f s. $4 ; down tggi, 1 d. The price oft pair 
of horfet ti L. 5a, 10 1. ; harnefs, L. 3. 3 s. ; a cart, L. zo, iot ; a ploofb. 
I., a, 1 s. ; a pair of harrows, L. 1, x s. The wagei of. a male (Arrant a- 
year, are L. 10 ; « fen^ale lenraat a-year, L. 4; a male iMper, L. x, 4 s. ; a 
froBfte leaper, I*, i ; a labourtlr a-day witboot board* < t. 3 dr The pn- 
cea of proyifiotM. implements of bnibandry. and labour, have moch increa- 
fed within the laft 40 years. At the conunencemcnt of that period, the 
price of X lib. butter was 4^ d. X lib. chcefe, zfd. ; i lib. falmon, x}d*; 
a hen, 4 d. ; a doten eggs, z d. The price of a pair of horfts wu L. zo ; 
%ame6, 5a.; cart, tos.; a plough, 9a.; a pair of harrows, «•. Tla 
wages ^f a male fenraat a-year, were L. a, 1 s ; f female-ienrant a-yett, 
L. z. 6 s. ; a male reaper tz 1. 9d. ; a female reaper, zo s.; a labourer 
»4ay without board, 6 d. 

9 In die year isiS, thenfiial collcAwnonMiibatbs wu .,4 d. ; and oa 
June 19. the ftflie year^ the Amd of the poor aawnated to no OMne diaa 
6 * d. Thefe days afforded imall pravifion lor the prefent exigence tff 
(he poor, and hid vp little in ftore agatnft flie feafon of ancoramon need. 
The cotttgeis gave to the maften of whom they held their little boreb. 
an the children they needed as fervants. The fcft'fomid it often vain ta 
apply to a trade, for almoft every ama fraa his own tradefiaan. Away* 
therefore, they were lent by the cravings of hunger, to beg that braafl 
wbidi diey could not cam, and the poor preyed oa the poor. Before 
fist, the times feem to have grown better; for die ufual colIedUon oa 
BtUbnAm thtt year was 4Vt^* » ^"^ ^ Sriiballi November 13, the pa- 
I «bk tacoUeai'. »! S <* ^^ foliportor^Mrbnilbrea ia 


496 StatyKcat Accmait 

teen bequeatiied to die kirk-feffioo for die bcacfil of die 
poor } tsid die nfiial colleftioiii on die Sabbadis had rifiea 
to 8 d. tn increale of prediidy ii dmcs in die fpnoe of a 
eentarj*; from diat to the pielent yev 17939 the weeklj 
eoUeftion hni increafed neailj ti tunes. The ckaiitj 
whidi the pariih thos gives to die poor, is no dooht owing 
in a great meafore to its increafed opulence* It will not 
be fuppoledy however repugnant to their UbenJitjt dmt in 
common with many other pariihesi diejr enjoj that vSdbl 
inftniflion which a diurch and two fchools may be egpcfte d 
to commuiicate* 

Churcbf Siipiiuk Hiriicrs^ istc^^Thic church, which is 
fituated at the village of Monifieth, is an anaent building; 
but the period of its conftrufiion is unknown. It muft have 
been bmlt before the ssra of the Reformation, as 00 the £• 
end of it is a quire, in which mals, in the days of Popcrj, 
was wont to be celebrated *• The church-living, indnding 

te prUbB of Dundee, who bad beco taken captiTC by the Enalifii imj 
nnder Qenefal Monk, as they paflcd thioafb this pariOi to the ttge U 
ibat city, and which fnm Mr John Barclay, the miniftcrt and another 
gentlemm, were commiffioned to carry. 

a Tradition lelatei, thtt Aere were once at the fiune ^me foar ch^iels 
in the pariih ; one at the £aft Ferry^ where there is ftill a burying-place ; 
nfecond on the banks of the Dighty, at the Mi In of Balmoflie, the foonda- 
tioa>ftones of which were dag np by the pivfent fiumer ; a third 00 diat 
i^ in the land EAiebealin, which it ftUl caUed Chapel Dokie; and the 
Imrth at Monifieth. The chqwr at Monifieth, it it Aid, being fomnd 
liWy to endure the longeft. was niade» as it continues at ptdent, the 
pariih cbuKh, and the reft were fliut, and fuHered to decay ; bat when 
thb happened, tradition it altogether filent. Before the ReformatioQ, 
Monifieth wu annexed to the dlocefe of St Andiew't. In istfo, when 
Tkeibyterianifia wa« firft eftablilhed in Scotland, tU fiipcrintnadttt wat 
appointed to refidc in Brechin. After t6o6, it belonged t» tiw ftcftytcry 
af Dundee; and Synod of Angus and Meaqu. ' 

iff Monifietb. , 497 

56 bolb of meal, 56 bolb of baflej, 8 bolb of wheat, 
Ia. 45 : 6 : 8» a manle, ganlen, aad oflkes» 4 acres of glebe, 
aAd a right of paftarage, may be eflimated at L. 147 a-year* 
nriie Hon. Mr Maule of Paamure is patron. Sir Alexan- 
der Ramby of Balmain, Baronet, is the principal heritor. 
Sefides thefe two gentlemen, there '«^re ieven others who 
are heritors None of the heritors ar^ refident. 

Sebaob^^-0( the two fchools, one is parochial. Its fiJary 

of L. II : 1 : 2,V* die fchool-houfe and garden, the emolu*- 

ments arifing from proclanAations and baptifms, L. a for the 

office of derk tothekirk*feffion, and the fees, for teaching 

50 ichohin, may yearly amount to L.40. Here was Mr 

William Craighead, for feveral years fichoolmafter, a man 

whofe treatife on arithmetic is not wholly unknown to the 

lorers of that Ibience, and who died in 1763. The other 

ichool was founded by the genero&y of Sir Alexander 

Ramfay in 1782, for the. benefit of the upper part of the 

parifli. He has endowed it with a acres of land, and a gar- 

den rent free, befides an annuity of a bolls of meal ; 20 a. 

are given by the kirk-feflion to the teacher, and thele emo- 

JumentSf with the fees for 20 fcholars, may be worth L. 15 


CbaraBiT of ibe People^ &c^-^As their fituation is fo la- 
lubrious, that multitudes refort every fummer to the vil- 
lages of the Eaft aad Weft Ferry for the benefit of fea- 
bathing ; as the employments of few are ledentary ; as the 
ground is no where lAarfliy ; as the acceis to coals is eafy ; 
they are generally healthy. But it is of more importance 
to charaAerize the minds than the bodies of a people ; it is 
of more imp<fftance to be told, that within the laft 80 or 
90 years, this parifli has increaCed as much in religion and 
Vol. XIII. 3 R morals, 

49S St€iifiieaf Aecomi 

moraky at in the tits of life. The kirk-Aflkm rtgiftrr ia« 
SotvM ISA, that from 1676 to «7io, a period of 34 yem, 
during the mintftrj of Mr John Dempfter, the laft Epilbo- 
pal clergjnan at Monifieth, and ftom whom the preient 
Mr Dempfter of Duimichen, fo well kaown for his pa« 
triotiftn is defcended, the ftrideft charcb difinpliac waa ob* 
ferved. From among the numerous proprietors, who then 
fliared the land« of the pariA, but whofe race have all long 
lihcelcftthepoffeflionsof their Cithers, and ace gone^he iUeft- 
ed feven elders to watch over the moiab rf. the people, and 
the fame number of deacons from amofig cha tenastrjr, to 
watch over the ftate of the poor. Great was then the noed for 
infpefting parochial condnd. Little regard was paid to the 
Sabbaths. On thefe dajs fome were occafionally conviAed 
of having fifiied with the rod or the net. Soarcdy was there 
a Sabbaih on which fome delinquent was not juftlj and pu- 
blic! j reproved ; and it was feen neeeffary, after public 
worfhip was fini(hed, to fend a committee of the kitk* 
feilion to periuftrate the tons of the parifli. Bj degree^ 
decency and devotion began to reign. The pious exhorta- 
tions and worthj example of Mr Dempfter and his kirk- 
feflion were long remembered and imitated, after death 
had ftilled their voices, and withdrawn their prefence. At 
this day the parilhioners attend the church with the utmoft 
regularity and gravenefs of deportment \ and they are ex- 
tremely fteady in their religious principles. About two 
yrars ago, the fefts called Burgher and Antibutgher built 
each a conventicle in this vicinity ; bu^ they are thinly at- 
trended, and^iave not been able to gain over from this parifli 
more profelytes than 20, of whom 13 are Burgbeis, and 5 
Antiburghers. There are only two other frdaries in the pa- 
rifii, the one an Intiependent, and the other a Methodift. But 
the inhabitants of this parifli are not only regdar and decent 


in their attendance on church, (leady in their religions princi* 
pies, but diftinguiflied for their induftrj and fobrietj. Sue- 
cefsfiil diligence has given to fcveral the bleffings of mode* 
rate wealth ; and laborious exertion has been able to banifli 
from the dwellings of all, (avc the 14 poor on the fund, the 
^retche^nefs of abjcft poverty. Since the beginning of 
the prefent ceotuiy^.nme in. this parifli has deprived him** 
felf of life, been deprived of it by the law, or been doomed 
to exile. 


509 SiaiiJHeat Aetomti 



(CouHTT or PfHTH, Stkod OF Perth and Stiri.ikGp 


By tbi Rev. Mr David Bakkirmak. 

Namif ExietUf SiiuaiioHt Surface^ Stnl^ lie. 

np H £ S £ two pBixflies were united above xoo yeais 
-* Rgo, and take their names from the two finints to 
whom. they were dedicated. Camims in the Gaelic Ian- 
guage, fignifies a low plain, and ih defcriptive of the fitna- 
don of the old pariih church of Cambuimichael, as it lies 
in a plain on the banks of the Taj. The mins of the 
church of Cambufmichael ftill remain^ but the name of 
that pariih is loft in that of St Martin's, which now forms 
the defignation of both pariihes. It extends from the banks 
of the Taj/ about 4 miles to the £aft, forming an oblong 
fquare, fcarcel j a mile in breadth. It is fituated about 5 
miles N. from the town of Penh, and 7 W. from Cupar 
of Angus. This pariih lies confidexablj elevated above 
the Taj; and though the grounds are not hillj, they are 


of St Manilas. 501 

prettjr much diTcrfified bj afcents and declivities, covered 
in man J pboes by plantations of Scotch firs, befides feveral 
coppice woods on the banks of the Taj. The foil in ge- 
neral is a black mould with a till bottom, ieems originall j 
to have been taken from moor, but is now moftly all cul- 
tivated and improved. ' The groonds near the banks of the 
river are better, and have a gravellj bottom. The climate 
is good, and the air falnbrions. The inhlibitants in general 
live to an advanced old 'age. Coninmptians< and rheoma- 
tiCais, feem to be the mod prevalent difeafes of the country 
people, and arife probably frtnn the dampne£ of their hoofes, 
and the fcarcity of fnel, having little clfe but coals, which 
they muft bring from Perth. 

RtverSf HiUs^ MinenJs.-^ThcTe are feveral rivulets inthe 
pariih, which ar6 feryiceabk for com and lint milb, but no 
livers of any importance, except the Tay whidi bounds it 
on the Weft, and is valuabk for its falmon-fiflungs. There 
are no public ferries on the river in this pariih. There are 
no bilk of any note here ; nor are there any minerab worth 
mentioning, except limeftone and rock marl, near die banks 
of the Tay. Freeftone quarries sic found almoft every 
where through the parifh. 

A/Ktiqwiutj'^Thtltt are plain vefiiges of a Roman road 
leading from Bertha through a part of this parifli, and run- 
ning eaftward paft Berry hiUs, Dritchmuir, and Byres,, to- 
wards the pariih of Cai;gill. Several Druidical temples 
are obfenrable, but no tumuli. 

Po^/dfiVn.— According to Dr Webfter's report, * the 
number of fouls in 1755 was T083 ; of whMn 4 were Pa- 
pifts. About 30 years ago there were 800 examinable per- 
ions above 10 years of age in this parifli, and the popula- 

thm has not mcreafed £iioe tbtt ^eddd, &Nhlg to the da 
molitioh t£ (ennuA TiHagts udi i ipi e fl by m^iy little pcadi 
clers^ "Hio had tfi^r laxUb hn-rig', which we now let ti 
fewcf fwnBitSy in unrger umsy wad. which umb tenoed nmcti 
if hoc to the increife of the popdatkd* ccrtaiid j Co tbi 
imi>roremettt of die o c< mUy> There we hi the pnriih 
aboot aoo weavcn^ li carpenteisi 3 finithfi te mefena^ lal 
taihmt 6 flioemtkcrBi A good riamy fcniplojed about die f 
00m ahd lint niHa^ «6d therditaflilidcr ofcciified in the 
^nqjofes of Agricdbue. The Ayerage member £ar 4 years 
^recedtnj; thi^ datev of bapdftns is ^ ind of nteriif 
fer the fane period is ko. ' No r^pM)eri>f deatb is'ktpt, 

Heritors^ Rent^ Wc . — ^Thcrc are 9 hexitofs, of whom onl j 

jarei'iefideiititttheparifli. The Vakdd rent b L. 3^^, 1 7& 
Scbtdk. The tad rent a&otft 30 jeftrs ago was Lb 10514, 
^4 s. 4 d. Scots^ hoc is now ai le^ tripfed, b^ tlie great 
mkproTemetib mad^ upon hb eflate bj Mr Maicdrtoald of 
St Martinet ^« prihcspal hecitoft who b employed in build- 
ing 4 handfeme manfionJioaie- for his fiunfly* The rents 
«^ paid very pimdliaHy. The people arein a thriving con- 
dition, dad in genend very well lodged. 

CharaBer of tbi People. — ^They are generally decent, m- 
dttffaioib) and humane, regular in thetf attetadan<)e on ordi- 
nances df xeligiony and much mere froWy in their dreis, 
and dcp^nfive in tbeir Kving^ than tii^y w^re tl yeai% ago. 
There aie fisw ot no diflenttins of atiy dtiitnniBimon anang 
thcm« and theie only of the more igborant add iii£erior 
dafTcs. Upon the whole, they feem well contented with 

' their diflferent fitnations, and enjoy in a rcafanablr degree 

',|be cooufbrts and adviratages of fociety. 


&at0 of iii Poar^F^There ase at prdent 8 qq ibe poook 
lift, befides feraxal odiers that get qccafioaal chatitj. The j 
arc fiippoitrd by the daily cplIefiioDs^ mqitclodi and mar- 
riage moii^y by the uuercft of a Aock of I...200, and byt 
the rent ef tfajs £ea$s in die commiinion-tBbleSy belonging ta 
the kiark-fiiffion. The fuadr aiir managed by the heritan 
smd kitk-irfBon, ^d 4here has beei^ no oocalion £pr any a£* 
ieftaoenl fince the year iffta. 

Clnacci, .Si^tud^ lUc-^Hht chnoA of JSt Maitw'a 19 die 
only place of pohUc vovihip in the paiiih. }|t W99 x^W 
bnik in 1776, and doBl creitit to die hrriton in being ne«tr 
ly fifitod up Soi die yocommodarioo of the pariftiioner^. 
The fiipend is 1000 pounds Scots, of wbicb tbere are 44 
bc^ of yiOuai yalned at 6 pounds thp boB, v^th ^ gldieSf 
one at S^ Martin's of about 7 acres* die odier 9t C^mbufr 
siicfaael of about 4 acres. The manfe at St Martin's 19^91 
buik in die year 1794, and b a large comnyidipus \iaoit* 
The prefent incumbent vas.pretented by thtC iCrpi^. I^o^ 
Stormoot is dipugfat to have die Vice patronage. 

Scbaol,rrThtpt is one parqelu^ i^oql in d^ e pariflu Tic 
(choolmafter has j 00 pounds Scotch of falary, widi a free 
hoofe* fchool-hottfe and garden. The fchopl is well attend- 
ed. Thfcre aie aljb twp private fchools* in the diftant p?its 
of the paii^u The children are taught to f ead, ^te, and 
cypher. Soo^of thjem leaxn die elements of die Latin Ian- 
goage^ ^d all of them are taught the fiijlj principles of re- 
ligion. IT^e fchoolroaflcT is alio i^e^iof -clerk^ ydtb a toaU 

Agri^vlUfn^ yr.^-Thc pariih produpes wheat; barley, 

eats, and peafe \ and flax is cultivated in fuch coniiderable 

gu^dty, that no family, and fcarce any fervant, wants a 

I (hare 

504 StatyKcdt Accmmt 

ifaaxe of that nfefol oommodky. Agricultilre b mocli im- 
proved of late jears he6tf and gnds {beds, tnnups, and po- 
tatoes axe generally cuItiTated by the farmen. lime broogbt 
from Perth is the mannxe made ii£e of. Thene are a go-td 
many endofiires in the parifli. GaxtB, ^oo^iSy md other 
hbonring utenfib, are made a&er the moft approved mo- 
dels. The labour is perfbnned entirely by hmr&s, and 
Sew cattle of any kind are reaied, eacoeptittg ibme cows. 
Oiir bed arable grounds rent at about 25 s. the acre, inferior 
or outfield at 10 8. We have (bme Sums rented at L. ico, 
but the general average rent is frem L. 10 to L. 30. The 
number of farms is diminifliing^ as die pioprietois are find- 
ing their advantage in abolifliing pendicles, and oonver* 
ting them into larger fieurms. The pariih not only fiipj^ks 
itfelf i»ith provificos, but difpofes of a confiderable quan- 
tity of grain, particularly barley, to the breweries and dif- 
tilleries about Perth. About ao yeara ago there was fcarccly 
any wheat, now we have about 40 or 50 acres yearly. 
Wheat is generally fown in September, and reaped in Sep- 
tember following. Oats are fown in March, and reaped b 
September. Barley is fown in May, and reaped in the end 
of Auguft. Flax is fown in May, and reaped in ABgnfi. 

Roads. — The turnpike road from Perth to Cupar of 
Angus, paifes through the fouth fide of this pariih ; and 
there is another turnpike road in contemplation firom Perdi 
to Blairgowrie, which is to pals through the weft end of 
the parifli. Turnpike roads are now, contrary to former 
prejudice, looked on by the country people, as a very great 
advantage to trade and agriculture. The ftatute lalxmr k 
commuted, and is now employed on the crois roads, to much 
^eater advauu^e than when it wa, exafled m kind. 


trke vf Labour ^''^K daj-labourer has generallj is. a- 
day, without vifiuals» but in harveft he has at lead is. 
^mth vidoals. Mafons earn from is. 8 d. to a s. a-day ; 
carpenters is.6d; tailors is; weavers firom is. 6d. to 
a 3. . A labouring man-fervant, qualified to hold the plough, 
gets from L.9 to L. la a-jear, befides his viduals. Fe- 
male fervants from L. 3 to L. 4. 

ManufaBureU'-'^T^t, great manufafture of this parilh is 
flax, which in railing, fpinning, weaving, and bleaching it, 
occnpies the labour of a confiderabk number of the inha^ 

Advantages and Dtfadvantages^^^ts vicinitj to Perth, 
feems to be the principal advantage which, this parilh en- 
joys; and want of fuel the greateft diladvantage under 
which it labours. 

The following account of the parifh of St Martin*s, drawn up in 
171 1« was fent to Sir John Sinclair, by Dr William Wkiqht of 
Regiiter Stre^. Though it does not contain any infbrffiation of nmck' 
imporunce, yet it is thought proper to preferve it in this pablicatbn, as 
afpecittuu of oite ef the moft ancient parochial accoimtf mow extakt. 

The Paroch of Saint Martinet ties in the Shire and Prrfbytrie of Perth* 

There are two united paroches, Camplmicbael in the Dlocefs of St 
Andrrw'i. a church belonging to the Abbacy of Scone, where there it 
another little chappie befide the church in the lame church-yeard^ both 
now ruinous. And the church of St Marlines, where the cure is only 
now fenred, lying within the Diocefi of Dunkelden, being a oienfal 
church of the Abbey of Haly-rood-houfe. The King is patron of .Campf- 
michael paroch, and the Vifcount of Stormonth is titular of the tithea 
^erc The biihop of Edinburgh is titular of the tithes of St Martines, and 
patron of that church* The itipend amounts to four chalden of viiflual, 
two part oieal, and third part bear* with four hundred pounds Scots, in 
money. And for the fmaU viccarage tithes, which are valued, together 
with fifty oicrks for the conimunion-elementSy with two glecbs and a 


Vol. XIII. 3 S 

5o6 StatiJUeaJ Acefnui 

The viniftert facceffivcl^ flnce the RefbrmtttoD virere firi, 
StticluB, 1 fim of the Ltird of ThonicoiUi^i ia tkt Mtttst, d^ati «f dac 
tfime, who bcldrt had been a monk in the Ahbiqr of Soone. tnd ifter 
becanie minifter of the fftids puochct, and preached /cr wVf/ id the fiuAs 
churches, and Jied miDtfter there. 

To him fucceeded Mr John Strackan his (osl, who wit fiunoos fer \m 
IkiU in phyiick, and who died minifter tfacie. 

After him fitcceeded Mr Thomas Strachan his IbSt who after hit retam 
from his travels, when he had waited npon the Earl of Kinnowet, his 
Ibn as his goTemonr for the ({Mice of three yeaits, became ooojmift witk 
hii father, and died minifter tliere, in the year 1671. 

After htm fucceeded Mr Patrick Strachan pct^felTor of PliilofQfihy» ftft 
in tiie old town College of Aberdeen, and afterwards In the old CoUefn 
of St Andrew's, a man very famoui for his learning ; he died there asins- 
fler alfo. Afterwards fucceeded Mr James Inglis* who after he had 
ferved fomettme there, was depofed by the bi(hop of Dnafcelden for crn>- 
ncous doclrine, and immoralities in his life. To him fitcceeded Mr 
Thomas Strachan, fon to the above-named Mr Thomas Strachan, wfanted 
been minifter there, where he continued till the Rcvolntioo, and was 
deprived by the Scots council, in the year 1688, when the f4Mfi:opal 
ahurch was overturned and deftroyed. After this* die fbrefaid BCr Jaatics 
IngliSf notwitbftanding of his depofition, without any call, turned F^elbyta- 
fSan, and took pofleffion of the fiud church, from which he was afterward 
tranfported to Burnt Ifland in Fife, and in a litle depofed by the Prdbyte- 
rians (hemiclves. And then to him fucceeded Mr George Jamifon, who 
%vas depofed for adultery, by the Synod of Stirling, in the year 17 10. 

There are no mortificatioiu in the faids paroches, and the fchoolmafter 
hu only one hundred merks by a voUntary condataitioo of the hcreinrs 
fettled on him. 

The moft coofiderable hereton, are, the Tiicovnt of Stormontli. Sir 
Lawrence Mercer of Ady, Mr John Balnaves of Friartown, Mr Jnmcs 
Murray of Inchmarray, John Mttchel of Byres, who have all good 
mannor hoUfes, efpecially Ady, Inchmurray, and Byres, who hate I 
likeways their burial places in the faid two churches. 

The houfe of Inchmurry, formerly called Rirkland, was boiftof oM by 
the Abbot of Halyroodhoufe for his accommodation when he came to that j 
countrie, and was formerly the mtaifter's manfs, till afterwards, that I 
hoofe and a gteeb he had adjacent thereto, were exchanged for a gleeb and 
a piece of ground to build a manfs upon, by an excambion made betwixt 
James Hay of Kirklattd, and Mr John Strachatt| formerly mentioQcd, q»» 
4i|tef thert^. 

1^ laUarHtj. 597 



(CouNTT OF Inverness, Stnos of Murray, Presbt** 
TERY of Inverness.) 

Bj^ tie Rev. Mr J6hn Fraser. 

Namtf Situaiiottf Extent, Soil, &c« 

KILTARLITY confifts of two united pariflics. Con- 
vent or Conveth and Kiltarlity ; but how early thefe 
^riih,es have been united, is not known. Convent or 
Conveth is a vicarage, depending on the priory of Beauly. 
Conveth, (in Gaelic Conn-Cheatbacb^ a ravenous animal), 
has, according to tradition, received its name from fome 
extraordinary reptile or ferpent, which infefted this diHrxStf 
snd had proved fatal to fome of the inhabitants, fiut from 
Jbme old records in this country, it appears, that there was 
originally a convent in this parifti, or fmall glen ; and there- 
fore it b much more probable that it got the name of Glen« 
convent, or pariih of Convent, from this circumfianoe. 
RUtarlity is a parfonage dedicated to St Thalargns. AT//, 
in Latin Cetla, originally meant the etU or place approprii- 


568 Statiflical AcctmiU 

ated to the worihip of a faint. Bat as there was always a 
fmall portion of ground around fuch a place of worihip^ 
which was confidered a» confecrated^ and ufcd fior barying 
thofe who died in the peace of the church, the word kit 
or cilk came in proceis of time to figniij a burial-phce, 
which is now the common meaning of the word in the Gsie- 
lic language *. 

From the various windings of the road paffing through 
Kiltarlitji this parifh, in the line of the road, b upwards 
of 40 miles long ; but in a ftraight line, it is at leaft 30 mea- 
fured miles from the N. £. to the N. W. At an average, 
it is fuppofed to be at lead 6 miles broad : thus cootaining 
x8o fquare miles, or 91,638 Scotch acres. Of this eztmty 
there maj probably be a 30th part arable, or 30547 acres, 
all under com and potatoes, excepting a few acres under tur- 
nip and fown grals. The fame number of acres, or rather 
more, may be under meadow-grais. The remainder is un- 
der wood and heath. The church and manfe are fitvated 
within three meafured miles of the eaft end of the parifli. 
£a(lward of the church, the north fide of the parilh is pret- 
ty level ; but the fouth fide is high ground, mollly covered 
with wood and heath, excepting a fmall piece of culti- 
vated ground, called Clunes, fignifying, in Gaelic, tiie 
gradual declivity of a hill, and poflefied at prefent by 
about 12 finall tenants. Clunes is near the very height 
of the ground, with a fouth expofure. To die weft 
of the manfe, the pariih is interfered by 4 fmall boms, 
which run from the S. S. W. and W. fo that this 
part of the parifii is divided into 4 different ridges v 


^ I ftippofe Cille to be derived from the Latin, Cella, after the introdQc- 
tion of Chriflianity into this country, and that the Latin term Gella is de- 
rived from the Gaelic Word Cuile, figniiying a corae^ or place of FCtise* 

of KiUarltty. 509 

tbree of tliem 1 jiag bctwee u thefe bnros, and the fourth 

between one of thefe rivulets and the river Beaulj, which 

booodt the parifli bete on the N« W. Thefe ridges gradu- 

vSkj aibend for near two miles ^ and near Uie verj fum* 

mit of the whole four, there is at prefent fome cultivated 

poDiHl** Of the fore&id bums, that of Belladrum liea 

fiurtheft to the fouth ; and on this bum» about a meafured 

mik due fouth of the chiuxh, b fitnated the fmajl beautiful 

glen, called Glen-conventy or pariih of Convent or Con- 

vfeth. A gentle declivit j on the north fide of this glen is 

covered with bixdiy alder, hazel, and fome planted firs. 

Small fpots of cultivated ground are interfperfed through 

the birch wood, which forms a beautiful landlcape. In this 

glen is fome excellent pafhure /or cattle. The lower part 

€>f this narrow flrath is a good rich deep Ibii; what lies 

higher is a light thin iharp foil; and in favourable feafons 

produces very good crops of Scotch bear and oats. To the 

faoth of this glen lies the place of Cuddieralh, which b 

the tdgheft ground in culture in all thb country ; fouth-eaft 

of the iame glen lies Caplach, fignifjing in Gaelic a mofs, 

covered with bru£bwood. In thb place, which b detached 

from the reft of the pariih, there b a confiderable number 

of families ; and as it b at the diftancd of about 3 miles of 

very bad road,, firom the parochial fchool, it feems to be a 

very proper flation for a fociety*fchool. There b a davodi 


* But thefie ridges fecm to hive been wholly cultivated in fome fbnner 
period, though now covered with fliort heath, and very barren ; for here 
on^ fees many hundred heaps or finall cams of ftonet, t*^^^^^ irregularly 
•ver the whole groand. Thefe are unqueftionably the ftones which our 
forefsthert took oat of thefe barreo moon in cultivating thera. When the 
neighbouriug low grounds were wholly covered with wood, and infcfted 
by the wolf, and Britiih tiger, or wild cat, our progenitors lived by 
hunting, and by cultivating fmall portions of the higher groundi. The 
prefent inhabitants, of the higher parts of this parifli, throw the ftohct 
they take out of their fields in irregular heaps over them, in the "fcry 
fiui» form with thofe dcfcribcd ia theie barren moors. 

5 Id Statj/Hcal Accot^t 

tfflaod lNlongiag.lo dds pidOiy .abcnr 7 mia£ulai nilct C0 
the W. of the charch, on die N £de of the . fiver Bceii- 
I7, called the Da^och of Eiddeib, when theekiif qf Ar 
ChiflioliMhasUsleM. TUsIkurochaloMift iateifia^b t|ie 
neif hbooring porifli of Kihnorack. The £unD xonod the 
Chifliolm's feet lies-well, and is iappo(ed to be one of Ibe 
XDoft fertile fpots in the parifli. £tchlais» in Gaelic Zaar- 
ghlaby the name of the Chiflioha'aieaty fignifieaa piece of 
ground, forming the fegmeot of a ciidev iamted hj the 
river Gkb. Above the phoa of Erchlefi, the fijrer Fascir, 
combg from the N. W. fidb into the river C9a6» which 
rons from the & W. The land lying on iioth fides of the xi- 
▼er Glafr forms Stradh-ghfr, or the Chifliohn's lands. The 
footh fide of (aid river only^beloogs to 4his parifli. In this 
Strath there is npt modi com railed \ bat 'there is a great 
deal of good pafture for black cattle, ihcep, and goatL 
What lies of the pariih to the fiMith of Strnf^-giafr, ii veiy 
high ground, alloovered with heath, and.onIj fit for pafln- 
rtng flieep and goats. 

C£sBa^.-«^The climate is reckoned veiy frdnbrioos. 
There is much leis rain in the lower end of this pariih than 
in Strath-glals : For on the eaft end of the pariih the Strttdi 
on both fides of the Beanly is about 3 or 4 oiiks broad ; fo 
that this part of the country lies at &une.difianoe frqpn the 
neighbouring high niountains. Thuar the clouds that break on 
the Strath-glafr mountains, and fall down in heavy (howen 
in this narrow valley, are often fpent before they come to 
the lower end of the pariib. But the inhabitants of Strath- 
glals feem to be fully as healthy as any people in the ps« 
. rilh*. 

* The moft prevalent di(e«ies are infitounatoiy £<f;fen, covgl^s, aflbmtii 
4|ientcri«^ and xheuastifmi, owiof chiefly tt> cold. Tkm have been 


^KiUarHtj^ 511 

/HKr, R6eti, KM^, UeBL-^Bf tu thtf gfi^ateft part of 
Ais pittifi cofllfiffi 0( ihototaitts And ntggsid rocks. Bat 
dttr ifldMftalifr trcf liM (b U^h >b Ib lb« itdghtotiriiig pg^ 
tijfrof KQntoraci:. TKe ^tteftA'titfrt of them aibrd piretty 
goba jHiffbre for fli^ Md g|MtiK *1PHe prittdpal roblu Are 
thdft of MaTiie/ abbilfc 5 #t^ittta itiiles Weftward of tbe 
chdfch, by tht S. fide of titc HVef B^uly. H^re are tbree 
fiintier ^^illa^, eonfiftiojr 61 i few heufas^ otited Eafl^ 
W-eif 9 atfd Mid Shifne *• "^e principal river is that of 
BeAHl^, abdaiiditt^ i^hh fidhidh. and diftreiit kindi 6£ 
tfdUt. The fiHiing of this riief h fet tdf a CcttHpany in 
Perth at L. 6li Sterling a-jrear. T&e flAttKtti fetch on tkA 
f{k>t 3 d. the 16. ; fdme years ago they fold fer 1 d. They 
are in feafdn Ii^tti Febrdary till tht end ^f Attgnil* Thd 
ft^nly i^ reckoned one of fhe beft angling rivers in the 
north, or perhaps hi Scodand. Sottie ^Atl^ititen in tfeis neigh- 
bonihnod have been known to fifli with tbe Irod on this 
riveir from la to x8 fahnon ii^ Ihe coiufe of 5 o)r 6 hourB. 
Abont 2 meafhitd miles N. W. rf the ehntth^ there is a 
confidetable feS on the ^aiily, called the Red tinn. Ii) 
thb pool below this fall, at feme feafons of the year, many 
hundred fidmon are lieen conftantly attempting to get up* 
the fell i and when the fifli are in full vigour, diey leap an 


fevenA inftsiicfli of people wlio died of bflioot coaiptouitt» jrandict, 
and dropfy, for fome yeu$ paft. I judgt this to be owing in a gttft mc*. 
furc to the quantity of fpiriu drunk by the common people of this |ia- 
ri/h, in their diftiUeriei and dmrn^heufet . 

• BSayiMk in CtoUc, fifniSes a mioe, or flnae metiUic nie fennerly did 
covered In die rocks of Mayne. If fo, this difcoveiy has beea left, as no 
mine df any kind has been tend or wtonghfc here in the nemorj of man ; 
^wever, by a proper (careh, thb mine might ftill be difoovtred, aad per. 
Iiapl prove a taluiMi aeqnifition to the piopirieior. 

512 StfUiftUal ^c€mau 

stnazing diftince *« .Again* in attoonptii^ to get up the 
bXLf fbme of the fifh are driven bade by the flren^ of 
the cunent, and thus £aU partly in the pool below, and paxdj 
on the rock, which 13 almoft level with the water on both 
fides of the pool. The cpiintrjr people fonnerly ufad to 
place fome branches of trees on this .rock, along die edge 
of the water, to prevent the SQi which fell on the rock 
from getting again into thewater, and by this fimple coo* 
trivance frpqiieQtly caught from 8 tq i^ fiib in a night f. 
A very fmall proportion of the fifh of this river is fold in 
the comitry. , In fummer and autiimn, the Beauly and 
Gla&9 by overflowing their banks^ do much damage to the 
natural hay and corn growing by the fides of thefe rivers* 
Near Erchlefr, the Chifliolm's feat» the liver Farrar nm- 
ning from the N. W* faUs into the Gkis, and the& two 
ftreams united form the Beauly. Five or fix miles above 
£rchle£if the river Cannich coming alfo from the N. W. 
falls into the Glais ; and iome miles above this^ the water 
of Deathflc, running from the S. W* joins the £une river. 
On the Cannich and Glals, large logs of timber are float- 


* On this pool I liave feen forae of the neighbouring inhabitants fi(h, by 
Handing oil the rock above it, with a long pole. On one end* of this pole 
'are fitcd three large hooks joined together, and tnmed back to bark. The 
pcrfon who fiflies with the pole, dips it in the pool, and after waiting for 
about half a minute, draws it up with a jerk, arid generally hooks a fifli by 
fome part of his body. 

f 1 am alfo informed, that the late Lord Lovat, by way 'of amufiog 
himfelf on fome occafions, cauCed a fmall boiler full of water to be pkoed 
ever a fire Ota this rock, and that fome of the fifh, in attempting to gtt up 
the fall, being driren back by the currant, feU often into the fai4 boUcr. 
A fiih caught and boiled in this manner was Ibmctimes fcnred up to din- 
ner ; fp that his Lordihip often furprind ftrangen by telling them, that 
the fiih now before them had.leaped out of the Beaoly into the very pot 
in which it was boiled; and bringing them fometimes to the fpot, whit 
hcg&ve out wu confirmed by ocular demonftration. 


of Kiltarlity. 513 

ed from the Chiiholm's woods. All thefe rivers abound 
ivith trou^and fotne falmon. The falmon are kept from 
getting op this length bj the cruives on the Beauly, till 
the ^d of Auguit, when the filhing ftops, and the cniives 
are opened. Then thoufands of them get np to thefe ri- 
vers to fpawn, and not a few of them are at that time 
killed by the Strath-glafs people, by fiihing on the faid 
rivers with fpears and torches in the night time .<^ Among 
the hills that rim along the S. fide of the pariih, which, for 
25 miles in length, occupy more than ^ of the breath, there 
are feveral molTes, fome of them of confiderable extent, 
and about 9 or 10 fmall lakes of freih water, fituated in 
deep hollow glens between thefe hiUs. Eight of (aid lochs 
abound with different kinds of trout. The largeft of thefe 
is loch Bruiach, with a fmall ifland in the middle of it^ 
which lies about 3 meafured miles S. W. of the church. 
It is about a ihile and a half long, and near a mile broad. 
Four different kinds of black trout are found in it. It alfo 
abounds with a great number of the fineft char found in 
any loch in Scotland. This fifli is about the fize of a her- 
ring, and called, in Gaelic, " tarr-dhiargan/' or the '* filh 
^ with the red belly." Loch Neattie lies within leis than 
a mile N. W. of the former, and is about a meafured mile 
long. In this loch is found a very black trout, from xo 
inches to a foot long ; it alfo abounds with very large 
pike. Loch Gorm lies It miles S. W. of Loch Bruiach ; 
it is only about a mile in circ|imference, but the beft fifhing 
loch in the parifli. Tt is replenUhed with a very fine white 
trout, about xo inches long, but very thick in proportion, 
and highly delicious. 

Wood. — There are upwards of 1200 acres under planted 
fir in this pariih ; four times as much, or 4800 acres under 
natural wood, as fir, oak, birch, alder, haxel, &c. Major 

VoL.XIIL T Frafcr 

^14 StatiJHcal Jccount 

FnSer of BeUadmm, ooe of the heriton, has been phmtiag 
ibr upwards of 30 years paft. He has (bcce&fiiny iatio- 
doced moft of the difiiBrcat trees planted for uie or oma* 
meat in Grreat Britam. AH his plantations are in a very 
thriving date, fome of them of a confideraUe fize, and fit 
for ii&« He was the very firft perfon who introdnoed die 
larix into this North eountry. Many of his larches near 
his houie are of a great fixe. This is found to be a very 
hardy tree^ having this fingular advantage, that it ieenis to 
advance fiiAer than any other that has as yet been introdnr 
ced into this country, and thrives almoft in any foil, or in 
any fitaation, and its wood is fuppofed to be equally valnabk 
with moft other fpecies of the pine for flooring, and fome 
other uies. 

Birdst BeaJii.^^Vf€ have all the land birds that are ia 
the neighbouring pariib of Kirkhill, and which have been 
formerly defcribed, only this parifli abounds much moie 
with moor fowl and black game than IPrkhilL We have 
alfe fome ptarmagans, though not in fnch numbers as they 
are to be found on the tops, of the high moontains in the 
neighbouring parifh of Kilmoracltu In die higher parts of 
this parifli a great number of ravens neftle among the rodcs. 
The large blue hawk, about the fize of a common hen, 
nettles in the rocks of Mayne. This b one of the moft raven- 
ous^birds in this country : though not fo ftrong as the eagle, 
it is much more fierce and agile } and when the eagle and 
this bird fight, the former is commonly worfted. We have 
alfo two different fpecies of glede, or kite, which breed in 
this parifli. The caperkaily, or king of the wood, faid to 
be a fpecies of wild tux^ey, was formerly a native of this 
parifli, and bred in the woods of Strath-glais : one €if thefe 
birds was killed about 50 or 66 years ago, in the church- 
yard of Kiltarlity. 


^ Kiharlity. 515 

Of wild animals, hares are very numerous, 6wing to 
the abnndiuiGe of cover they have among the wooers, and in 
the broom, with which ihrabs the lower end of ihis pariib 
aboonds. We have aifo many foxes, otters, and polecats; 
fome mountain hares, and a few wild cats ; the lafi are not 
fo numerous now as formerly. The number of blac^ cattle 
in thefe united parifltes may be about 3016. Thty are o£ 
various fizes, but in general fomewhat larj^er than the old 
highland breed. Some of the proprietors, and a gentleman 
£u-mer, have for fome years pafi greatly improved their 
breed of cattle. Major Frafer of Belladrum is fuppofed to 
have the beft breed of cows in this country } though not 
quite fo large as the Fifeihire cattle, they are much hardier 
aadhandibmer ; and when fold, commonly fetch from L. 6 
to L. 9 Sterling each cow. The number of iheep may 
be about s%%6. About aoo of thefe are of an excellent 
breed from £ngland; 400 or 500 more are confidcrably 
larger than the common breed of this country : the reft are 
of the old Scotch fliccp, fmall fized, with ibort wool. The 
number of goats is about 429. There were formerly many 
more flieep and goats in this parifli than at prefent. Since 
the gentlemen have begun to endofe their grounds and to 
plant, iheep and goa^ have in a great meafure been baniih* 
ed from the lower end of the parifb* There may be about 
719 horiies of difierent fizes, but in general they are fmalL 

PopuIaUon — The return to Dr Webfter, between 40 and 
50 years ago, was 1964 fouls, 403 of whom were Papifis. 
By an exaA furvey in September 17931 ^^ number of 
fouls in thefe united pariihes was 2495 : 



Statijltcal Account 

Males, - 1 139 

Females* - 1356 

SoqIs bdow the age of 

9. - «9a 

Ferfons above 9, or ex* 

aminable, - 1803 
Males below 9, * 336 
Females below the fame 

age, - 35^ 

Examinable males, 803 
Examinable females, 1000 
Proteftant fouk, - 2009 
Fk-oteftants below 9, 539 
Ditto above 9, or exa- 
minable, - 1470 
Male Proteftants below 

9, - • 274 

Female ditto, - a6j 
Proteftant males, exa- 
minable, • 6 $6 
Proteftant families, dit- 
to, * 814 

Catbolick fooh, 


Catholicks below 9, 


Examinable Catholicks, 


Catbolick males bdow 9 

t 6a 

Females below the fiune 



Male Catholicks above 

9, or examinable, 


Female ditto. 


Families, or inhabited 



Great farmers, indn- 

ding 5 proprietors, • 

. 6 

Small tenants. 


Cottagers, among whom 

are included the dif- 

ferent artificers^ and 

merchants or chap- 



Small crofren, paying 

from 5 s. to 30 s. 



There are. 392 married copples \ 19 widowers ; 99 wi- 
dows; 167 male*fervants ; 177 female ditto; xa tailors; 
22 weavers ; 7 wrights ; 7 ftioemakers ; 7 millers ; 10 
Ifaiiths ; 6 roafons ; 4 chapmen, or fmall merchants ; 4 
gardeners ; 5 overfeers ; 3 drivers ; 5 fchoolmailers ; z 
oatechift; 2 fludents in divinity, tutors in two diffe- 
rent families ; and 13 apprentices to diftirent trades, l^e 
reafon for the great increafe in the population of this pa- 
ri(b, is principally the hill improvements that have been 
carried on within the faid period. The gentlemen have 
greatly enlarged their own farms, while the fmall fanners 
3 that 

of KiltarUty. 517 

that have been difpoflefledy have remained as cottagers in 
the parifli, or have built houfes for themfelves in the 
xnoors, and improved a fmall portion of ground calkd a 
croft, around their houfes. Again fome of the gentlemen 
having a tafie for improvement, employ a number dfidii(^« 
labourers throughout the year, who crowd in to us from 
the neighbouring parifhes *. 

Proprietors and J2M/.-*There are 6 proprietors, and x 
viradfetter, 4 of whom refide conftantly, the other two oc- 
cafionally in the pariib. The valued rent of the parifh is 
L. i455f 15 s. Scots. The real rent may be about L. aaoo 
Sterling. The rent of land is various, from 5 s. to ao s. 
the acre. 

Produce^ Implements of Hujbandry^ Manure.'^Tht prin- 
cipal crops in this pariih are oats, rye, Scotch bear, and 
fbme barley. The gentlemen raife turnip and fome 
wheat in their enclofures, as alfo a little peafe and beans. 
Some c^them yearly lay down a confiderable part of their 
farms in grals feeds-and clover. The fmall tenants, crof- 
ters, and cottagers raiie a confiderable quantity of pota« 


* The average of births for the laft 1 5 yean is aboat 67^. Bat at 
the names of natural children have not till this year been inferted in the 
pariih regifter» I fnppofe 3 may be added to the above number, which 
wUl make the average of births to be 70}, of thefe, 3t are males, and 
31^ females. The proportion of examinable males to the females, is at 
5 to 6x> The decreafe of adult males is owing to their leaving the pa* 
rilh. Several young men go to the fonth of Scotland ; fome inlHt in the 
army ; a few go the Weft Indies, while the women remain. The ave- 
nge of marriages and of deaths cannot be te eiadlly afcertained, u no 
regifter of marriages has been Icept, and there are 3 differtnt burial 
places in this pariih, and in thefe, ibme are buried from the neighbour- 
log parishes of Kilmprack, RirkhiU and Invemeis, u feveral from Kil* 
tjuilty and Convent bury in Kirkhill. The average of dcethi mtj be 
fb^t 34> of manritgct from |tf to it. 

5x8 StaHJiical Accowa 

toes, CO whidi they principally fiibfift, perbapi fiir tliree- 
fbunfas of the year. There is alfo fome flax nufed by the 
. fitf mers for their own uCe. Major Frafer of Belladmm, 
one of the proprieteis, has commonly upwards of an acre 
of \ ground annually under flax. This gentleman, by his 
fiiperior fluU in farming, his tafle for improvements of ▼»- 
rious kbds, and his indefatigable adivity and induftry, has 
perhaps done more than mofi gentlemen in the N. to intro- 
dnce a fpirit of improvement and induftry into this part of the 
country. By various iniprovements, he has confidcrafaly rai* 
fed the value of his lands, which originally were but a poor 
fttbjed. He has aifo upon his eftate valuable plaatatioas 
of foreft trees of aU kinds, oak, alb, elm, beech, plane, 
poplars of various kinds, mountain afli, fome mapk and 
fervice trees ; alfo laryx,. fpruce, filver fir, New England 
pine, and the common Scotch fir, befides a number of o- 
thtr trees and fhruba for ornament, near his bovife and 
gardens, all planted by htmfelf withm thefc lafi 50 yean. 
Tlie Honourable Archibald Frafer of Lovat has aHb plant- 
ed a g#Mt variety of foreft trees Gate be has lefided a 
the tooritry ; he has it profent a valaaUe tmrfery, oonfift- 
ing of xttany hundred thoufirnds of fensft trees, which be 
aieans foon to tranfplant. Colonel Frafer of Bruiach, a 
gentleman fSairmer in this parifli, has enclofed and fubdi- 
vided the greateft part of his bxta^ partly with good ftone 
fences, and partly with hedge and ditch. He has alfo 
planted fome tbovlands of fereft trees about bis farm, 
which are at prefefift a great omtment to this part of the 
country, and will in procels of time, when they grow op, 
be a valuable acquifiiion to the proprietor *. 


• 0«ts, T^e ind peafe tre fbwn the end of March, tfid befteidaf of 
April. Bear toA bt rley, from the end of April to tfat ent of Hmj. 

of KiUarlity. 519. 

The pariih does not produce as mnch grain of every* 
kindy as is fufficient for the maintenance of the inhabitants. 
The common tenants make nfe of the old Scotch plongh, 
fome of them ufe it upon an improved plan. The gen« 
tlemen make ufe of the Englifli and ^ord Karnes's plongh 
with a chain. The number of ploughs in the whole pa« 
riih maj be about 214. Mnch le6 than half this number 
would be fufficient to turn up all our arable ground, were 
the J properly employed. There are 376 carts, 40 coups 
or fioaall waggons, and 361 fledges employed in the pariSi. 
About 50 years ago, there was not a wheel-carriage of 
any kitfd in the whole pariih, Lord Lovat's coach except- 
ed. At this period, even iht gentlemen employed, only 
fledges, in carrying home their peats, and in the other bu- 
finefs of the farm. What manure was ufed was carried 
to their fields in ieaUachs^ a creel in the form of a cone, 
with the bafe turned upwards, placed upon a fledge. Ma» 
ny of thefe keallachs are flill ufed in the heights of the 
parifli. There is a confiderable number of fruit trees in 
this parifli, which, with favourable feafons, are perhaps as 
produdSve, as in any part of thb north country. 

The principal proprietors have very good gardens. Lo- 
vat's principal garden mecdures about feven Scotch acres- 
It is fenced with a wall 18 feet high lined with brick. 
The wall is contrived to have a great variety of curves, fo 


Flax, from the middle. of April to the bcglooiog of Mtf . Tnriiip, froa 
the middle of Jooe to the middle of July, and a fiaiaU quantitj of wheat 
is fown from the ipth October to the loth of November. 

Harveft feldom begins before the month of September, and is general!; 
finilhed before the end of Odiober. In the heights of the parifli, our har- 
veils were formerly very late and precarious ; but fince the year I7t5t 
early oats have been introdnced into the higher parts of the parifli* which 
has been of infinite fervice to the inhabitants, as their hanrcft is now 
almoft as early as in the low grounds, and coniequeotlj not fo precarious 
ai 10 former iimcs. 

520 StatifHcal Accowit 

as to catch the heat of the fan in everj direfilon. Throagfa 
the middle of the garden rant a fine clear ftream, which 
formerly had two Chineie bridges over it, and was reple- 
niihed with fi(h. There is alfo a verj large hot-hoofir. 
Bttt the ri valet pafling throagh the garden, and the hot- 
hottfe, have been oot of repair for Ibme jean paft. The 
wall of the garden, from its various curvatures, meaiures 
upwards of 800 yards, fo that with favourable ieafons, a 
confiderable quantity of fine fruit is produced on wall- 
trees. There are befides a great number of good 
ftandard trees in this garden. On two ftandard apple-trees 
here, mifletoe grows, which is a very rare plant in this 
country. In our meadows and woods are produced almoft 
all the plants found in the lower parts of Scotland, and 
there is (Scarcely an Alpine plant that is a native of this 
ifland, but is to be found in fome of our high hills, or among 
our rugged rocks. 

Cburcif Stipend^ ScbooJ, Poor. — ^The fituation of the pre- 
ient church is called, '' Tom na Croifle," or <« The hiUock 
** of the Crofs -" about ^ of an acre are enclofed round the 
church. This piece of ground has been planted by order 
of the late General Frafcr with Scotch firs, interfperfed 
with a few oaks, elms, and beeches. Thefe trees have 
now almoft eclipfed the church. Thus we worihip God 
in a grove. The patron is Frafer of Lovat. The living 
confifts of 48 bolls I firlot and i peck of barley, L. 317, 
^d. Scots, of money. The vicarage and gra&money, b/ 
• compofition of the prefent incumbent's predeceflbr in of- 
fice, is L. 39 : 19 : 5 Sterling. The glebe is rather larger 
than the ordinary glebes in this country, but the foil is 
very thin and poor.<— The emoluments of the parochial 
fchool are 18 bolb i firlot and 1 pecks of barley, x s. the 
quarter for every fcbokr taught to read, zs. 6 d. the quar- 

of KiUarKty. » 521 

ter for every £choIar taught writing and arithmetick *.— 
There ia no fond for the poor of this pariOi, but the week* 
\j coUeAions, the hire of a mort-clotb, the rents of a few 
feats in church, and fines for immoralities ; which maj 
amount to L.9 or L. 10 Sterling yearly. The number of 
poor on the roll is 45. The greater part of thofe on the 
xoU can partly provide forHhemielves by their own labour; 
few of them beg from door to door. In the heights of 
this parifh, and that of Rilmorack, a miflionary paid by the 
Royal bounty officiates ; t\e has 4 different places of preach* 
ingt fame of them at a confiderable diilance from each 
ether, fo that this is a laborious charge f. 


* No Latin or Greek it taught here, the {choolmafter being incapable 
of teaching thefe languages, which is a difadvantage to fomc of the inha- 
bitants. As ieflion-clerk and precentor, the ITchoolmafter receives L. I» 
13 s. 4 d. Sterling out of the feffion-bcs, befides i s. for every marriage^ 
and 6 d. for every baptifm. Two young inen are prefently employed by 
the Strath-glafs tenants, to teach their children to read and write. Appli- 
cation is jttft now made by the Prelbytery of Invemefi to the Hononrabte 
Society for Propagating GhriiUan Knowledge, Sec. and reqaefting fooe 
encouragement to a fchoolmafter in this diftriA. From the great extent 
of this parifh, at lead two Society fchools would be abfolutely neceflary 
to accommodate the inhabitants. 

f Pricti tmd 9Vagit,'^Tht price of grain and proviiions is modi die 
fame as in the neighbouring parifli of KirichiU» of which an account has 
been given. The price of grain and meal has been almoft doubled within 
thefe laft 40 yean. Other articles of provifion, as all fle(b meat, and fifli 
•f every kind, have been more than doubled within the faid period. 
Farm (ervants hired by the year receive from L. 3 to L. 5, 10 s. Ster* 
ing, and fix bolls of meal, unlefs they board in the honfe. Female 
fervanU for the /arm, from L. z to L. 2 Steriing. Houfehold female 
iervanu of the firft cUfi from L. a to L.3. Labourers hired by the day 
8d. without meat, or 6 d. with their meat. Moft of our labourers have 
fmall crofts in the moors, for which titey pay from 5 s. to L. i, le s. Ster- 
^S yorly, and if fober and induftrioas, they may fupport a wife and 4 
or 5 children. 

Vol. XIII. 3 U 



51S Statytkal ActMtu 

tamgwage^^Tbt hngmge principrfl^ Qpokea is tl^i y^ 
rittk is the Gaelk. h tbe hcighti of the f«rifli« Ttty Sew 
frf the inhabitaats aiklcfilaAd any odicr kttg uag c, B«t is 
ttie lower end of the pttiifli, maaj of dmn bent tsiglrt to 
read and write at fchool, can tranfaft ordinary bofJMfi b 
Engfifh, only they fpeak this language wkh the Gselic 
idiom. They have all a ftroog predfledam for tfaetr ao> 
thcr tongne •• 

jliai»ij/a/?jtfrr/.— There is a lint-mill tftabliihed in the 
£« en4 of the pariih for fome years paft ; a waulk-mill 
and dye>houfe have alfo been ereded within a quarter of a 
mile eaftward of the church this very harveft. There are 
8 Kcenfed diftilleries in the pariQi* In thefe about 2496 
bolls of barley are annually diftilled into fpirits. Thefe 
Ipirits are bpught by whiiky merchanu from Lochaber, 
Kintail, and Strath-g)a6. There is alfo a coafidorable 
wood mannfadnre in this pariih. For many yeara paft a 
faw-mill has been ereSel on the^ river Beauly, aboat 2! 
miles weftward of the church* Here the Beauty dividing; 
into two branches, ferns the fmall but beautifiil ifland of 
Agaifli, which is of an oval figure, and about a mile and a 
half in circumference. The ifland is principally formed of 
a rock of hard whinftone, rifiog in a floping manner about 
too Seet above the level of the water ; it is covered with 
natural oak, birch, alder, and \ivu\ and aflbrds good paf- 
turage for {heep» goats, and a few Highland cows, during 
3 the 

. f Thft naoict of pUcd are aU obvioufljr derircd froni tbe Gaeiic, and an 
.4efi:rii)tfve of tke fitaation, tbe nature of the grcvad, or fomethiii^ re> 
faarkatfle new tbe |iLice» by which it is diflinguiihod. Ai* for exaoH 
pie, BtlUdiKm, in OacUc, *' M an dronm** ** tbf town on the emi. 
^ neoce $** Broiacb, a corrwptioa of '* Bces^h-aqjiadb,** *' the beantifiiJ 
f< field;** " £lkiifiale/* *\ the dV« of t^^ watere;*' here tvo riven 

. partly furround the arable ground, and often overflow a great part of xh^ 

qfKUtarUff. 523 

tbe fummtf a94 b«nreft. The buck and other trees grow- 
ing on the doping fides of ihk iflandy with the furrounding 
rockjs, and a ^ of ws^r near the £• end thereof, form in 
fttramer a very pleafing and pidorefque fcene. On the S. 
iMraoch of the xiver, near the eaftem eztremit j of the ifland, 
ftinds the faw-milly in a hollow, eztremelj well flieltered 
on all fides by the forrounding hills and rocks. The mill 
confifts of three fliades, the length of the whole three is abo^t 
126 feet. In thele (hades 7 fiiws are moved by 4 different 
wheels ; the wheels are about 4 feet deep, and % feet 8 
inches in breadth. Above the mill is a natural fall of about 
6 feet, and a firong artificial dam, of a feet high, is raifed 
above -this fall. Thus, from having the command of a 
great body of water all the year round, with a confiderable 
fell, the wheels go with amazing rapidity. They turn 
firom 80 to 90 times in a minute, and when the faws are 
in good order, they eafily cut through a log of 10 or even 
I a feet long in 4 minutes. This manufedure has been 
carried on from the year 1765. The prefent manufadurer 
pays to Chifliolm for his wood from L. 250 to L.3C* 
Sterling a-year. The greateft part of the timber manufac- 
tured grows in the neighbouring pariih of Kilmorack* 
The trees, when cut, are from half a mile to a miles frook 
water ; and after being cut into logs of xo or la feet long, 
they are carried by horfes to the water edge, and af^r- 
wards floated on the riven Glais, Cannich, and Beauly^ 
from 30 to 40 miles, before they come to the faw-milL 
As there is a confiderable fall about 2 or 3 miles below 
the mill^ the manufadurer is obliged to carry all his planks 
and deals from the mill, three miles by land. They are 
afterwards floated in rafts, 4 miles ferther down the Beauly, 
and lodged in a wood-yard at Lovat, in the pariih of Kirk- 
hill ; and as veflels from 50 to 90 tons burthen can, by the 
afiiftance.of the tide, come up the Beauly this length, they 


524 StaiiJHcal Account 

can be convenieiitly carried awaj when (bid from tfiis jwrA 
either to Leith or London. The wood here maan&ftDrcd, 
is a yellow deal, the moft d